CN104964883A - Landslide shear strength and shear zone deformation test method - Google Patents

Landslide shear strength and shear zone deformation test method Download PDF

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CN104964883A
CN104964883A CN201510359490.9A CN201510359490A CN104964883A CN 104964883 A CN104964883 A CN 104964883A CN 201510359490 A CN201510359490 A CN 201510359490A CN 104964883 A CN104964883 A CN 104964883A
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layer
displacement meter
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CN104964883B (en
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李志清
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Institute of Geology and Geophysics of CAS
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Institute of Geology and Geophysics of CAS
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Abstract

The invention provides a landslide shear strength and shear zone deformation test method. The method is characterized in that landslide shear strength and shear zone deformation test is conducted through a test device, the device comprises a counterforce frame (1), a loading frame (2), a first servo motor (3), a second servo motor (4), a sample bearing table (5), an upper shear box (5), a lower shear box (7), a rail car (8), a vertical loading shaft (19), a horizontal loading shaft (20), a pressing plate (21), a side limiting column (22), a dowel bar (23), a connection end (24), a horizontal sliding rail (29), an upper box test sample (38), a lower box test sample (39), pin holes (40) and the like. The device is easy to manufacture and high in measuring accuracy. The method is capable of meeting the horizontal straight shear test requirements under different vertical stress loading conditions and capable of being used for measuring the shear strength and shear zone deformation features of landslide accumulation bodies met in civil engineering, such as gravelly soil, coarse-grained soil and all kinds of rock and earth mass and obtaining parameters.

Description

A kind of landslide shearing strength and shear zone deformation test method thereof
Technical field
The present invention is a kind of geotechnical testament method, belongs to civil engineering work or Geological Engineering parameter testing field.
Background technology
Gravelly soil (coarse-grained soil, soil-rock mixture) is a kind of geologic body be made up of with clay and the sand as casting resin gravel or the block stone as aggregate.Gravelly soil is widely used in the construction works such as earth and rockfill dam, highway, railway, airport, house foundation as a kind of filler, and range of application is quite extensive.Because gravelly soil is become with local soil type by block stone, and both present " extremely strong " (block stone) and the extreme otherness of " extremely weak " (soil body) two in mechanical property.This otherness makes gravelly soil on physico-mechanical properties, present extreme unevenness and extreme nonlinear characteristic, and its Macroscopic physical mechanical property can not be formed by block stone or native simple superposition.Can not be come by traditional soil mechanics shear or rock test rig for the test of debris landslide intensity and shear zone deformation characteristic thereof, development is needed to be applicable to the new instrument of gravelly soil own characteristic, measure its mechanical strength, especially will consider that size effect is on the impact of debris landslide intensity and the deformation characteristic research with the inner soft or hard surface of contact of detrusion gravelly soil.The present invention a kind ofly comprises the shearing strength characteristic of the various material of rock and soil such as coarse-grained soil, soil-rock mixture and the test method of shear zone deformation characteristic thereof for measuring gravelly soil.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to provide a kind of landslide shearing strength and shear zone deformation test method thereof, test and shear zone deformation characteristic for solving the intensive parameter of the various geologic bodies such as gravelly soil under different consolidation stress state, for landslide engineering practice provides technical parameter.
