CN104930584A - Parallel type superconducting solar heat pump hot water bathing and heating system - Google Patents

Parallel type superconducting solar heat pump hot water bathing and heating system Download PDF

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CN104930584A
CN104930584A CN201410108655.0A CN201410108655A CN104930584A CN 104930584 A CN104930584 A CN 104930584A CN 201410108655 A CN201410108655 A CN 201410108655A CN 104930584 A CN104930584 A CN 104930584A
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heat
water
exchange coil
heat exchange
heating
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CN104930584B (en
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田海金
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Shaanxi Borui new environmental protection technology Co., Ltd
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YIN HUIJIE
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems, e.g. uninterruptible or back-up power supplies integrating renewable energies

Abstract

A parallel type superconducting solar heat pump hot water bathing and heating system is composed of a superconducting flat plate solar thermal circulation part, an accumulator, a heat pump hot water unit heating circulation part, a heater and an automatic controller, and is characterized in that the superconducting flat plate solar thermal circulation part and the heat pump hot water unit heating circulation part are connected in parallel, independent of each other and mutually complemented for heat collection; the accumulator stores heat in a sensible heat and latent heat storage mode; heating and domestic hot water are provided in a heat exchange mode of an efficient heat exchanger under control of the automatic controller. The parallel type superconducting solar heat pump hot water bathing and heating system is simple in structure, high in heat conversion efficiency, long in yearly running time, free of pollution and remarkable in energy conservation, is not limited by weather or use conditions and well achieves solar bathing, heating and refrigeration.

Description

Parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of hot water bathing heating system, is specifically a kind of parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system.
Background technology
What current hot water bathing heating use was more is gas heater, coal burning water heater, electric heater, air source hot pump water heater, water source heat pump water heater, solar water heater.With combustion gas, fire coal, electric water heater heating cold water be used for bathing and heating be extremely non-remunerative.As gas heater because there is the loss of high-temperature exhaust emission, imperfect combustion, forced fume exhaust and heat exchange efficiency aspect, actual heating efficiency is only 0.5 ~ 0.7; Its heating efficiency of coal for producing hot water is used to only have 0.4, use its heating efficiency of electric heater water heating to only have 0.85, and the heating efficiency of heat pump is up to 5.6, therefore, obtain low-temperature water heating abroad, progressively making way for heat pump with the traditional approach consuming electric energy or fuel chemical energy and heating mode.
With air source heat pump using air as thermal source, have that system is simple, year the advantage such as long operational time, in China In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River, be applied.But because the change of its heating capacity is just in time contrary with the demand trend of heating load, and when summer high temperature and cold snap in winter, heat pump heating efficiency can reduce greatly, even cannot work, so application conditions is subject to a definite limitation.Be carrier with water resource heat pump with water, the wide greatly underground water, industrial wastewater, sewage etc. of amount usable is as low level heat energy, but the application of water resource heat pump is subject to the restriction of water condition, the geologic structure of water layer, water resource Distursement and the factor such as energy resource structure and price.Utilize soil earth source heat pump heat supply process ripe, buried tubular type is in the U.S., Europe use in recent years.But because earth source heat pump in use also has some limitations, as: soil thermal conductivity is less, and intensity of heat exchange is little, is subject to the restriction in practical application place; Particularly heat pump is continuous in soil heat-obtaining (or accumulation of heat) for a long time, the temperature field of soil will be made to have can not get efficient recovery for a long time, thus cause the soil moisture constantly to reduce (or rising), this not only lowers the COP value of source pump, simultaneously make operation of heat pump operating mode instability due to evaporating temperature and the change of condensation temperature.Solar energy is a kind of green low-grade energy, utilize regular solar bathing and heating, obviously energy-conservation, but be subject to meteorological and service condition and heating efficiency restriction, as the impact by cloudy day, the low light level, few condition such as light and building backlight, when solar irradiation is very low, be difficult to the advantage playing solar energy.And the collecting plate to need with solar heating or thermal-collecting tube quite a lot of, floor space is large, and high-rise little high level utilizes solar heating difficult, heating must install high-power auxiliary thermal source additional to accumulator.Current electrothermal tube is as the auxiliary thermal source of solar energy storage device, and thermal conversion efficiency is low, and power consumption is large, and user cannot accept, and family expenses wire also load does not rise.Organically combining in different forms with heat pump and solar energy and form solar energy and heat pump parallel connection type heating system, is the heat subject of research at present in the industry.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is the technical problem and the defect that solve the existence of above-mentioned solar hot-water bath heating system, special invention a kind of efficient, pollution-free, by meteorological with the parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system that service condition limits, family family can be easy to use, its general principle is as follows:
Heat-pump hot-water unit is the generation hot water apparatus of the high-efficiency energy-saving pollution-free of a kind of advanced person, is a kind of technology that low potential energy can be utilized to obtain high potential.Heat pump itself is a kind of power driven compressor, and its effect carries out cold and hot exchange phase transformation circulation to working medium in closed-loop path, carries out heat transmission efficiently.So the heat that heat-pump hot-water unit discharges is not come by electric heater output, but obtained from surrounding space thermal source by heat-pump hot-water unit.The course of work simply can think that evaporimeter to absorb in air or water after heat, working medium carburation by evaporation, in the energy storage material that heat of vaporization compression is delivered in accumulator by heat pump compressor (i.e. heat release), condensation becomes liquid again, evaporimeter is returned through loop, go round and begin again, closed circulation.The ratio of the electric energy of transporting capacity and input heat pump is called Energy Efficiency Ratio, represents with COP.The COP value of general heat pump is all greater than 4, and that is the source pump electricity of 1 degree, can produce the heat being greater than more than 4 degree electric energy and producing, the heat that can produce more than 5 degree electric energy that COP is high.
