CN104847356B - Mining method of thin minor ore body - Google Patents

Mining method of thin minor ore body Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104847356B
CN104847356B CN201510248023.9A CN201510248023A CN104847356B CN 104847356 B CN104847356 B CN 104847356B CN 201510248023 A CN201510248023 A CN 201510248023A CN 104847356 B CN104847356 B CN 104847356B
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China
Prior art keywords
ore
filling
production
haulage drift
recovery
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CN201510248023.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104847356A (en
Inventor
李德忠
王建军
蔡立丰
王多成
王永智
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西北矿冶研究院
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/22Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers

Abstract

The invention discloses a mining method of a thin minor ore body, which comprises the steps of ore recovery and goaf filling, which are alternatively circularly performed from bottom to top in a horizontal layering manner, propelling is performed along with a work surface, lime, loess, dead rock and the like are adopted and mixed layer by layer to fill a goaf, a filling body supports hanging wall and heading wall surrounding rocks, and serves as a work platform of upper layering recovery and ore removal, the ore is conveyed to an ore chute with a mechanical method, spallation ore removal of each recovery spallation step length and the filling procedure of the goaf are performed alternatively, when the uppermost horizontal layer of a chamber is recovered, mechanical and manual fill tightening are performed. The method solves the problem of discharge of tunneled dead rocks, effectively processes the goaf, prevents surface subsidence, accords with requirements of circular economic development and green ore construction. Compared with a shallow hole shrinkage method, the mining method has the advantages of improving ore recovery rate, reducing ore dilution rate and improving ore removal grade and ore removal efficiency through production practice.

Description

A kind of recovery method of thin squat
Technical field
The present invention relates to metal mine underground mining, be specifically related to the recovery method of a kind of thin squat.
Background technology
Mine less than the ore body of 2.5m, used shallow hole shrinkage method to carry out back production for average thickness in the past, in exploitation process on armor rock slump serious, gib amount is big, stable operating conditions is poor, Ore loss and dilution rates is high;For the dead zone formed in mining process, do not deal with, cause industrial sites local, earth's surface to have and subside crack phenomenon, threaten the safety of earth's surface construction of structures, be unfavorable for safety in production.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems in the prior art, it is provided that the recovery method of a kind of thin squat.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that the recovery method of a kind of thin squat, specifically includes following steps:
1) accurate and cutting is adopted:
The thin squat tilted is divided into several exploiting fields, tunnel substoping haulage drift along ore body at top, exploiting field, the lower substoping haulage drift of driving bottom exploiting field, between lower substoping haulage drift supreme substoping haulage drift, in driving layering arteries and veins, in back production and stowboard, upper and lower substoping haulage drift and each layering arteries and veins, the top of back production and stowboard is through with the filling well of the talent's well and the mine chute of ore body lower wall and straight-through earth's surface that are arranged in dish on ore body by connecting taxiway;In upper and lower substoping haulage drift and each layering arteries and veins, the end of back production and stowboard is through by the slot raise along ore body end driving;The top of lower substoping haulage drift is provided with intake, and intake is through with lower substoping haulage drift and talent's well, and the top of upper substoping haulage drift is provided with return aircourse through with it;
2) mining and ore removal
Bottom-up carrying out is taked in exploiting field back production, before mining, first on lower substoping haulage drift base plate at the bottom of construction reinforced bar concrete vacation, as next stage exploiting field mineral building top board;Ore body head adopts the region of more than lower substoping haulage drift, and from the beginning of lower substoping haulage drift with slot raise joint portion, adopting fabric width degree is orebody thickness, and primary excavation avalanche step pitch is 4 ~ 5m;Broken ore scraper mechanical shovel dress ore deposit, pours mine chute into by the transport of lower substoping haulage drift;
3) filling
After the Ore ore removal of each back production avalanche step pitch avalanche, heap exists the mixed uniform dry casting resin in earth's surface had bad luck to filling well by machinery, load transporting dump transfer device, by back production and stowboard in the layering arteries and veins adjacent with lower substoping haulage drift, machinery carries out filling in having bad luck to first mine order of digging up mine out the dead zone formed.Each back production avalanche step pitch broken ore ore removal is staggered with goaf filling operation to be carried out;After lower substoping haulage drift this substoping sand off, it is transferred to be layered back production and stowboard in arteries and veins at slot raise, starts back production filling again, until substoping haulage drift in back production filling.Last layering of exploiting field takes back production limit, limit to complete Tight filling.
