CN104896660B - A kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method - Google Patents

A kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104896660B
CN104896660B CN201510260247.1A CN201510260247A CN104896660B CN 104896660 B CN104896660 B CN 104896660B CN 201510260247 A CN201510260247 A CN 201510260247A CN 104896660 B CN104896660 B CN 104896660B
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temperature
air
represent
conditioner
outdoor
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CN104896660A (en
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彭辉
王玉山
王丹
刘明月
杨晗
武明源
覃业梅
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Central South University
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/62Control or safety arrangements characterised by the type of control or by internal processing, e.g. using fuzzy logic, adaptive control or estimation of values
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • F24F11/46Improving electric energy efficiency or saving

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method, according to the environmental factor of indoor and outdoor, change the dynamic setting method of air-conditioner temperature setting value in real time.In order to realize the dynamic setting of air-conditioner temperature, Air conditioned on daytime, night gravity-flow ventilation in a simplified room thermodynamical model, model are established.The dynamic relationship of the environmental variances such as air conditioner load and outdoor temperature, hot mass temperature, indoor temperature setting value is established by the analysis to room model.With the minimum object function of air conditioner load, with human comfort index pmv value in prescribed limit for restrictive condition, set up the Optimized model of air-conditioner temperature setting value, solution optimized to the model, draw the optimal air-conditioner temperature setting value at each moment.The dynamic temperature setting value drawn ensure that indoor occupant thermal comfort level preferably, while the energy consumption of air-conditioning can be effectively reduced.

Description

A kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method.
Background technology
In larger office building, air conditioning energy consumption accounts for building the 40% of total energy consumption, and builds with larger office Increase and requirement of the people to comfort level is increasingly improved, air conditioning energy consumption rises rapidly, how to take effective measures and ensureing Air conditioning energy consumption is reduced on the basis of human comfort significant for building energy conservation.
Air-conditioner temperature setting is divided into fixed temperature setting and dynamic temperature sets two kinds, and fixed temperature setting is setting for air-conditioning Definite value is steady state value within a period of time, and dynamic temperature setting is the desired temperature of air-conditioning with environmental changes such as outdoor temperatures And change with time.Traditional many methods set using fixed temperature of air-conditioner temperature setting, therefore, are ground to air conditioner energy saving at present Study carefully and be mainly built upon on the basis of fixed temperature setting, wherein three main directions are:The reducing energy consumption of air-conditioning system, do Gongjian's building structure energy-saving design and management are saved.The reducing energy consumption of air-conditioning system mainly uses new technologies and materials to air-conditioning system System carries out reducing energy consumption, improves the utilization ratio with energy equipment in air-conditioning system.But because investment is huge or by space Limitation, the use of the power-economizing method is by larger limitation.Office building structure energy-saving is mainly designed to go along with sb. to guard him knot by improving The measure such as the design of structure and the air-tightness of raising door and window reduces air conditioning energy consumption indirectly.This mode can be only applied to setting for building Meter and construction stage.Energy-saving run system, code, the staff training of management energy-conservation mainly by improving air-conditioning etc. avoids operation The irrational energy consumption for operating the use habit not saved with air conditioner user and causing of personnel is wasted.This method is by relevant people The subjective initiative limitation of member.In terms of dynamic air conditioning temperature setting method meets human comfort and saves air conditioning energy consumption at the same time With unique advantage.Predict the equivalent temperature variation track of outside air temperature and solar radiation and establish measurement human body The index of hot comfort is the basis of research trends air-conditioner temperature establishing method.Change and interior by indoor and outdoor surroundingses factor Personnel's thermal comfort feels that adjustment air-conditioner temperature setting value is the key of dynamic air conditioning temperature setting method in real time, in this respect Some technologies are not very ripe, further improve of still needing.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are, in view of the shortcomings of the prior art, providing a kind of office building room conditioning Temperature optimization establishing method.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:A kind of office building room conditioning temperature Optimal setting method, comprises the following steps:
1) prediction outside air temperature, the equivalent temperature of solar radiation heat effect and outdoor combined air temperature T0
2) thermodynamic analysis is carried out to office building room, sets up equation of heat balance, air-conditioning is obtained by equation of heat balance The dynamic relationship of load and outdoor temperature, air-conditioner temperature setting value and hot mass temperature etc., sets the object function of Optimized model;
3) hot comfort index PMV is calculated with the computational methods based on heat balance number HB, pmv value is set in defined model Enclose the interior constraints set as air-conditioner temperature;
4) on the basis of above steps, air-conditioner temperature setting Optimized model is set up, energy consumption is sought with linear programming technique most The method of small value, solution is optimized to Optimized model, obtains the optimal air-conditioner temperature setting value at each moment.