In order to reduce indoor temperature (or being refrigeration), air conditioner is moved outdoor to and is bled off the heat of indoor is absorbed from air.If utilize heat-pump hot-water unit to heat principle, these unnecessary heat energy that air conditioner emits are discharged in accumulator, energy storage material is heated, make central hot water or cold water's unit, this is not only energy-conservation, and can obtain heating hot water.But due to performance and the system limitation of current air conditioner; as can system high pressure be produced; compressor high temperature; affect unit durability; even there is the danger of system overpressure protection or explosion; its rejection temperature is no more than 45 DEG C, so the central air-conditioning used at present can not use its waste heat to warm oneself for domestic hot water.And heat-pump hot-water unit is identical with air conditioner cold and hot water working principle of said set, all follow inverse Carnot cycle principle, difference is heat-pump hot-water unit of the present invention is a kind of high temperature thermal pump water heater group, and it can produce more than 60 DEG C hot water, and compressor can not be overheated, system pressure is normal.Under the condition of environment temperature 15 DEG C, 2.2kw heat-pump hot-water unit is elevated to 60 DEG C two tons of water by 20 DEG C and about needs 9 hours, power consumption 20 degree, and same two tons of water electrothermal tube direct electro heating need 96 degree of electricity, and its energy-saving effect is fairly obvious.Heat-pump hot-water unit occupation area of equipment is little, does not need to arrange machine room, integrative installation technology, and structure is simple, adopts special heat exchanger can to energy storage material (comprising water) without particular/special requirement.The high temperature thermal pump water heater group newly developed is that heat pump hot water preparing and refrigeration create condition.
Heat-pump hot-water unit can round-the-clock running, the water at low temperature of solar thermal collector preheating is entered heat-pump hot-water unit and circulates by winter, both can solve a family heat supply heating in accumulator heat accumulation mode, cooling in summer, the requirement of year-round provision hot water completely at northern area after combining winter.
Parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system the circulation of high-efficiency superconducting flat panel solar heat collecting is circulated with heat-pump hot-water unit to be connected in parallel, with accumulator heat accumulation mode heat accumulation, and the collecting system independent of each other complemented each other.It is characterized in that superconducting flat solar energy heating is cycled to used in the basic temperature level improving heat-pump hot-water unit, the circulation of heat-pump hot-water unit is the auxiliary heating circulated when can not meet heat demand to meet solar energy heating.Superconducting flat solar energy heating recycles hot superconduction principle to the quick collection of solar radiant energy, quick transmission and Rapid Thermal exchange, and obtain heat energy, being stored in accumulator, solar radiant energy can being completed efficiently to the rapid translating of heat energy and storage there being solar time superconducting flat solar energy heating circulation without any need for additionaling power.In cloudy day, the low light level, astigmatism, when solar irradiation is very low, utilizes heat-pump hot-water unit to circulate and complete rapid translating and the storage that low temperature in accumulator can arrive high temperature energy efficiently.Night, outdoor temperature was extremely low in the winter time, as long as the energy storage material temperature in accumulator is higher than 5 DEG C (auxiliary electrical heat pipe heats a little), utilized heat-pump hot-water unit to circulate and can complete rapid translating and the storage that low temperature can arrive high temperature energy efficiently.
Superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system is by superconducting flat solar thermal collector, accumulator, heat-pump hot-water unit, warmer, automatic controller five part forms, it is characterized in that superconducting flat solar thermal collector is assemblied in the lower position of accumulator, the heat exchange coil of accumulator and superconducting flat solar thermal collector are connected together by superconductive heat transfer pipe and superconduction return duct,---------------the upper union pipe one of union pipe under superconductive flat plate collector---heat collection rack pipes---seals the superconductive solar heating of closed loop to superconduction return duct to heat exchange coil C to vacuum pump drainage air valve to superconductive heat transfer pipe to form union pipe on superconducting flat solar thermal collector, the solar heat obtained is stored in accumulator by heat exchange coil C.The evaporimeter of heat-pump hot-water unit is by heat exchange coil D, return duct, the expansion valve in appendix, gas compressor, accumulator, arrive evaporimeter again, form the heating of a working media sealing closed loop, the heat of high temperature that heat-pump hot-water unit obtains under the control of automatic controller is stored in accumulator by heat exchange coil D.Accumulator is made up of housing, dress energy-storage liquid in the housing and several energy storage capsules, heat exchange coil A, B, C, D of being arranged on accumulator inside, the heat exchange coil A of accumulator to be connected with warmer by efferent duct and circulating pump and to form heat supply heating closed circuit with return duct, under the control of automatic controller, provide Heating Medium to be that user heats to warmer.Cool water heating flows out for bathing and domestic hot-water from outlet pipe by cold water is entered accumulator heat exchange coil B by water inlet pipe.The control line of described automatic controller is connected with gas compressor, circulating pump, electrothermal tube, and sensors A is inserted in accumulator, and sensor B is inserted in warmer.