Further, the obturator being filled with the formation of goaf filling material covers waste and old travelling belt.In order to be separated with obturator by broken ore, it is to avoid the ore losses of avalanche and casting resin are mixed in Ore, control ore dissipation and dilution.
Further, after exploiting field each layering Ore back production and sand off, using Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls to close back production and stowboard port in lower substoping haulage drift and layering arteries and veins, concrete guard wall stays the osculum of 3-5 φ 100mm.After one layering Ore back production and sand off, in order to avoid surface water or down-hole crevice water penetrate in goaf filling body, cause downhole debris flow disaster, use 700mm thickness Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls to close lower substoping haulage drift or back production and the port of stowboard;The bar-mat reinforcement of barricade is connected with the peg block rock bolt electric welding constructed on the crag of tunnel in advance, and the osculum of 3-5 φ 100mm reserved by concrete guard wall, the hydrops penetrated in discharging obturator.
Further, casting resin is that Calx, loess and particle diameter mix for 1:4:5 by volume less than 350mm barren rock, and add water during on-the-spot filling stirring, and water consumption is the 5 ~ 8% of filling siccative.Filling is solid firmly, is difficult to subside.
Further, at the bottom of reinforced concrete vacation, include the armored concrete of thickness 300mm, bottom armored concrete, be provided with the protective layer of 30-50mm.Concrete grade C20, bar-mat reinforcement uses φ 14mm screw-thread steel, net degree 40 × 40mm, overlapping part fastens with 6 iron wires, is that 1m installs φ 18 reinforced anchor bolt at upper lower burrs country rock net degree, and anchor rod anchored length is not less than 1m, bar-mat reinforcement welds with anchor pole, concrete stirs into siccative on earth's surface, is transported to underground site and adds water and mix rear jolt ramming thoroughly, as next stage exploiting field mineral building top board.
Further, ore body back production big gun hole interlaced arrangement, back production big gun hole array pitch 0.8 ~ 1.0m, back production borehole spacing 0.7 ~ 0.9m, explosion uses 2 rock explosive powder stick shallow bore hole powder charges, half second or microsecond detonator segmentation, is electrically excited device and detonates.
Further, every layer of filling well is provided with Vibrating funnel, and filling siccative is put on transporting dump transfer device by Vibrating funnel, the goaf that transport terminates to ore removal, mix and blend filling of then watering.Stowing operation is enable to be carried out continuously, time saving and energy saving.
Further, Tight filling first uses scraper by the filling stockpile of mixing to goaf, then uses space remaining below the top board of concrete shotcrete machine gunite concrete filling exploiting field.Making top tight filling firm in a down-to-earth manner, gapless is remaining, is difficult to subside.
Further, in layering arteries and veins, the air intake of back production and stowboard is provided with the air door of enclosing tunnel mouth, and return aircourse is provided with a day platform shaft, and sky platform shaft is positioned at the aboveground end of talent, and matched with the base plate of substoping haulage drift on exploiting field.District ventilation, one exploiting field wouldn't carry out digging up mine the back production of packing job and stowboard carries out temporary enclosed, make intake, the fresh distinguished and admirable of talent's well that back production, filling operation flour dirt and the cleaved courtyard of toxic gas, upper substoping haulage drift, return aircourse are drained into earth's surface, fresh distinguished and admirable and dirty wind is avoided to mix, it is ensured that stope operation post meets occupational health standard-required.