The step 1) in, outdoor combined air temperature T0Expression formula be:
T0=Tw+Tq
Wherein,
T0Outdoor combined air temperature is represented, outdoor combined air temperature is equal to the equivalent temperature and outside air temperature sum, TwTable Show outside air temperature, TqRepresent the equivalent temperature of solar radiation, Tw.pRepresent the average value of same day outside air temperature, Tw.max The maximum of same day outside air temperature is represented, ω is the frequency of outside air temperature change, and value is π/12h-1, when t is represented Carve, t0Represent the phase angle of outside air temperature change, △ TwIt is the difference of outdoor air maximum temperature and outdoor air mean temperature Value, k0、k1、k2、k3、k4It is constant, k0、k1、k2、k3、k4Value be to T with least square methodqCarry out curve fitting what is got.
The step 2) in, equation of heat balance is:
Daytime:
αiSo(Tm-Ts)+E=-Qcl
Night:
ρCpqv(To-Ti)+αiSo(Tm-Ti)=0
Wherein:M represents the quality of room exterior wall, CmRepresent the specific heat capacity of exterior wall, TmRepresent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL, αoTable Show the coefficient of heat transfer of exterior wall outer surface, αiRepresent the coefficient of heat transfer of exterior wall inner surface, SoRepresent the surface area of exterior wall, TsRepresent empty Temperature regulating setting value, E represents indoor thermal enhancement, QclRepresent air conditioner load, TiIndoor temperature at night is represented, ρ represents atmospheric density, CpRepresent air specific heat capacity, qvRepresent night ventilation rate.
The dynamic relationship of air conditioner load and outdoor temperature, air-conditioner temperature setting value, hot mass temperature is as follows:
Wherein, ζ=MCm/ρCpqvRepresent to be based on night ventilation rate qvTime constant, γooSo/ρCpqvRepresent immeasurable The convection outside heat transfer number of guiding principle, γiiSo/ρCpqvNondimensional internal convection heat transfer number is represented,Represent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL relative to the phase shift of outdoor temperature, C1It is a constant, by side Boundary's condition is tried to achieve.
Hot comfort index PMV calculation formula is:
PMV=2.43-3.76HB;
Wherein,TskRepresent human body skin mean temperature, TmrtIt is ring The mean radiant temperature in border, M0Represent that human metabolism leads, IclRepresent the basic thermal resistance of clothes, IaAir layer thermal resistance is represented, fclRepresent clothes area coefficient, Ia/fcl=0.1m2℃/W。
Pmv value is set as:-0.9≤PMV≤0.9.
Air-conditioner temperature set Optimized model as:
Wherein, t1For air-conditioning start-up time, t2For air-conditioning close moment, t1~t2Between for the air-conditioning opening time on daytime section;Represent phase shift of the outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL relative to outdoor temperature;D1、D2Represent weight coefficient,SjRepresent the surface area on j-th of room surface, wherein S0It is the surface area of exterior wall.