Described superconducting flat solar thermal collector is made up of the some isometric heat collection rack pipes be arranged parallel to each other, the absorber plate scribbling coating for selective absorption be welded on heat collection rack pipes, horizontal upper union pipe together with some heat collection rack pipes two ends UNICOMs and lower union pipe.Upper union pipe right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconductive heat transfer pipe, lower union pipe right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconduction return duct, at some heat collection rack pipes inner edges, high-efficiency superconducting material is housed, heat collection rack pipes back and periphery are equipped with thermal insulating warm-keeping layer and shell body, and the high transparent cover plate of light transmittance is equipped with on its top.The effect of superconductive flat plate collector is that solar radiation is quickly converted to heat energy, and heat energy is passed to energy-storage liquid in accumulator and several energy storage capsules quickly and efficiently by superconductive heat transfer pipe and heat exchange coil C, is stored in accumulator by heat.Described heat collection rack pipes, up and down collector and absorber plate can be copper pipes, also can be aluminum pipes, and heat collection rack pipes diameter is Ф 8 ~ Ф 10mm, and up and down header diameter is Ф 14 ~ Ф 22mm.
Described fill high-efficiency superconducting material at some heat collection rack pipes inner edges for liquid, or it is solid-state, or liquid-solid mixed state, 35% ~ 40% of the total measurement (volume) of the system that the liquid capacity of its liquid state is superconductive flat plate collector, superconductive heat transfer pipe, heat exchange coil C, superconduction return duct are formed, can the latent heat of vaporization be produced after superconducting material is heated, by solar energy transform heat energy by system stored in accumulator.
Described superconductive heat transfer pipe is a metal on-right angle swan-neck, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C upper end, the first line of a couplet header in communication of the other end and superconducting flat solar thermal collector, middle to be communicated with vacuum pump drainage air valve, it can by the solar energy of superconducting flat solar thermal collector absorption by the high-efficiency superconducting material of phase transformation rapidly and efficiently pass to heat exchange coil C.Superconductive heat transfer pipe diameter is generally Ф 16 ~ Ф 22mm.
Described superconduction return duct is a metal bending curved tube, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C lower end, the second line of a couplet header in communication of the other end and superconducting flat solar thermal collector, it can by the high-efficiency superconducting Material recirculation that unloads in superconduction heat exchange coil pipe in superconducting flat solar thermal collector.Superconduction return duct diameter is Ф 10 ~ Ф 12mm.
The described vacuum pump drainage air valve be arranged on superconductive heat transfer pipe is made up of valve body, rotation thimble and pump drainage gas port.Vacuum pump drainage air valve is system charge high-efficiency superconducting material and detection system vacuum and the special valve that designs, it can form sealing closed-loop system by after superconducting flat solar thermal collector, superconductive heat transfer pipe, heat exchange coil C, superconduction return duct, heat collection rack pipes, superconductive flat plate collector exhaust.
Described automatic controller is made up of control circuit board, two sensors and shell body.Control line is connected with gas compressor, circulating pump, electrothermal tube, and sensor 1 is inserted in accumulator, and sensor 2 is inserted in warmer.Its effect is that safeguards system can complete solar radiant energy to the rapid translating of heat energy and storage efficiently without any need for additionaling power when solar radiation is good; At cloudy day, the low light level, few light, when solar irradiation is very low, automatically start gas compressor, utilize high temperature thermal pump water heater group to complete efficiently rapid translating and storage that solar radiation low temperature can arrive high temperature heat, be used for summer producing cold air.
Described accumulator by shell body, inner bag, be contained in the insulation material between shell body and inner bag, heat exchange coil A, the B be contained in inner bag, C, D, the electricity be contained on its shell body add pipe, temperature controller, power line, magnesium rod, hydroelectric isolator and T/P valve and form.Superconducting flat solar thermal collector can be collected the solar energy come and be stored therein by heat exchange coil C by accumulator, the heat stored can be exported for heating by heat exchange coil A, trough-electricity heat pump can also be existed wherein, in the form of heat for next day in night.The heat stored can be exported for bathing by heat exchange coil B.The structural form of the electrothermal tube on its shell body, temperature controller, power line, magnesium rod, hydroelectric isolator, water inlet pipe, outlet pipe, sewage draining exit and T/P valve is substantially identical with accumulating type electric water heater with action principle.Electric heating tube when accumulator quantity of heat storage is not enough or night in winter water temperature lower than 5 DEG C, automatically can start and heat to accumulator, provide basic heat to heat-pump hot-water unit.
Energy-storage liquid in described accumulator is the heat transfer oil of the containing metal powder that can store sensible heat and carry out delivered heat, as the cottonseed oil of containing metal powder or diphenyl mixture or JD350 liquid or hydrogenated terphenyl liquid, its serviceability temperature scope is 0 DEG C ~ 320 DEG C.Tiny iron powder or copper powder is added with, to improve the pyroconductivity of energy-storage liquid in the JD350 used in this programme.Energy-storage liquid and several energy storage capsule effective volumes account for 95% of dischargeable capacity in accumulator.
Energy storage capsule in described accumulator is spherical shape body or cylinder, energy storage capsule is metal shell or resistant to elevated temperatures polypropylene shell or polyvinyl chloride outer shell, shell is equipped with fin or teeth, shell is less than 90 DEG C built with fusing point, heat of solution is greater than 240KJKg -1solid-liquid phase change energy storage material, as 27%NaNO 3with the mixing powder of 73%NaOH, or solid octadecanoid acid, or polyalcohol NPG+ trimethylolpropane.Solid-liquid phase change energy storage material accounts for 90% of energy storage capsule dischargeable capacity.Adopt energy storage capsule can store a large amount of solar energy latent heat, shell be equipped with fin or teeth object be convenient to by the unnecessary heat in energy-storage liquid stored in energy storage capsule, can will be discharge capacity cylinder heat supply fast in the thermal release in energy storage capsule to energy-storage liquid during use.