Technical solution of the present invention, it is characterized in that adopting a kind of test unit to carry out landslide shearing strength and shear zone deformation test thereof, this test unit comprises reaction frame 1, loading frame 2, first servomotor 3, second servomotor 4, load sample platform 5, upper shear box 6, down cut box 7, railcar 8, vertical displacement meter 9, first horizontal displacement meter 10, second horizontal displacement meter 11, 3rd horizontal displacement meter 12, 4th horizontal displacement meter 13, 5th horizontal displacement meter 14, 6th horizontal displacement meter 15, 7th horizontal displacement meter 16, 8th horizontal displacement meter 17, 9th horizontal displacement meter 18, vertical loading axle 19, horizontal addload axle 20, increased pressure board 21, side limit post 22, transmission rod 23, connection end 24, first lifting jack 25, second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27, second base for supporting 28, horizontal slide rail 29, ground floor ring 30, second layer ring 31, third layer ring 32, 4th layer of ring 33, layer 5 ring 34, layer 6 ring 35, layer 7 ring 36, 8th layer of ring 37, upper box sample 38, lower box sample 39, latch eye 40.First servomotor 3 connects vertical loading axle 19, vertical loading axle 19 provides pressure at right angle, be positioned at above increased pressure board 21, increased pressure board 21 connects vertical displacement meter 9, increased pressure board 21 is positioned at the end face of box sample 38, upper shear box 6 limits post 22 to fix by side, upper shear box 6 connects ground floor ring 30, ground floor ring 30 connects second layer ring 31, second layer ring 31 connects third layer ring 32, third layer ring 32 connects the 4th layer of ring 33, 4th layer of ring 33 connects layer 5 ring 34, layer 5 ring 34 connects layer 6 ring 35, layer 6 ring 35 connects layer 7 ring 36, layer 7 ring 36 connects the 8th layer of ring 37, 8th layer of ring 37 is positioned on down cut box 7, down cut box 7 is built with lower box sample 39, down cut box 7 joining rails car 8, railcar 8 can move on load sample platform 5 along horizontal slide rail 29, horizontal slide rail 29 is connected with loading frame 2, first lifting jack 25 connects the first base for supporting 27, second lifting jack 26 connects the second base for supporting 28, down cut box 7 connects transmission rod 23 and the 9th horizontal displacement meter 18, connection end 24 is aimed at horizontal addload axle 20, horizontal addload axle 20 connects the second servomotor 4, ground floor ring 30 connects the first horizontal displacement meter 10, second layer ring 31 connects the second horizontal displacement meter 11, third layer ring 32 connects the 3rd horizontal displacement meter 12, 4th layer of ring 33 connects the 4th horizontal displacement meter 13, layer 5 ring 34 connects the 5th horizontal displacement meter 14, layer 6 ring 35 connects the 6th horizontal displacement meter 15, layer 7 ring 36 connects the 7th horizontal displacement meter 16, 8th layer of ring 37 connects the 8th horizontal displacement meter 17.Upper shear box 6 is of a size of long 500mm, and the box wall height of the upper shear box 6 of connection side limit post 22 side is 140mm, and down cut box 7 is of a size of long 500mm wide 500mm box wall height 300mm, and ground floor ring 30 is highly 20mm to the 8th layer of ring 37.Upper shear box 6, down cut box 7, ground floor ring 30 all adopt the alloy material that the light intensity of quality is high to the 8th layer of ring 37, and carry out anodization preservative treatment; Upper shear box 6, down cut box 7, ground floor ring 30 are circular design to inwall four angles of the 8th layer of ring 37, and radius of corner is 30mm ~ 60mm; First servomotor 3 and the second servomotor 4 apply power by reaction frame 1, and reaction frame 1 and loading frame 2 and increased pressure board 21 all adopt high-strength stainless steel material, and the gap length between increased pressure board 21 and upper shear box 6 is 2mm ~ 4mm; Horizontal slide rail 17 is high-strength stainless steel material, and surface all scribbles teflon.First servomotor 3 and the second servomotor 4 all can carry out fast forwarding and fast rewinding operation, also at the uniform velocity strain loading and stress loading can be carried out, strain shear rate is 0.02 ~ 5.00mm/min, maximum output can reach 1000kN, measuring accuracy of exerting oneself can reach 0.5%FS, and stress shear rate is 100 ~ 600kN/min.The maximum range of vertical displacement meter 9 is 150mm, and measuring accuracy can reach 1mm, and the first horizontal displacement meter 10 is 170mm to the maximum range of the 8th horizontal displacement meter 17, and measuring accuracy all can reach 1mm.Ground floor ring 30 uses straight-line guidance bearing between the 8th layer of ring 37, can roll between layer ring, reduces frictional resistance; Upper shear box 6, down cut box 7 and ground floor ring 30 use latch to be fixed in latch eye 40 between the 8th layer of ring 37, are convenient to fill sample.