Compared with prior art, the advantageous effect of present invention is that:Air-conditioner temperature setting value in the present invention be with Indoor and outdoor surroundingses factor change with time, therefore, it is possible to ensure that it is constant that people's thermal comfort level of interior was maintained in one day Level.In the methods of the invention, indoor people's hot comfort level is preferable.In the dynamic air conditioning temperature setting method of the present invention In, morning and at dusk because outdoor temperature is relatively low, therefore, morning and dusk air-conditioner temperature setting value be set to automatically it is higher, Air conditioning energy consumption can be effectively reduced, according to measuring and calculating, it is left that the inventive method can save 9% relative to fixed temperature setting value method It is right.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is schematic diagram of the office building room on daytime, Air conditioned on daytime, indoor air temperature TiWith air-conditioner temperature Setting value TsIt is equal.
Fig. 2 is schematic diagram of the office building room at night, and night ventilation, air-conditioning is closed.
Mark in accompanying drawing for:1- rooms exterior wall, 2- rooms partition wall, the thermal source of 3- house interiors, the inside heat in 4- rooms Material.
Embodiment
The schematic diagram in office building room is as depicted in figs. 1 and 2.Daytime, (daytime referred to t in office building1~t2Period It is interior, t can be taken1=6, t2=18;Night refers to 0~t1And t2~24 periods) Air conditioned, indoor air temperature TiWith air-conditioning temperature Spend setting value TsEqual, night air-conditioning is closed, and gravity-flow ventilation, night ventilation rate is qv.Indoor tables and chairs etc. are attributed to internal heat Material.The wall in room is divided into exterior wall and partition wall.It is exterior wall to have the face wall directly contacted with outdoor environment, other walls be every Wall.All thermal enhancements are grouped into an internal heat resource in daytime room, and its thermal enhancement is E;There is no thermal enhancement, i.e. night in night room Between E=0.
In order to quantify influence of the outdoor environment to indoor thermal environment, it is necessary to predict outside air temperature and solar radiation etc. Imitate temperature.Outside air temperature and the equivalent temperature of solar radiation and be outdoor combined air temperature, represent outside air temperature and Combined influence of the solar radiation to indoor thermal environment.
Outside air temperature is expressed as:
Tw=Tw.p+(Tw.max-Tw.p)sin[ω(t-t0)]
(1)
=Tw.p+△Twsin[ω(t-t0)]
Wherein:TwRepresent outside air temperature, Tw.pRepresent the average value of same day outside air temperature, Tw.maxRepresent the same day The maximum of outside air temperature, ω values π/12h-1, t represents moment, t0Represent the phase angle of outside air temperature change.
The equivalent temperature of solar radiation is expressed as:
Wherein:TqRepresent the equivalent temperature of solar radiation, ρsRepresent absorption system of the building enclosure outer surface to solar radiation Number;I represents the solar irradiance on the same day, αeRepresent the building enclosure outer surface coefficient of heat transfer.
The equivalent temperature that above formula is represented is unfavorable for the calculating of subsequent process, so with a quartic polynomial to by (2) formula The equivalent temperature drawn is fitted, and polynomial fitting is
k0、k1、k2、k3、k4It is fitted polynomial coefficients, can be drawn during fitting.
Outdoor combined air temperature T0It is expressed as:
T0=Tw+Tq (4)
TwAnd TqDrawn respectively by formula (1) and formula (3).
Analyzed for room exterior wall, room exterior wall will not produce heat in itself, also will not consumption of calorie, therefore, room Between store in exterior wall temperature changing process or the numerical value of heat that discharges is equal to room exterior wall and carries out heat with indoor and outdoor surroundingses The heat for obtaining or losing in exchange process.Analyzed for indoor thermal environment, daytime is in order to maintain indoor air temperature Value, the thermal enhancement and outdoor environment that the load that air-conditioning is exported will offset interior is delivered to indoor heat increasing by room exterior wall Benefit.Therefore the equation of heat balance on daytime is:
αiSo(Tm-Ts)+E=-Qcl (6)
Wherein:M represents the quality of room exterior wall, CmRepresent the specific heat capacity of exterior wall, TmOuter CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL is represented, t is represented Moment, αoRepresent the coefficient of heat transfer of exterior wall outer surface, αiRepresent the coefficient of heat transfer of exterior wall inner surface, SoThe surface area of exterior wall is represented, TsAir-conditioner temperature setting value is represented, E represents indoor thermal enhancement, QclAir conditioner load, summer air-conditioning output refrigeration duty are represented, its value is Negative value.