The heat-insulation layer of described accumulator is glass fibre or asbestos or polyurethanes, and its thermal conductivity factor is less than 0.175W/ (mK), and insulation layer thickness is greater than 100MM.
Described accumulator can vertical water be flat-shaped is arranged on wall, also can be arranged on wall by horizontal shape, also can form one with superconducting flat solar thermal collector and implement console mode and install, can be contained on any position of superconducting flat solar thermal collector.General accumulator case is arranged on toilet.
Gas compressor and the evaporimeter of described heat-pump hot-water unit are assembled together, its condenser is the heat exchange coil D being contained in accumulator bottom, heat exchange coil D is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is 65% ~ 70% of evaporimeter device work effective area, it is copper pipe that the diameter of heat exchange coil D is generally Ф 16mm. heat exchange coil, and heat exchange coil is equipped with phase transformation refrigerant.When running into cloudy day, the low light level, few light or be in that user's solar irradiation of building backlight is very low is difficult to the advantage playing solar energy, the Low emissivity signal that automatic controller provides according to the sensor in accumulator starts gas compressor by sensor, energy-storage liquid in accumulator is heated up, for user's bathing and heating.The Low emissivity heat of gas compressor to solar energy is adopted to heat again, heating efficiency can reach 4 ~ 5 (coefficient of performance of domestic air source heat pump is generally between 1.5 ~ 3.0), solve solar irradiation under cloudy day, the low light level, few condition such as light and building backlight very low time be difficult to the defect of the advantage playing solar energy.After tested, adopt solar heat pump hot water preparing when solar radiation condition is bad, heat-pump hot-water unit often can obtain the evaporating temperature higher than air source heat pump, thus has the higher coefficient of performance, and heating performance is less by the impact of indoor and outdoor mercury dropped.Heat-pump hot-water unit evaporimeter is used summer to freeze.
The described heat exchange coil A being contained in accumulator inner bag middle and upper part is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is 40% ~ 60% of warmer area, its upper end to be connected with warmer by efferent duct and to be communicated with, lower end is connected with circulating pump, return duct and is communicated with, and heating agent conductive fluid is housed in warmer system.
The parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system course of work: when solar irradiation is good, solar radiation is radiated on the absorber plate of superconductive flat plate collector by transparent cover plate, on absorber plate, solar radiation can be converted into heat energy by coating for selective absorption, pass through absorber plate, heat collection rack pipes, the gasification latent heat of high-efficiency superconducting material is passed to the heat exchange coil C in accumulator by upper union pipe and superconductive heat transfer pipe at once, gasification latent heat is delivered in energy-storage liquid by self outer wall by heat exchange coil C at once, after the high-efficiency superconducting material unloading energy of gasification, become in the lower union pipe and some heat collection rack pipes that liquid runs down return line flow enters superconducting flat solar thermal collector, accept solar radiation energy again, continue the thermal-arrest of top, heat transfer, hot-cast socket process, go round and begin again, energy-storage liquid in accumulator and energy storage capsule are constantly heated, heat energy is stored in energy-storage liquid with sensible heat form, be stored in several energy storage capsules with the form of latent heat.During bathing, cold water enters the heat exchange coil B of accumulator from water inlet, water heating is flowed out from delivery port.During heating, accumulator is under the control of automatic controller, and heat exchange coil A provides circulation heating agent for user's heating by efferent duct, circulating pump, return duct to the radiator of warmer or ground heat radiation.Certain heat can be discharged by T/P valve when temperature is too high in water temperature over-high or accumulator.During as run into cloudy day, the low light level, few light or being in that user's solar irradiation of building backlight is very low is difficult to the advantage playing solar energy, automatic controller starts gas compressor work and heats, for user's bathing and heating.If when water temperature also can not meet and requires, its temperature controller can carry out concurrent heating to the energy-storage liquid of accumulator by the electrothermal tube started on outer wall automatically, and heat-pump hot-water unit continues heating on concurrent heating basis.
The beneficial effect of parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system: it is simple that parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system has structure, cost is low, thermal conversion efficiency is high, year long operational time, efficiently, pollution-free, water temperature is high, not by advantages such as meteorological and service condition restrictions, than gas heater, electric heater, gas heater, coal burning water heater, air source hot pump water heater, water source heat pump water heater, solar water heater are more energy-conservation.The power consumption that this system produces hot water is only 50% of electric auxiliary heating solar water heater, saving energy 50%, solves solar energy bathing, heating and refrigeration problem preferably.With 100m 2family family is example, all uses solar energy bathing and heating separately, needs to install 2m 2dull and stereotyped 20 pieces, and adopt parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water bathing and heating to need 2m is installed 2flat board 4 pieces is just passable.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is structural principle schematic diagram of the present invention.In figure 1, superconducting flat solar thermal collector 2, accumulator 3, heat-pump hot-water unit 4, warmer 5, automatic controller 6, superconductive heat transfer pipe 7, superconduction return duct 8, heat exchange coil C 9, upper union pipe 10, vacuum pump drainage air valve 11, lower union pipe 12, heat collection rack pipes 13, evaporimeter 14, appendix 15, gas compressor 16, heat exchange coil D 17, return duct 18, expansion valve 19, heat exchange coil B 20, housing 21, energy-storage liquid 22, energy storage capsule 23, heat exchange coil A 24, efferent duct 25, circulating pump 26, return duct 27, water inlet pipe 28, outlet pipe 29, control line 30, control line 31, control line 32, sensors A 33, sensor B 34, absorber plate 35, superconducting material 36, heat-insulation layer 37, shell body 38, transparent cover plate 39, control circuit board 40, housing 41, inner bag 42, insulation material 43, electrothermal tube 44, temperature controller 45, power line 46, magnesium rod 47, hydroelectric isolator 48, T/P valve 49, sewage draining exit 50, blower fan