The principle of the present invention is: ground pressure is effectively controlled.Bottom-up, layering, substep afterwards use the mixed filling material bashings such as Calx, loess and barren rock away from drawing back Ore, obturator after smooth as the back production haulage drift base plate of higher slice, simultaneously work as controlling country rock to collapse mobile and surface depression, improve the bearing capacity of ore pillar;Filling synchronizes to carry out along with Ore back production avalanche step pitch, and an exploiting field Ore back production terminates, and the mixed filling material such as Calx, loess and barren rock is full of goaf subsequently and forms the obturator of some strength, supports upper lower burrs country rock, it is ensured that country rock does not move earth's surface and do not subsides.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, the present invention includes Ore back production and Filling mine-out area, bottom-up horizontal slice staggered cycles is carried out, boost with work surface, successively use the mixed filling material bashings such as Calx, loess and barren rock, obturator supports upper lower burrs country rock, and as higher slice back production and the work platforms of ore removal, Ore and obturator separate loss and the dilution avoiding Ore with waste and old conveyer belt, mechanically Ore is transported in ore pass, mineral building back production, to when most going up horizontal slice, carries out mechanical and artificial top tight filling.This recovery method had both solved the emission problem of driving barren rock, got back and effectively process in goaf, met recycling economy development and the requirement of Green Mine construction.The present invention compares with shallow hole shrinkage method through these mining methods of production practices, and ore recovery rate improves 5%, can reach more than 96%;Ore dilution rate reduces by 4%, and the actual extracted ore rate of dilution is 4.5%;Mine grade improves 8 ~ 10%, and ore removal efficiency improves more than 20%.Dead zone is effectively treated, and prevents surface subsidence, it is ensured that the safe handling of earth's surface construction of structures.
2, the present invention improves the rate of extraction, mining step pitch and adopt width and change along with the thickness of ore body and change;By construction reinforced bar Concrete false bottom, reduce stope and reserve the ore losses of Ore fore-set and construction of sill pillar, improve ore recovery rate;Ore recovery rate can reach more than 96%.
3, the present invention reduces ore dilution rate, covers waste and old conveyer belt, broken ore and obturator are separated in the obturator that the mixed filling material such as Calx, loess and barren rock are formed, and controls barren rock and non-Ore is mixed into, control ore dilution, and ore dilution rate is less than 5%.
4, casting resin of the present invention is Calx, loess, driving barren rock the like waste, filling siccative is according to Calx: loess: barren rock volume ratio is that 1:4:5 is mixed into dry casting resin on earth's surface, during goaf filling, water mix and blend on limit filling limit, water consumption is the 5 ~ 8% of filling siccative, filling entity is formed after compacting, support goaf upper lower burrs country rock, prevent surface subsidence.
5, present invention optimizes working environment, by arranging exploiting field back production and stowboard air door and talent's well closed platform, unimpeded stope ventilation environment, ensure fresh blast, stope dirt wind and dust are discharged in time, being discharged into return airway to earth's surface, the harm of stope toxic dust reaches occupational health and controls standard-required.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 present invention thin squat recovery method front view;
Fig. 2 present invention thin squat recovery method top view;
Fig. 3 present invention thin squat recovery method side view;
Fig. 4 district ventilation of the present invention system diagram;
Fig. 5 filling of the present invention well schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 Tight filling of the present invention schematic diagram.
Detailed description of the invention
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat, specifically includes following steps;
1) quasi-cutting is adopted:
The most as shown in Figure 1, 2, inclination or steeply inclined thin squat are divided into several exploiting fields according to strike length, a general a length of 100m in exploiting field, level interval is 50m, segmentation (layer) highly 7m, on ore body, dish design arrangement talent's well 8 is held concurrently downcast, the filling well 10 on ore body lower wall design arrangement earth's surface to exploiting field, exploiting field to next stage mine chute 9, through with exploiting field by connecting taxiway 13.
B. at top, exploiting field, along ore body driving, substoping haulage drift 3 is held concurrently exploiting field return airway, lower sublevel drive back production haulage drift 4, from lower substoping haulage drift 4 supreme substoping haulage drift 3, at interval of back production and stowboard 15 in 7m driving layering arteries and veins, through with talent's well 8, mine chute 9 and filling well 10 by connecting taxiway 13;Through along driving slot raise 5 and the back production in each layering arteries and veins of ore body end and stowboard 15 and upper substoping haulage drift 3 from lower substoping haulage drift 4.
C. exploiting field is before mining; first on lower substoping haulage drift 4 base plate at the bottom of construction reinforced bar concrete vacation 17; reinforced concrete soil thickness 300mm; bottom reinforcement bars protective layer thickness 30-50mm; concrete grade C20; bar-mat reinforcement uses φ 14mm screw-thread steel; net degree 40 × 40mm; overlapping part fastens with 6 iron wires; being that 1m installs φ 18 reinforced anchor bolt at upper lower burrs country rock net degree, anchor rod anchored length is not less than 1m, and bar-mat reinforcement welds with anchor pole; concrete stirs into siccative on earth's surface, is transported to underground site and adds water and mix rear jolt ramming thoroughly.At the bottom of reinforced concrete vacation, 17 as next stage exploiting field higher slice mineral building top board.