Simultaneous (4) (5) (6) formula is solved and obtained
Wherein:TmRepresent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL, QclRepresent air conditioner load, ζ=MCm/ρCpqvRepresent to be based on night ventilation Rate qvTime constant, γooSo/ρCpqvRepresent nondimensional convection outside heat transfer number, γiiSo/ρCpqvIndicate without The internal convection heat transfer number of dimension,Represent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL relative to outdoor temperature Phase shift, C1It is a constant, is tried to achieve by boundary condition.
Night air-conditioning is closed, and gravity-flow ventilation, internal thermal enhancement is zero, and the thermal balance mode at night is:
ρCpqv(To-Ti)+αiSo(Tm-Ti)=0 (10)
Wherein:TiIndoor temperature at night is represented, ρ represents atmospheric density, CpRepresent air specific heat capacity, qvRepresent night ventilation Rate.
Simultaneous (4) (9) (10) formula is solved and obtained
Wherein:γ'ii/(1+γi);C2It is constant, is tried to achieve by boundary condition;
Respectively comprising a differential equation in the equation of heat balance at daytime and night, so generating two in solution procedure Individual constant C1And C2.The two constants are tried to achieve by boundary condition.It is assumed that it is t to be carved at the beginning of daytime1, finish time is t2, i.e. t1 With t2It is the boundary moment at daytime and night, because the temperature change of room exterior wall inner surface is continuous, therefore in t1With t2When Carve the T tried to achieve by formula (7) and formula (11)mValue is equal.Therefore there is following two relational expression:
In t1Shi Keyou:
In t2Shi Keyou:
Constant C can be solved by formula (12) and formula (13)1And C2Value.
Weigh human comfort PMV index calculating methods be:
PMV=2.43-3.76HB (14)
Wherein:HB represents heat balance number, and PMV represents to predict average votes, TskRepresent human body skin mean temperature, Tmrt It is the mean radiant temperature of environment, M0Represent that human metabolism leads, IclRepresent the basic thermal resistance of clothes, IaRepresent air layer heat Resistance, fclRepresent clothes area coefficient, SjRepresent the surface area on room j surfaces.
The calculating formula that simultaneous (14) (15) (16) formula obtains PMV is:
Wherein:
Requirement of the indoor people to hot comfort is -0.9≤PMV≤0.9, substitutes into formula (17) and is expressed as:
Optimize the dynamic air conditioning desired temperature drawn, it is necessary to meet under the premise of ensureing that Studies of Human Body Heat is comfortable to greatest extent Reduction air conditioning energy consumption.The absolute value of air conditioning energy consumption and air conditioner load is positive correlation, therefore, with each moment air conditioner load The object function of the minimum optimization of absolute value sum, the air conditioner load at each moment is drawn by formula (8);In order to ensure that Studies of Human Body Heat relaxes Suitable, with comfort level within the limits prescribed for constraints, constraints is drawn by formula (18), wherein the variable T in formula (18)m Drawn by formula (7), therefore formula (7) is the equality constraint of air-conditioner temperature setting value Optimized model.Air-conditioner temperature setting value Optimized model is expressed as:
F represents object function --- the absolute value sum of each moment air conditioner load, minf represents to seek the minimum of object function Value.The optimal air-conditioner temperature setting value at each moment can be obtained by solving above-mentioned optimization problem, and the air-conditioner temperature setting value drawn is The dynamic value of one change with time, can reach on the premise of human comfort is ensured, significantly reduce the effect of air conditioning energy consumption.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
1) prediction outside air temperature, the equivalent temperature of solar radiation heat effect and outdoor combined air temperature T0;Outdoor combined air temperature T0Expression formula be:
Wherein,