Specific embodiments
Below in conjunction with the following drawings and embodiment, the invention will be further described:
Superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system is by superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1, accumulator 2, heat-pump hot-water unit 3, warmer 4, automatic controller 5 five part forms, it is characterized in that superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 is assemblied in the lower position of accumulator 2, the heat exchange coil C8 of accumulator 2 and superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 are connected together by superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 and superconduction return duct 7,---------------the upper union pipe 9 one of union pipe 11 under superconductive flat plate collector---heat collection rack pipes 12---seals the superconductive solar heating of closed loop to superconduction return duct 7 to heat exchange coil C8 to vacuum pump drainage air valve 10 to superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 to form union pipe 9 on superconducting flat solar thermal collector, the solar heat obtained is stored in accumulator 2 by heat exchange coil C8.The evaporimeter 13 of heat-pump hot-water unit 3 is by heat exchange coil D16, return duct 17, the expansion valve 18 in appendix 14, gas compressor 15, accumulator 2, arrive evaporimeter 13 again, form the heating of a working media sealing closed loop, the heat of high temperature that heat-pump hot-water unit 3 obtains under the control of automatic controller 5 is stored in accumulator 2 by heat exchange coil D16.Accumulator is made up of housing 20, dress energy-storage liquid 21 within the casing 20 and several energy storage capsules 22, the heat exchange coil A23 being arranged on accumulator inside, heat exchange coil B19, heat exchange coil C8, heat exchange coil D16, the heat exchange coil A23 of accumulator 2 to be connected with warmer 4 by efferent duct 24 and circulating pump 25 and to form heat supply heating closed circuit with return duct 26, provides Heating Medium to be that user heats under the control of automatic controller 5 warmer 4.Water inlet pipe 27 and accumulator 2 heat exchange coil B19, outlet pipe 28 form cold water and convert hot water channel to; .The control line 29 of described automatic controller 5 is connected with gas compressor 15, control line 30 is connected with circulating pump 25, control line 31 is connected with electrothermal tube 43, and sensors A 32 is inserted in accumulator 2, and sensor B33 is inserted in warmer 4.
Described superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 is made up of the some isometric heat collection rack pipes 12 be arranged parallel to each other, the absorber plate 34 scribbling coating for selective absorption be welded on heat collection rack pipes 12, horizontal upper union pipe 9 together with some heat collection rack pipes 12 two ends UNICOMs and lower union pipe 11.Upper union pipe 9 right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconductive heat transfer pipe 6, lower union pipe 11 right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconduction return duct 7, with lower union pipe 11 inner edge, high-efficiency superconducting material 35 is housed at some heat collection rack pipes 12, heat collection rack pipes 12 back and periphery are equipped with thermal insulating warm-keeping layer 36 and shell body 37, and the high transparent cover plate of light transmittance 38 is equipped with on its top.The effect of superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 is that solar radiation is quickly converted to heat energy, and heat energy is passed to energy-storage liquid in accumulator 2 21 and several energy storage capsules 22 quickly and efficiently by superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 and heat exchange coil C8, heat is stored in accumulator 2.Described heat collection rack pipes 12, upper union pipe 9 times union pipes 11 and absorber plate 34 can be copper pipes, also can be aluminum pipes, and heat collection rack pipes 12 diameter is Ф 8mm ~ Ф 10mm, and up and down header diameter is Ф 14mm ~ Ф 22mm.
Described fill high-efficiency superconducting material 35 at some heat collection rack pipes 12 inner edges for liquid, or it is solid-state, or liquid-solid mixed state, 35% ~ 40% of the total measurement (volume) of the system that the liquid capacity of its liquid state is superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1, superconductive heat transfer pipe 6, heat exchange coil C8, superconduction return duct 7 are formed, can the latent heat of vaporization be produced after superconducting material 35 is heated, by solar energy transform heat energy by system stored in accumulator 2.
Described superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 is metal on-right angle swan-necks, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C8 upper end, the other end is communicated with the upper union pipe 9 of superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1, middle to be communicated with vacuum pump drainage air valve 10, the solar energy that superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 can absorb by it by the high-efficiency superconducting material 35 of phase transformation rapidly and efficiently pass to heat exchange coil C8.Superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 diameter is generally Ф 16mm ~ Ф 22mm.
Described superconduction return duct 7 is metal bending curved tubes, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C8 lower end, the other end is communicated with the lower union pipe 11 of superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1, and the high-efficiency superconducting material 35 unloaded in heat exchange coil C8 can be back in superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 by it.Superconduction return duct 7 diameter is Ф 10mm ~ Ф 12mm.
The described vacuum pump drainage air valve 10 be arranged on superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 is made up of valve body, rotation thimble and pump drainage gas port.Vacuum pump drainage air valve 6 is system charge high-efficiency superconducting material 35 and detection system vacuum and the special valve that designs, forms sealing closed-loop system after its loop that superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1, superconductive heat transfer pipe 6, heat exchange coil C8, superconduction return duct 7, heat collection rack pipes 12 can be formed exhaust.