2) Process for stoping:
The most as shown in Figure 3,4, ore body 14 back production is bottom-up to be carried out, adopting fabric width degree is orebody thickness, primary excavation avalanche step pitch 11 is 4 ~ 5m, use YT-28 and YSP-45 air rock drill rock drilling, back production big gun hole 16 interlaced arrangement, back production big gun hole 16 array pitch 0.8 ~ 1.0m, back production big gun hole 16 pitch of holes 0.7 ~ 0.9m;Explosion uses 2 rock explosive powder stick shallow bore hole powder charges, half second or microsecond detonator segmentation, is electrically excited device and detonates.
B. ore removal, top board and upper and lower armor rock are checked after terminating by explosion, process Pumex, use reinforced anchor bolt and metal mesh supporting local unstable rock;Broken ore 20 scraper mechanical shovel dress ore deposit, pours mine chute 9 into by back production and stowboard 15 transport in lower substoping haulage drift 4 or each layering arteries and veins.
3) Filling method:
A. after each ore caving interval 11 broken ore 20 ore removal terminates, carrying out goaf filling with mixed filling material 6, casting resin 6 is that Calx, loess and particle diameter are less than 350mm barren rock by volume for the mixture of 1:4:5.As shown in Figure 5, there is the dry casting resin 6 of earth's surface mix homogeneously and had bad luck to the filling well 10 on straight-through earth's surface by machinery in heap, slicing and filling well casting resin 6 is discharged Vibrating funnel 22 and is put on transporting dump transfer device by filling siccative, by back production and stowboard 15 in layering arteries and veins each on lower substoping haulage drift 4, transport is to goaf, and water filling limit, limit mix and blend, and stowing operation needs to be carried out continuously, when filling compound is filled to or slightly higher 100mm flat with higher slice roadway floor, smooth compacting.After lower substoping this segmentation of haulage drift (layer) back production, sand off, it is transferred to higher slice back production and stowboard starts back production, filling again at slot raise, until substoping haulage drift in back production, filling.Casting resin maximum diameter of aggrogate cannot be greater than 350mm, affects slicing and filling funnel normal discharge to control bulk barren rock entrance filling well, arranges steel diagrid 21 at earth's surface filling well well head.Charge stratifying synchronizes upwards to shift along with the transfer of sublayer.
B. mine loss and dilution control measure, cover waste and old travelling belt 12 being filled with in the obturator 6 that goaf filling material 6 is formed, are separated with obturator 6 by broken ore 20, it is to avoid the ore losses of avalanche and casting resin are mixed in Ore, control ore dissipation and dilution.
C. Tight filling way: as shown in Figure 6, exploiting field last layering ore body back production and filling, take back production ore body limit, limit Tight filling, one avalanche step pitch 11 Tight filling of back production is once such as Fig. 6, use scraper by casting resin 6 heap of mix homogeneously to certain altitude, mixed filling material 6 and the space of exploiting field top board, use concrete shotcrete machine gunite concrete 23 filling.
4 ) district ventilation:
District ventilation such as Fig. 4, one exploiting field wouldn't carry out digging up mine packing job layering arteries and veins in back production and stowboard 15 air intake use air door 19 to carry out temporary enclosed, talent's well 8 upper port and upper substoping haulage drift 3 connection position arrange day platform shaft 18, and to completely cut off fresh wind distinguished and admirable with dirty wind, avoid fresh wind and dirty wind mixing, make intake 1, the fresh distinguished and admirable of talent's well 8 will be layered back production and stowboard 15 back production in arteries and veins, through slot raise 5 after the dust in filling operation face and toxic gas flushing, upper substoping haulage drift 3, return aircourse 2 drains into earth's surface, ensure that stope operation post meets occupational health standard-required.