The test method measuring landslide shearing strength and shear zone distortion thereof is as follows:
(1) according to certain water cut, rock-soil ratio and density requirements, take the soil body of respective quality, rubble and water, the soil body, rubble, water three mixed, becomes compound, point uniformly three parts for subsequent use;
(2) railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, upper shear box 6 to be alignd down cut box 7 via ground floor ring 30 to the 8th layer of ring 37, and latch is inserted in latch eye 40, first part of compound is loaded in down cut box 7, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
(3) the first servomotor 3 is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle 19 leave increased pressure board 21 and pushes up cap, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, take out increased pressure board 21, by compound plucking, load second part of compound, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
(4) the first servomotor 3 is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle 19 leave increased pressure board 21 and pushes up cap, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, take out increased pressure board 21, by compound plucking, load the 3rd part of compound, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, keeps pressure at right angle F 1constant,
(5) post 22 is limit side to be connected with upper shear box 6, shear box 6 is fixed, starts the second servomotor 4, horizontal addload axle 20 is connected with connection end 24, extracted from latch eye 40 by latch, equi-strain rate is on request by transmission rod 23 applied thrust T 1in maintenance, shear box 6 horizontal direction is fixed, and down cut box 7 is moved to away from the second servomotor 4 direction, and lower box sample 39 is cut, drive the 30 to the 8th layer of ring 37 occurred level displacement of ground floor ring respectively, adopt the first horizontal displacement meter 10 to measure the horizontal shift S of ground floor ring 30 simultaneously 1, adopt the second horizontal displacement meter 11 to measure the horizontal shift S of second layer ring 31 2, adopt the 3rd horizontal displacement meter 12 to measure the horizontal shift S of third layer ring 32 2, adopt the 4th horizontal displacement meter 13 to measure the horizontal shift S of the 4th layer of ring 33 4, adopt the 5th horizontal displacement meter 14 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 5 ring 34 5, adopt the 6th horizontal displacement meter 15 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 6 ring 35 6, adopt the 7th horizontal displacement meter 16 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 7 ring 36 7, adopt the 8th horizontal displacement meter 17 to measure the horizontal shift S of the 8th layer of ring 37 8, the horizontal shift S of down cut box 7 is measured with the 9th horizontal displacement meter 18;
(6) when horizontal shift S increases to 75mm, test is stopped, box sample 38 and lower box sample 39 surface of contact place normal pressure F in acquisition 1and surface of contact place shearing force T 1, get T 1maximum of T max1, and obtain the shift value of the first horizontal displacement meter 10 to the 8th horizontal displacement meter 19, draw ground floor ring the 30 to the 8th layer of displacement curve that ring 37 occurs with shear time;
(7) by vertical loading axle 19, first servomotor 3 is unloaded, second servomotor 4 applies pulling force by horizontal addload axle 20 and pulls down cut box 7 to move, shear box 6 is overlapped with down cut box 7 to the 8th layer of ring 37 by ground floor ring 30, on removal, the connection of post 22 is limit in shear box 6 and side, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5 by horizontal slide rail 29, the whole compound of removal,
(8) changing pressure at right angle is F 2, repeat step (2)-(7), obtain F 2, T max2and the displacement curve that ground floor ring 30 occurs to the 8th layer of ring 37 with shear time;
(9) again changing pressure at right angle is F 3, repeat step (2)-(7), obtain f 3with T max3and the displacement curve that ground floor ring 30 occurs to the 8th layer of ring 37 with shear time;
(10) by F 1with T max1, F 2with T max2, F 3with T max3be converted into stress by upper box sample 38 with the contact area of lower box sample 39, draw mole coulomb line, obtain landslide gravelly soil Shear Strength Index and Shear heating instability feature thereof.
Advantage of the present invention:
The test unit manufacture that the method adopts is simple, measuring accuracy is high, meet the consolidation under different vertical stress loading condition and horizontal direct shear test requirement, strain controlling formula or Stress Control formula can be carried out load, the structural strength of large scale gravelly soil (comprising coarse-grained soil, soil-rock mixture and the soil body) and shear zone deformation characteristic and the frictional strength between gravelly soil and geosynthetics can be measured.