Described automatic controller 5 is made up of control circuit board 39, control line 29, control line 30, control line 31, sensors A 32, sensor B33 and housing 40.The control line 29 of described automatic controller 5 is connected with gas compressor 15, control line 30 is connected with circulating pump 25, control line 31 is connected with electrothermal tube 43, and sensors A 32 is inserted in accumulator 2, and sensor B33 is inserted in warmer 4.Its effect is that safeguards system can complete solar radiant energy to the rapid translating of heat energy and storage efficiently without any need for additionaling power when solar radiation is good; At cloudy day, the low light level, few light, when solar irradiation is very low, automatically start gas compressor 15, utilize high temperature thermal pump water heater group to complete efficiently rapid translating and storage that solar radiation low temperature can arrive high temperature heat, be used for summer producing cold air.
Described accumulator is made up of housing 20, dress energy-storage liquid 21 within the casing 20 and several energy storage capsules 22, the heat exchange coil A23 being arranged on accumulator inside, heat exchange coil B19, heat exchange coil C8, heat exchange coil D16, the heat exchange coil A23 of accumulator 2 to be connected with warmer 4 by efferent duct 24 and circulating pump 25 and to form heat supply heating closed circuit with return duct 26, provides Heating Medium to be that user heats under the control of automatic controller 5 warmer 4.Cool water heating flows out for bathing and domestic hot-water from outlet pipe 28 by cold water is entered accumulator 2 heat exchange coil B24 by water inlet pipe 27.
Described accumulator 2 by shell body 20, inner bag 41, be contained in the insulation material 42 between shell body 20 and inner bag 41, heat exchange coil A, the B be contained in inner bag, C, D, electrothermal tube 43, temperature controller 44, power line 45, magnesium rod 46, hydroelectric isolator 47 and the T/P valve 48 be contained on its shell body 20 form.Superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 can be collected the solar energy come and be stored therein by heat exchange coil C8 by accumulator 2, the heat stored can be exported for heating by heat exchange coil A23, trough-electricity heat-pump hot-water unit 3 can also be existed wherein, in the form of heat for next day in night.The heat stored can be exported for bathing by heat exchange coil B19.The structural form of the electric heating tube 43 on its shell body 20, temperature controller 44, power line 45, magnesium rod 46, hydroelectric isolator 47, water inlet pipe 27, outlet pipe 28, sewage draining exit 49 and T/P valve 48 is substantially identical with accumulating type electric water heater with action principle.Electrothermal tube 43 when accumulator 2 quantity of heat storage is not enough or night in winter water temperature lower than 5 DEG C, automatically can start and heat to accumulator, provide basic heat to heat-pump hot-water unit 3.
Energy-storage liquid 21 in described accumulator 2 is heat transfer oil or the water of the containing metal powder that can store sensible heat and carry out delivered heat, as the cottonseed oil of containing metal powder or diphenyl mixture or JD350 liquid or hydrogenated terphenyl liquid.The energy-storage liquid 21 used in this programme is for being added with the heat transfer oil of tiny iron powder or copper powder, object is to improve the pyroconductivity of energy-storage liquid, its serviceability temperature scope is 0 DEG C ~ 320 DEG C, and energy-storage liquid 21 and several energy storage capsule 22 effective volumes account for 95% of dischargeable capacity in accumulator 2.
Energy storage capsule 22 in described accumulator 2 is in spherical shape body or cylinder, energy storage capsule 22 is metal shell or resistant to elevated temperatures polypropylene shell or polyvinyl chloride outer shell, shell is equipped with fin or teeth, shell is less than 90 DEG C built with fusing point, heat of solution is greater than 240KJKg -1solid-liquid phase change energy storage material, as 27%NaNO 3with the mixing powder of 7396NaOH, or solid octadecanoid acid, or polyalcohol NPG+ trimethylolpropane, this programme uses 27%NaNO 3with the mixing powder of 73%NaOH.Solid-liquid phase change energy storage material accounts for 90% of energy storage capsule 22 dischargeable capacity.Adopt energy storage capsule 22 can store the latent heat amount of a large amount of solar energy latent heat and the acquisition of heat-pump hot-water unit, energy storage capsule 22 shell be equipped with fin or teeth object be convenient to by the unnecessary heat in energy-storage liquid 21 stored in energy storage capsule 22, during use can fast by the thermal release in energy storage capsule 22 in energy-storage liquid 21.
The heat-insulation layer 42 of described accumulator 2 is glass fibre or asbestos or polyurethanes, and its thermal conductivity factor is less than 0.175W/ (mK), and insulation layer thickness is greater than 100mm.
Described accumulator 2 can vertical water be flat-shaped is arranged on wall, also can be arranged on wall by horizontal shape, also can form one with superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 to implement console mode and install, can be contained on any position of superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1.General accumulator is arranged on toilet.
Gas compressor 15 and the evaporimeter 13 of described heat-pump hot-water unit 3 are assembled together, its condenser is the heat exchange coil D16 being contained in accumulator bottom, heat exchange coil D16 is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is that evaporimeter device 13 works 65% ~ 70% of effective area, and the diameter of heat exchange coil D16 is generally Ф 16mm.Heat exchange coil D16 is copper pipe, and heat exchange coil D16 is equipped with phase transformation refrigerant.When running into cloudy day, the low light level, few light or be in that user's solar irradiation of building backlight is very low is difficult to the advantage playing solar energy, the Low emissivity signal that automatic controller 5 provides according to the sensors A 32 in accumulator 2 starts gas compressor 15 by circuit 29, energy-storage liquid 21 in accumulator 2 is heated up, for user's bathing and heating.The Low emissivity heat of gas compressor 15 pairs of solar energy is adopted to heat again, heating efficiency can reach 4 ~ 5 (coefficient of performance of domestic air source heat pump is generally between 1.5 ~ 3.0), solve solar irradiation under cloudy day, the low light level, few condition such as light and building backlight very low time be difficult to the defect of the advantage playing solar energy.After tested, adopt solar heat pump and water heating unit hot water preparing when solar radiation condition is bad, heat-pump hot-water unit often can obtain the evaporating temperature higher than air source heat pump, thus has the higher coefficient of performance, and heating performance is less by the impact of indoor and outdoor mercury dropped.
