CN104949132A - 一种热解气化炉 - Google Patents

一种热解气化炉 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104949132A
CN104949132A CN201510423395.0A CN201510423395A CN104949132A CN 104949132 A CN104949132 A CN 104949132A CN 201510423395 A CN201510423395 A CN 201510423395A CN 104949132 A CN104949132 A CN 104949132A
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vaporizer
burning
combustion
shaft
housing
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张宝家
罗磊
杨天学
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All Rivers Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.
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张宝家
余仲兴
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • F23G5/0276Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage using direct heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • F23G5/16Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber
    • F23G5/165Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber arranged at a different level
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/10Drying by heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/303Burning pyrogases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/10Waste heat recuperation reintroducing the heat in the same process, e.g. for predrying

Abstract

本发明公开一种热解气化炉,包括炉体,所述炉体由内至外依次为气化室、二燃室、壳体,所述二燃室为沿纵向间隔排布的多个燃烧腔体,所述气化室的外壁由耐高温导热材料制成,且其外壁上布置有若干个导流管,所述导流管与燃烧腔体相连通,气化室中部设置有搅拌装置,所述搅拌装置的搅拌轴为中空结构,且搅拌轴上布置有供氧气孔,搅拌轴的底端与供氧装置相连。本发明通过气化室实现垃圾中有机物的分层气化与充分分解,通过二燃室实现气化气体的充分燃烧和无害化,最终实现废弃物的无害化和减量化处理处置。

Description

一种热解气化炉
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种热解气化炉,尤其涉及一种热解气化炉。
背景技术
[0002] 随着新农村建设的加快,农村人口从相对分散变为相对集中,产生的垃圾如何妥善处置已成为当前面临的迫切问题。由于农村垃圾相对点位较分散,收集较困难,运输距离远,因此整体对农村垃圾的收运覆盖将导致运输成本较高;同时,我国农村缺乏投资成本和运行成本都相对较低的、有效处理垃圾的技术和设备,其现状大多采用原始堆放,简单填埋、露天焚烧等方式处理,这直接威胁到农民的生产生活,无害化处理农村垃圾已迫在眉睫。
发明内容
[0003] 本发明的目的在于针对上述问题,提供一种热解气化炉,以解决农村垃圾缺乏无害处理的设备,造成环境严重污染的问题。
[0004] 本发明的目的是通过以下技术方案来实现:
[0005] 一种热解气化炉,包括炉体,所述炉体由内至外依次为气化室、二燃室、壳体,所述二燃室为沿纵向间隔排布的多个燃烧腔体,所述气化室的外壁由耐高温导热材料制成,且其外壁上布置有若干个导流管,所述导流管与燃烧腔体相连通,气化室中部设置有搅拌装置,所述搅拌装置的搅拌轴为中空结构,且搅拌轴上布置有供氧气孔,搅拌轴的底端与供氧装置相连。
[0006] 作为本发明的一种优选方案,所述气化室由上至下依次为干燥段、热解气化段、燃烧段、灰斗。
[0007] 作为本发明的一种优选方案,所述燃烧腔体为螺旋折流式结构。
[0008] 作为本发明的一种优选方案,所述燃烧腔体的折流处设置有蜂窝式进气装置,所述壳体上开有通气孔,所述蜂窝式进气装置与壳体上的通气孔相连通。
[0009] 本发明的有益效果为,本发明通过气化室实现垃圾中有机物的分层气化与充分分解,通过二燃室实现气化气体的充分燃烧和无害化,最终实现废弃物的无害化和减量化处理处置。
附图说明
[0010] 图1为本发明一种热解气化炉的结构示意图。
[0011]图中:
[0012] 1、支座;2、燃烧腔体;3、进料口 ;4、干燥段;5、热解气化段;6、燃烧段;7、导流管;8、耐火砖;9、搅拌轴;10、供氧装置。
具体实施方式
[0013] 下面结合附图并通过具体实施方式来进一步说明本发明的技术方案。可以理解的是,此处所描述的实施例仅仅用于解释本发明,而非对本发明的限定。
[0014] 请参照图1所示,图1为本发明一种热解气化炉的结构示意图。
[0015] 于本实施例中,一种热解气化炉,包括支座I及由支座I支撑的炉体,所述炉体由内至外依次为气化室、二燃室、壳体,所述壳体上开有通气孔,所述二燃室为沿纵向间隔排布的多个燃烧腔体2,所述燃烧腔体2为螺旋折流式结构,且燃烧腔体2的折流处设置有蜂窝式进气装置,所述蜂窝式进气装置与壳体上的通气孔相连通,所述气化室的外壁由耐火砖8制成,且其外壁上布置有若干个导流管7,所述导流管7与燃烧腔体2相连通,气化室由上至下依次为干燥段4、热解气化段5、燃烧段6、灰斗,气化室中部设置有搅拌装置,所述搅拌装置的搅拌轴9为中空结构,且搅拌轴9上布置有供氧气孔,搅拌轴9的底端与供氧装置10相连,
[0016] 工作时,垃圾由炉体的进料口 3进入气化室中,先在干燥段4由壁面辐射、高温热解气化烟气、热解气化段5导热三方作用下干燥,使其中的水分挥发,干燥后,垃圾在热解气化段5分解成一氧化碳、气态烃类等可燃物进入混合烟气中,热解气化后的残留物进入燃烧段6充分燃烧,燃烧段6的氧气由搅拌轴8上的供氧气孔提供,有效保证了其供氧量,燃烧段6由上至下可分为还原区、氧化区,氧化区内碳、焦油和氧气发生剧烈的氧化反应,燃烧产生的热量用来提供还原区、热解气化段5、干燥段4所需的热量,还原区内,二氧化碳和水被炽热的碳还原,产生一氧化碳、氢气等可燃气体,进入混合烟气中,经燃烧段6充分燃烧的残渣落入灰斗由自动除渣机定期排出炉外,上述产生的混合烟气中由导流管7进入二燃室的燃烧腔体2内,燃烧腔体2为螺旋折流式结构,延长了混合烟气在其内的时间,能够有效保证混合烟气充分燃烧,且燃烧腔体2采用折流结构可用于沉降除尘,进而使得可燃物充分燃烧的同时其夹带的粉尘在折流过程中沉降,由排灰装置排出。
[0017] 本发明的导流管7布置于气化室中部,使得混合烟气由气化室中部进入二燃室的燃烧腔体2内,其与传统排烟方式不同,传统排烟布置方式为两种:布置在炉体上端或下端,布置于上端,由于靠近干燥段4,烟气中易混有水分,布置于下端,由于流经灰斗,烟气中会携带大量粉尘,本申请将其布置于气化室中部,淹没在物料中,干燥段4产生的水蒸汽不易穿过热解气化段5和燃烧段6进入导流管7,从而降低了烟气水分含量,提高了烟气的热值,且能够使得上行高温烟气折返,进而降低了烟气中粉尘浓度。
[0018] 以上实施例只是阐述了本发明的基本原理和特性,本发明不受上述实施例限制,在不脱离本发明精神和范围的前提下,本发明还有各种变化和改变,这些变化和改变都落入要求保护的本发明范围内。本发明要求保护范围由所附的权利要求书及其等效物界定。