T0Outdoor combined air temperature is represented, outdoor combined air temperature is equal to the equivalent temperature and outside air temperature sum, TwRepresent room Outer air themperature, TqRepresent the equivalent temperature of solar radiation, Tw.pRepresent the average value of same day outside air temperature, Tw.maxRepresent The maximum of same day outside air temperature, ω is the frequency of outside air temperature change, and value is π/12h-1, t represents moment, t0 Represent the phase angle of outside air temperature change, Δ TwIt is the difference of outdoor air maximum temperature and outdoor air mean temperature, k0、 k1、k2、k3、k4It is constant, k0、k1、k2、k3、k4Value be to T with least square methodqCarry out curve fitting what is got;
2) thermodynamic analysis is carried out to office building room, sets up equation of heat balance, air conditioner load is obtained by equation of heat balance With the dynamic relationship of outdoor temperature, air-conditioner temperature setting value and hot mass temperature, the object function of Optimized model is set;Thermal balance Equation is:
Daytime:
Night:
Wherein:M represents the quality of room exterior wall, CmRepresent the specific heat capacity of exterior wall, TmRepresent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL, αoRepresent outer The coefficient of heat transfer of wall outer surface, αiRepresent the coefficient of heat transfer of exterior wall inner surface, SoRepresent the surface area of exterior wall, TsRepresent air-conditioning temperature Setting value is spent, E represents indoor thermal enhancement, QclRepresent air conditioner load, TiIndoor temperature at night is represented, ρ represents atmospheric density, CpTable Show air specific heat capacity, qvRepresent night ventilation rate;Air conditioner load and outdoor temperature, air-conditioner temperature setting value, hot mass temperature Dynamic relationship is as follows:
Wherein, ζ=MCm/ρCpqvRepresent to be based on night ventilation rate qvTime constant, γooSo/ρCpqvRepresent nondimensional Convection outside heat transfer number, γiiSo/ρCpqvNondimensional internal convection heat transfer number is represented,Represent outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL relative to the phase shift of outdoor temperature, C1It is a constant, by border Condition is tried to achieve;
3) hot comfort index PMV is calculated with the computational methods based on heat balance number HB, by pmv value setting within the limits prescribed The constraints set as air-conditioner temperature;
4) on the basis of above steps, air-conditioner temperature setting Optimized model is set up, energy consumption minimum value is sought with linear programming technique Method, solution is optimized to Optimized model, the optimal air-conditioner temperature setting value at each moment is obtained.
2. air-conditioner temperature optimal setting method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that hot comfort index PMV meter Calculating formula is:
PMV=2.43-3.76HB;
Wherein,TskRepresent human body skin mean temperature, TmrtIt is environment Mean radiant temperature, M0Represent that human metabolism leads, IclRepresent the basic thermal resistance of clothes, IaRepresent air layer thermal resistance, fclTable Show clothes area coefficient, Ia/fcl=0.1m2℃/W。
3. air-conditioner temperature optimal setting method according to claim 2, it is characterised in that be set as pmv value:-0.9≤ PMV≤0.9。
4. air-conditioner temperature optimal setting method according to claim 3, it is characterised in that air-conditioner temperature sets Optimized model For:
Wherein, t1For air-conditioning start-up time, t2For air-conditioning close moment, t1~t2Between for the air-conditioning opening time on daytime section;Represent phase shift of the outer CALCULATE TEMPERATURE INSIDE WALL relative to outdoor temperature;D1、D2Represent weight coefficient,SjRepresent the surface area on j-th of room surface, wherein S0It is the surface area of exterior wall.
CN201510260247.1A 2015-05-20 2015-05-20 A kind of office building room conditioning temperature optimization establishing method Expired - Fee Related CN104896660B (en)

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