The scope of application of the present invention:
Be applicable to the indoor consolidation characteristics of the multiple geologic body such as various gravelly soils, coarse-grained soil, soil-rock mixture run in civil engineering work or Geological Engineering, strength characteristics and deformation characteristic test.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
Fig. 1 is a kind of strain controlling formula gravelly soil large-scale layer shear test device structural representation.Wherein have: reaction frame 1, loading frame 2, first servomotor 3, second servomotor 4, upper shear box 6, down cut box 7, railcar 8, vertical displacement meter 9, first horizontal displacement meter 10, second horizontal displacement meter 11, 3rd horizontal displacement meter 12, 4th horizontal displacement meter 13, 5th horizontal displacement meter 14, 6th horizontal displacement meter 15, 7th horizontal displacement meter 16, 8th horizontal displacement meter 17, 9th horizontal displacement meter 18, vertical loading axle 19, horizontal addload axle 20, increased pressure board 21, side limit post 22, transmission rod 23, connection end 24, first lifting jack 25, second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27, second base for supporting 28, horizontal slide rail 29, ground floor ring 30, second layer ring 31, third layer ring 32, 4th layer of ring 33, layer 5 ring 34, layer 6 ring 35, layer 7 ring 36, 8th layer of ring 37, upper box sample 38, lower box sample 39.
Fig. 2 is the AA left view of a kind of strain controlling formula gravelly soil large-scale layer shear test device structural representation.Wherein have: the first servomotor 3, load sample platform 5, upper shear box 6, down cut box 7, railcar 8, increased pressure board 21, upper box sample 11, ground floor ring 30, second layer ring 31, third layer ring the 32, four layer of ring 33, layer 5 ring 34, layer 6 ring 35, layer 7 ring the 36, eight layer of ring 37, upper box sample 38, lower box sample 39.
Fig. 3 is the vertical view of the upper shear box 6 in a kind of strain controlling formula gravelly soil large-scale layer shear test device structural representation.Wherein there is upper shear box 6, latch eye 40.
Embodiment:
Embodiment: gravelly soil shearing strength method for measurement is as follows,
1. according to water cut 15%, rock-soil ratio 20% and density 1.9g/cm 3requirement, takes the soil body of respective quality, rubble and water, the soil body, rubble, water three is mixed, becomes compound, point uniformly three parts for subsequent use;
2. railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, upper shear box 6 to be alignd down cut box 7 via ground floor ring 30 to the 8th layer of ring 37, and latch is inserted in latch eye 40, first part of compound is loaded in down cut box 7, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1=400kN, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
3. the first servomotor 3 is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle 19 leave increased pressure board 21 and pushes up cap, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, take out increased pressure board 21, by compound plucking, load second part of compound, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1=400kN, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
4. the first servomotor 3 is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle 19 leave increased pressure board 21 and pushes up cap, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5, take out increased pressure board 21, by compound plucking, load the 3rd part of compound, increased pressure board 21 is placed on compound, railcar 8 is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle 19, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 is contacted with loading frame 2 respectively with the second base for supporting 28, make railcar 8 unsettled, start the first servomotor 3, make vertical loading axle 19 contact increased pressure board 21 and push up cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1=400kN, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter 9 display meets the requirements of density, keeps pressure at right angle F 1=400kN is constant,