Claims (4)

1.一种热解气化炉,其特征在于:包括炉体,所述炉体由内至外依次为气化室、二燃室、壳体,所述二燃室为沿纵向间隔排布的多个燃烧腔体,所述气化室的外壁由耐高温导热材料制成,且其外壁上布置有若干个导流管,所述导流管与燃烧腔体相连通,气化室中部设置有搅拌装置,所述搅拌装置的搅拌轴为中空结构,且搅拌轴上布置有供氧气孔,搅拌轴的底端与供氧装置相连。
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种热解气化炉,其特征在于:所述气化室由上至下依次为干燥段、热解气化段、燃烧段、灰斗。
3.根据权利要求1所述的一种热解气化炉,其特征在于:所述燃烧腔体为螺旋折流式结构。
4.根据权利要求3所述的一种热解气化炉,其特征在于:所述燃烧腔体的折流处设置有蜂窝式进气装置,所述壳体上开有通气孔,所述蜂窝式进气装置与壳体上的通气孔相连通。
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105444186A (zh) * 2015-12-23 2016-03-30 张宝家 一种用于垃圾热解气化炉的导气结构
CN107163988A (zh) * 2017-07-14 2017-09-15 南京林业大学 制备中热值生物质可燃气的气化装置
CN107177381A (zh) * 2017-07-14 2017-09-19 南京林业大学 生物质固定床气化发电联产炭、热的装置及方法
CN109579017A (zh) * 2018-12-07 2019-04-05 朱海斌 一种农村小型垃圾热解气化焚烧处理工艺

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105444186A (zh) * 2015-12-23 2016-03-30 张宝家 一种用于垃圾热解气化炉的导气结构
CN107163988A (zh) * 2017-07-14 2017-09-15 南京林业大学 制备中热值生物质可燃气的气化装置
CN107177381A (zh) * 2017-07-14 2017-09-19 南京林业大学 生物质固定床气化发电联产炭、热的装置及方法
CN107177381B (zh) * 2017-07-14 2019-08-27 南京林业大学 生物质固定床气化发电联产炭、热的装置及方法
CN107163988B (zh) * 2017-07-14 2019-08-27 南京林业大学 制备中热值生物质可燃气的气化装置
CN109579017A (zh) * 2018-12-07 2019-04-05 朱海斌 一种农村小型垃圾热解气化焚烧处理工艺

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