The described heat exchange coil A23 being contained in accumulator 2 inner bag middle and upper part is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is 40% ~ 60% of warmer 4 area, its upper end to be connected with warmer 4 by efferent duct 24 and to be communicated with, lower end is connected with circulating pump 25, return duct 26 and is communicated with, and in warmer 4 system, heating agent conductive fluid is housed.
The parallel superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system course of work: when solar irradiation is good, solar radiation is radiated on the absorber plate 34 of superconductive flat plate collector 1 by transparent cover plate 38, on absorber plate 34, solar radiation can be converted into heat energy by coating for selective absorption, by absorber plate 34, heat collection rack pipes 12, the gasification latent heat of high-efficiency superconducting material 35 is passed to the heat exchange coil C8 in accumulator 2 by upper union pipe 9 and superconductive heat transfer pipe 6 at once, gasification latent heat is delivered in energy-storage liquid 21 and energy storage capsule 22 by self outer wall by heat exchange coil C8 at once, after the high-efficiency superconducting material 35 gasified unloads energy, become liquid runs down return duct 7 and to flow in the lower union pipe 11 of superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 and some heat collection rack pipes 12, accept solar radiation energy again, continue the thermal-arrest of top, heat transfer, hot-cast socket process, go round and begin again, energy-storage liquid 21 in accumulator and energy storage capsule 22 are constantly heated, heat energy is stored in energy-storage liquid 21 with sensible heat form, be stored in several energy storage capsules 22 with the form of latent heat.During bathing, cold water enters the heat exchange coil B19 of accumulator 2 from water inlet pipe 27, water heating is flowed out from outlet pipe 28.During heating, accumulator 4 is under the control of automatic controller 5, and heat exchange coil A23 provides circulation heating agent for user's heating to the radiator of warmer 4 or ground heat radiation by efferent duct 24, circulating pump 25, return duct 26.Certain heat can be discharged by T/P valve 28 when temperature is too high in water temperature over-high or accumulator 2.During as run into cloudy day, the low light level, few light or being in that user's solar irradiation of building backlight is very low is difficult to the advantage playing solar energy, automatic controller 5 starts gas compressor 15 work and heats, for user's bathing and heating.If when water temperature also can not meet and requires, the energy-storage liquid 21 of electrothermal tube 43 pairs of accumulators 2 that its temperature controller 44 starts on outer wall automatically carries out concurrent heating, and heat-pump hot-water unit 3 continues heating on concurrent heating basis.

Claims (13)

1. a superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system, by superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1), accumulator (2), heat-pump hot-water unit (3), warmer (4), automatic controller (5) five part forms, it is characterized in that superconducting flat solar thermal collector 1 is assemblied in the lower position of accumulator (2), the heat exchange coil C (8) of accumulator (2) is connected together with superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1) by superconductive heat transfer pipe (6) and superconduction return duct (7),---superconductive heat transfer pipe (6)---vacuum pump drainage air valve (10)---heat exchange coil C (8)---superconduction return duct (7)---union pipe (11) under superconductive flat plate collector---heat collection rack pipes (12)---upper union pipe (9) the sealing closed loop superconductive solar heating of union pipe (9) on composition superconducting flat solar thermal collector, gained solar heat is stored in accumulator (2) by heat exchange coil C (8), the evaporimeter (13) of heat-pump hot-water unit (3) is by the heat exchange coil D (16) in appendix (14), gas compressor (15), accumulator (2), return duct (17), expansion valve (18), arrive evaporimeter (13) again, form medium-tight closed loop heating, controlled by automatic controller (5), obtained heat is stored in accumulator (2) by heat exchange coil D (16), accumulator by housing (20), be contained in energy-storage liquid (21) in housing (20) and several energy storage capsules (22), the heat exchange coil A (23) being arranged on accumulator inside, heat exchange coil B (19), heat exchange coil C (8), heat exchange coil D (16) form, the heat exchange coil A (23) of accumulator (2) to be connected with warmer (4) by efferent duct (24) and circulating pump (25) and to form heat supply heating closed circuit with return duct (26), controls Heating Medium heat by automatic controller (5), water inlet pipe (27) and accumulator (2) heat exchange coil B (19), outlet pipe (28) form cold water and convert hot water channel to, the control line (29) of described automatic controller (5) is connected with gas compressor (15), control line (30) is connected with circulating pump (25), control line (31) is connected with electrothermal tube (31), sensors A (32) is inserted in accumulator (2), and sensor B (33) is inserted in warmer (4).
2. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1) by the some isometric heat collection rack pipes (12) be arranged parallel to each other, be welded on the absorber plate (34) scribbling coating for selective absorption on heat collection rack pipes (12), the horizontal upper union pipe (9) together with some heat collection rack pipes (12) two ends UNICOM and lower union pipe (11) and form; Upper union pipe (9) right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconductive heat transfer pipe (6), lower union pipe (11) right-hand member is cecum, the left end beginning is communicated with superconduction return duct (7), at some heat collection rack pipes (12) and lower union pipe (11) inner edge, high-efficiency superconducting material (35) is housed, heat collection rack pipes (12) back and periphery are equipped with thermal insulating warm-keeping layer (36) and shell body (37), and the high transparent cover plate of light transmittance (38) is equipped with on its top.Under described heat collection rack pipes (12), upper union pipe (9), union pipe (11) and absorber plate (34) are copper pipe or aluminum pipe, heat collection rack pipes (12) diameter is Ф 8mm ~ Ф 10mm, and up and down header diameter is 14mm ~ Ф 22mm.
3. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described filling high-efficiency superconducting material (35) at some heat collection rack pipes (12) inner edge for liquid, or it is solid-state, or liquid-solid mixed state, 35% ~ 40% of the total measurement (volume) of the system that the liquid capacity of its liquid state is superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1), superconductive heat transfer pipe (6), heat exchange coil C (8), superconduction return duct (7) are formed.
4. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described superconductive heat transfer pipe (6) is a metal on-right angle swan-neck, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C (8) upper end, the other end is communicated with the upper union pipe (9) of superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1), centre is communicated with vacuum pump drainage air valve (10), and superconductive heat transfer pipe (6) diameter is generally Ф 16mm ~ Ф 22mm.
5. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described superconduction return duct (7) is a metal bending curved tube, one end is communicated with heat exchange coil C (8) lower end, the other end is communicated with the lower union pipe (11) of superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1),, superconduction return duct (7) diameter is 10mm ~ Ф 12mm.
6. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, is characterized in that the described vacuum pump drainage air valve (10) be arranged on superconductive heat transfer pipe (6) is made up of valve body, rotation thimble and pump drainage gas port.
7. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described automatic controller (5) is by control circuit board (39), control line (29), control line (30), control line (31), sensors A (32), sensor B (33) and housing (40) are formed, the control line (29) of described automatic controller (5) is connected with gas compressor (15), control line (30) is connected with circulating pump (25), control line (31) is connected with electrothermal tube (43), sensors A (32) is inserted in accumulator (2), sensor B (33) is inserted in warmer (4).
8. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, is characterized in that described accumulator (2) is by housing (20), inner bag (41), be contained in the insulation material (42) between shell body (20) and inner bag (41), be contained in the energy-storage liquid (21) in inner bag and several energy storage capsules (22), be arranged on the heat exchange coil A (23) of inner bag inside, heat exchange coil B (19), heat exchange coil C (8), heat exchange coil D (16), be contained in the electrothermal tube (43) on its shell body (20), temperature controller (44), power line (45), magnesium rod (46), hydroelectric isolator (47) and T/P valve (48) are formed, and heat exchange coil A (23) is by efferent duct (24), warmer (4), circulating pump (25) connects and return duct (26) forms heat supply heating closed circuit, heat exchange coil B (19) and water inlet pipe (27), outlet pipe (28) composition cold water converts hot water channel to, heat exchange coil C (8) and superconducting flat solar thermal collector (1) form and seal closed loop superconductive solar heating, and heat exchange coil D (16) and heat-pump hot-water unit (3) form medium-tight closed loop heating.
9. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, the energy-storage liquid (21) that it is characterized in that in described accumulator (2) is heat transfer oil or the water of the containing metal powder storing sensible heat, as the cottonseed oil of containing metal powder, or diphenyl mixture, or JD350 liquid, or hydrogenated terphenyl liquid, the energy-storage liquid (21) used in this programme is for being added with the heat transfer oil of tiny iron powder or copper powder fine copper powder, its serviceability temperature scope is 0 DEG C ~ 320 DEG C, energy-storage liquid (21) and several energy storage capsule (22) effective volumes account for 95% of dischargeable capacity in accumulator (2).
10. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that energy storage capsule (22) in described accumulator (2) is in spherical shape body or cylinder, energy storage capsule (22) is metal shell or resistant to elevated temperatures polypropylene shell or polyvinyl chloride outer shell, shell is equipped with fin or teeth, shell is less than 90 DEG C built with fusing point, heat of solution is greater than 240KJKg -1solid-liquid phase change energy storage material, as 27%NaNO 3with the mixing powder of 73%NaOH, or solid octadecanoid acid, or polyalcohol NPG+ trimethylolpropane, this programme uses 27%NaNO 3with the mixing powder of 73%NaOH, solid-liquid phase change energy storage material accounts for energy storage capsule 22) dischargeable capacity 90%.
11. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating systems according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the heat-insulation layer (42) of described accumulator (2) is glass fibre or asbestos or polyurethanes, its thermal conductivity factor is less than 0.175W/ (mK), and insulation layer thickness is greater than 100mm.
12. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating systems according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the gas compressor (15) of described heat-pump hot-water unit (3) and evaporimeter (13) are assembled together, its condenser is the heat exchange coil D (16) being contained in accumulator bottom, heat exchange coil D (16) is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is 65% ~ 70% of evaporimeter device (13) work effective area, the diameter of heat exchange coil D (16) is generally Ф 16mm, heat exchange coil D (16) is copper pipe, heat exchange coil D (16) is equipped with phase transformation refrigerant, heating efficiency 4 ~ 5.
13. superconductive solar heat-pump hot-water water bathing heating systems according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the described heat exchange coil A (23) being contained in accumulator (2) inner bag middle and upper part is a metal heat exchanger, its heat exchange area is 40% ~ 60% of warmer (4) gross area, its upper end is connected with warmer (4) by efferent duct (24) and is communicated with, lower end is connected with circulating pump (25), return duct (26) and is communicated with, and in warmer (4) system, heating agent conductive fluid is housed.
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CN105222400A (en) * 2015-10-13 2016-01-06 北京建筑大学 A kind of air source heat pump heating and cooling system adopting phase-changing energy-storing
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