5. post 22 is limit side to be connected with upper shear box 6, shear box 6 is fixed, starts the second servomotor 4, horizontal addload axle 20 is connected with connection end 24, extracted from latch eye 40 by latch, equi-strain rate 2mm/min is on request by transmission rod 23 applied thrust T 1in maintenance, shear box 6 horizontal direction is fixed, and down cut box 7 is moved to away from the second servomotor 4 direction, and lower box sample 39 is cut, drive the 30 to the 8th layer of ring 37 occurred level displacement of ground floor ring respectively, adopt the first horizontal displacement meter 10 to measure the horizontal shift S of ground floor ring 30 simultaneously 1, adopt the second horizontal displacement meter 11 to measure the horizontal shift S of second layer ring 31 2, adopt the 3rd horizontal displacement meter 12 to measure the horizontal shift S of third layer ring 32 2, adopt the 4th horizontal displacement meter 13 to measure the horizontal shift S of the 4th layer of ring 33 4, adopt the 5th horizontal displacement meter 14 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 5 ring 34 5, adopt the 6th horizontal displacement meter 15 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 6 ring 35 6, adopt the 7th horizontal displacement meter 16 to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 7 ring 36 7, adopt the 8th horizontal displacement meter 17 to measure the horizontal shift S of the 8th layer of ring 37 8, the horizontal shift S of down cut box 7 is measured with the 9th horizontal displacement meter 18;
6. when horizontal shift S increases to 75mm, test is stopped, box sample 38 and lower box sample 39 surface of contact place normal pressure 400kN and surface of contact place shearing force T in acquisition 1, get T 1maximum of T max1, and obtain the shift value of the first horizontal displacement meter 10 to the 8th horizontal displacement meter 19, draw ground floor ring the 30 to the 8th layer of displacement curve that ring 37 occurs with shear time;
7. by vertical loading axle 19, first servomotor 3 is unloaded, second servomotor 4 applies pulling force by horizontal addload axle 20 and pulls down cut box 7 to move, shear box 6 is overlapped with down cut box 7 to the 8th layer of ring 37 by ground floor ring 30, on removal, the connection of post 22 is limit in shear box 6 and side, start the first lifting jack 25 and the second lifting jack 26, first base for supporting 27 and the second base for supporting 28 are departed from loading frame 2 respectively, railcar 8 is contacted with horizontal slide rail 29, railcar 8 is moved on load sample platform 5 by horizontal slide rail 29, the whole compound of removal,
8. changing pressure at right angle is F 2=600kN, repeat step 2.-7., obtain T max2and the displacement curve that ground floor ring 30 occurs to the 8th layer of ring 37 with shear time;
9. again changing pressure at right angle is F 3=800kN, repeat step 2.-7., obtain T max3and the displacement curve that ground floor ring 30 occurs to the 8th layer of ring 37 with shear time;
10. by F 1with T max1, F 2with T max2, F 3with T max3be converted into stress by upper box sample 38 with the contact area of lower box sample 39, draw mole coulomb line, obtain landslide gravelly soil compound Shear Strength Index and shear zone deformation behaviour thereof.

Claims (1)

1. a landslide shearing strength and shear zone deformation test method thereof, it is characterized in that adopting a kind of test unit to carry out landslide shearing strength and shear zone deformation test thereof, this device comprises reaction frame (1), loading frame (2), first servomotor (3), second servomotor (4), load sample platform (5), upper shear box (6), down cut box (7), railcar (8), vertical displacement meter (9), first horizontal displacement meter (10), second horizontal displacement meter (11), 3rd horizontal displacement meter (12), 4th horizontal displacement meter (13), 5th horizontal displacement meter (14), 6th horizontal displacement meter (15), 7th horizontal displacement meter (16), 8th horizontal displacement meter (17), 9th horizontal displacement meter (18), vertical loading axle (19), horizontal addload axle (20), increased pressure board (21), side limit post (22), transmission rod (23), connection end (24), first lifting jack (25), second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27), second base for supporting (28), horizontal slide rail (29), ground floor ring (30), second layer ring (31), third layer ring (32), 4th layer of ring (33), layer 5 ring (34), layer 6 ring (35), layer 7 ring (36), 8th layer of ring (37), upper box sample (38), lower box sample (39), latch eye (40), first servomotor (3) connects vertical loading axle (19), vertical loading axle (19) provides pressure at right angle, be positioned at above increased pressure board (21), increased pressure board (21) connects vertical displacement meter (9), increased pressure board (21) is positioned at the end face of box sample (38), upper shear box (6) limits post (22) to fix by side, upper shear box (6) connects ground floor ring (30), ground floor ring (30) connects second layer ring (31), second layer ring (31) connects third layer ring (32), third layer ring (32) connects the 4th layer of ring (33), 4th layer of ring (33) connects layer 5 ring (34), layer 5 ring (34) connects layer 6 ring (35), layer 6 ring (35) connects layer 7 ring (36), layer 7 ring (36) connects the 8th layer of ring (37), 8th layer of ring (37) is positioned on down cut box (7), down cut box (7) is built with lower box sample (39), down cut box (7) joining rails car (8), railcar (8) can move on load sample platform (5) along horizontal slide rail (29), horizontal slide rail (29) is connected with loading frame (2), first lifting jack (25) connects the first base for supporting (27), second lifting jack (26) connects the second base for supporting (28), down cut box (7) connects transmission rod (23) and the 9th horizontal displacement meter (18), connection end (24) is aimed at horizontal addload axle (20), horizontal addload axle (20) connects the second servomotor (4), ground floor ring (30) connects the first horizontal displacement meter (10), second layer ring (31) connects the second horizontal displacement meter (11), third layer ring (32) connects the 3rd horizontal displacement meter (12), 4th layer of ring (33) connects the 4th horizontal displacement meter (13), layer 5 ring (34) connects the 5th horizontal displacement meter (14), layer 6 ring (35) connects the 6th horizontal displacement meter (15), layer 7 ring (36) connects the 7th horizontal displacement meter (16), 8th layer of ring (37) connects the 8th horizontal displacement meter (17), upper shear box (6) is of a size of long 500mm, the box wall height of the upper shear box (6) of connection side limit post (22) side is 140mm, down cut box (7) is of a size of long 500mm wide 500mm box wall height 300mm, and ground floor ring (30) is highly 20mm to the 8th layer of ring (37), upper shear box (6), down cut box (7), ground floor ring (30) all adopt the alloy material that the light intensity of quality is high to the 8th layer of ring (37), and carry out anodization preservative treatment, upper shear box (6), down cut box (7), ground floor ring (30) are circular design to inwall four angles of the 8th layer of ring (37), and radius of corner is 30mm ~ 60mm, first servomotor (3) and the second servomotor (4) apply power by reaction frame (1), reaction frame (1) and loading frame (2) and increased pressure board (21) all adopt high-strength stainless steel material, and the gap length between increased pressure board (21) and upper shear box (6) is 2mm ~ 4mm, horizontal slide rail (17) is high-strength stainless steel material, and surface all scribbles teflon, first servomotor (3) and the second servomotor (4) all can carry out fast forwarding and fast rewinding operation, also at the uniform velocity strain loading and stress loading can be carried out, strain shear rate is 0.02 ~ 5.00mm/min, maximum output can reach 1000kN, measuring accuracy of exerting oneself can reach 0.5%FS, and stress shear rate is 100 ~ 600kN/min, the maximum range of vertical displacement meter (9) is 150mm, and measuring accuracy can reach 1mm, and the first horizontal displacement meter (10) is 170mm to the maximum range of the 8th horizontal displacement meter (17), and measuring accuracy all can reach 1mm, ground floor ring (30) uses straight-line guidance bearing between the 8th layer of ring (37), can roll between layer ring, reduces frictional resistance, use latch to be fixed in latch eye (40) between upper shear box (6), down cut box (7) and ground floor ring (30) to the 8th layer of ring (37), be convenient to fill sample,
Adopt this device carry out coming down method of shearing strength and shear zone deformation test thereof as follows:
1. according to certain water cut, rock-soil ratio and density requirements, take the soil body of respective quality, rubble and water, the soil body, rubble, water three mixed, becomes compound, point uniformly three parts for subsequent use;
2. railcar (8) is moved on load sample platform (5), by upper shear box (6) via ground floor ring (30) to the 8th layer of ring (37) alignment down cut box (7), and latch is inserted in latch eye (40), first part of compound is loaded in down cut box (7), increased pressure board (21) is placed on compound, railcar (8) is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle (19), start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27) is contacted with loading frame (2) respectively with the second base for supporting (28), make railcar (8) unsettled, start the first servomotor (3), vertical loading axle (19) is made to contact increased pressure board (21) top cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter (9) display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
3. the first servomotor (3) is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle (19) leave increased pressure board (21) top cap, start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27) and the second base for supporting (28) are departed from loading frame (2) respectively, railcar (8) is contacted with horizontal slide rail (29), railcar (8) is moved on load sample platform (5), take out increased pressure board (21), by compound plucking, load second part of compound, increased pressure board (21) is placed on compound, railcar (8) is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle (19), start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27) is contacted with loading frame (2) respectively with the second base for supporting (28), make railcar (8) unsettled, start the first servomotor (3), vertical loading axle (19) is made to contact increased pressure board (21) top cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter (9) display meets the requirements of density, stops loading,