Claims (9)

1. the recovery method of a thin squat, it is characterised in that: specifically include following steps:
1) accurate and cutting is adopted:
The thin squat tilted is divided into several exploiting fields, tunnel substoping haulage drift (3) along ore body at top, exploiting field, the lower substoping haulage drift (4) of driving, back production and stowboard (15) between lower substoping haulage drift (4) supreme substoping haulage drift (3), driving is layered arteries and veins bottom exploiting field;The top in each tunnel (4,15,3) is through with the filling well (10) of the talent's well (8) and the mine chute (9) of ore body (14) lower wall and straight-through earth's surface that are arranged in the upper dish of ore body (14) by it by connecting taxiway (13);The end in each tunnel (4,15,3) is through by the slot raise (5) along ore body end driving;The top of lower substoping haulage drift (4) is provided with intake (1), and intake (1) is through with lower substoping haulage drift (4) and talent's well, and the top of upper substoping haulage drift (3) is provided with return aircourse (2) through with it;
2) mining and ore removal:
Bottom-up carrying out is taked in exploiting field back production, before mining, first on lower substoping haulage drift (4) base plate at the bottom of construction reinforced bar concrete vacation (17), as next stage exploiting field mineral building top board;Ore body (14) head adopts the region of more than lower substoping haulage drift (4), drawing back is started from lower substoping haulage drift (4) and slot raise (5) joint portion, adopting fabric width degree is orebody thickness, ore body back production big gun hole (16) interlaced arrangement, primary excavation avalanche step pitch (11) is 4 ~ 5m;Broken ore (20) scraper mechanical shovel dress ore deposit, pours mine chute (9) into by the transport of lower substoping haulage drift (4);
3) filling:
Filling and back production Tong Bu take bottom-up carrying out, after Ore (20) ore removal of each back production avalanche step pitch (11) avalanche, heap exists the mixed uniform dry casting resin in earth's surface had bad luck to filling well (10) by machinery, loading on transporting dump transfer device, in the layering arteries and veins adjacent with lower substoping haulage drift (4), back production and stowboard (15) machinery carry out filling in having bad luck to first mine order of digging up mine out the dead zone formed;Each back production avalanche step pitch (11) broken ore (20) ore removal is staggered with goaf filling operation to be carried out;After lower this substoping of substoping haulage drift (4), sand off, it is transferred to back production and stowboard (15) in the layering arteries and veins being adjacent and from slot raise (5), starts back production, filling again, until substoping haulage drift (3) in back production, filling, last layering of exploiting field takes back production limit, limit to complete Tight filling.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: casting resin (6) is that Calx, loess and particle diameter mix for 1:4:5 by volume less than 350mm barren rock, and add water during on-the-spot filling stirring, and water consumption is the 5 ~ 8% of filling siccative.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: it is being filled with the obturator (6) the waste and old travelling belt of upper covering (12) that goaf filling material (6) is formed.
4. the recovery method of a kind of thin squat as described in any one of claims 1 to 3, it is characterized in that: filling well is provided with Vibrating funnel (22), filling siccative loads on transporting dump transfer device through Vibrating funnel (22), then transports the goaf terminated to ore removal, mix and blend filling of watering.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that: after exploiting field each layering Ore back production, sand off, using Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls (7) to close back production and the port of stowboard (15) in lower substoping haulage drift (4), layering arteries and veins, concrete guard wall (7) stays the osculum of 3-5 φ 100mm.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: at the bottom of reinforced concrete vacation, (17) include the armored concrete of thickness 300mm, are provided with the protective layer of 30-50mm bottom armored concrete.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: back production big gun hole (16) array pitch 0.8 ~ 1.0m, back production big gun hole (16) spacing 0.7 ~ 0.9m, explosion uses 2 rock explosive powder stick shallow bore hole powder charges, half second or microsecond detonator segmentation, be electrically excited device and detonate.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claims 6 or 7, it is characterized in that: Tight filling first uses scraper by casting resin (6) heap of mixing to goaf, then uses space remaining below the top board of concrete shotcrete machine gunite concrete (23) filling exploiting field.
The recovery method of a kind of thin squat the most as claimed in claim 8, it is characterised in that: in layering arteries and veins, the air intake of back production and stowboard (15) is provided with the air door (19) of enclosing tunnel mouth;Return aircourse (2) is provided with a day platform shaft (18), and it is matched with the base plate of upper substoping haulage drift (3) that sky platform shaft (18) is positioned at talent's well (8) upper end.
CN201510248023.9A 2015-05-15 2015-05-15 Mining method of thin minor ore body CN104847356B (en)

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CN107725054A (en) * 2017-08-18 2018-02-23 西北矿冶研究院 A kind of recovery method of the changeable narrow vein in inclination angle
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