4. the first servomotor (3) is started, unloading makes vertical loading axle (19) leave increased pressure board (21) top cap, start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27) and the second base for supporting (28) are departed from loading frame (2) respectively, railcar (8) is contacted with horizontal slide rail (29), railcar (8) is moved on load sample platform (5), take out increased pressure board (21), by compound plucking, load the 3rd part of compound, increased pressure board (21) is placed on compound, railcar (8) is moved to immediately below vertical loading axle (19), start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), first base for supporting (27) is contacted with loading frame (2) respectively with the second base for supporting (28), make railcar (8) unsettled, start the first servomotor (3), vertical loading axle (19) is made to contact increased pressure board (21) top cap, apply pressure at right angle F on request 1, shift value corresponding when vertical displacement meter (9) display meets the requirements of density, keeps pressure at right angle F 1constant,
5. post (22) is limit side to be connected with upper shear box (6), shear box (6) is fixed, start the second servomotor (4), horizontal addload axle (20) is connected with connection end (24), extracted from latch eye (40) by latch, equi-strain rate is on request by transmission rod (23) applied thrust T 1in maintenance, shear box (6) horizontal direction is fixed, down cut box (7) is moved to away from the second servomotor (4) direction, lower box sample (39) is cut, drive ground floor ring (30) to the occurred level displacement of the 8th layer of ring (37) respectively, adopt the first horizontal displacement meter (10) to measure the horizontal shift S of ground floor ring (30) simultaneously 1, adopt the second horizontal displacement meter (11) to measure the horizontal shift S of second layer ring (31) 2, adopt the 3rd horizontal displacement meter (12) to measure the horizontal shift S of third layer ring (32) 2, adopt the 4th horizontal displacement meter (13) to measure the horizontal shift S of the 4th layer of ring (33) 4, adopt the 5th horizontal displacement meter (14) to measure layer 5 ring (the horizontal shift S of 34 5, adopt the horizontal shift S of the 6th horizontal displacement meter (15 measure layer 6 ring 35) 6, adopt the 7th horizontal displacement meter (16) to measure the horizontal shift S of layer 7 ring (36) 7, adopt the 8th horizontal displacement meter (17) to measure the horizontal shift S of the 8th layer of ring (37) 8, the horizontal shift S of down cut box (7) is measured with the 9th horizontal displacement meter (18);
6. when horizontal shift S increases to 75mm, test is stopped, box sample (38) and lower box sample (39) surface of contact place normal pressure F in acquisition 1and surface of contact place shearing force T 1, get T 1maximum of T max1, and obtain the shift value of the first horizontal displacement meter (10) to the 8th horizontal displacement meter (19), draw the displacement curve that ground floor ring (30) occurs to the 8th layer of ring (37) with shear time;
7. by vertical loading axle (19), the first servomotor (3) is unloaded, second servomotor (4) applies pulling force by horizontal addload axle (20) and pulls down cut box (7) mobile, shear box (6) is overlapped with down cut box (7) to the 8th layer of ring (37) by ground floor ring (30), on removal, the connection of post (22) is limit in shear box (6) and side, start the first lifting jack (25) and the second lifting jack (26), by the first base for supporting (27) and the second base for supporting, (28 depart from loading frame (2) respectively, (8 contact with horizontal slide rail (29) to make railcar, railcar (8) is moved on load sample platform (5) by horizontal slide rail (29), the whole compound of removal,
8. changing pressure at right angle is F 2, repeat step 2.-7., obtain F 2, T max2and the displacement curve that ground floor ring (30) occurs to the 8th layer of ring (37) with shear time;
9. again changing pressure at right angle is F 3, repeat step 2.-7., obtain F 3with T max3and the displacement curve that ground floor ring (30) occurs to the 8th layer of ring (37) with shear time;
10. by F 1with T max1, F 2with T max2, F 3with T max3be converted into stress by upper box sample (38) and the contact area of lower box sample (39), draw mole coulomb line, obtain landslide shearing strength and shear zone distortion.
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