CN104838462B - Device for switching direct current in pole of direct current network - Google Patents

Device for switching direct current in pole of direct current network Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104838462B
CN104838462B CN201280077562.5A CN201280077562A CN104838462B CN 104838462 B CN104838462 B CN 104838462B CN 201280077562 A CN201280077562 A CN 201280077562A CN 104838462 B CN104838462 B CN 104838462B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
switch
equipment
current
inductance component
current path
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CN201280077562.5A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104838462A (en
Inventor
D.埃尔金
H-J.克纳克
R.曾格
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西门子公司
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Priority to PCT/EP2012/076205 priority Critical patent/WO2014094847A1/en
Publication of CN104838462A publication Critical patent/CN104838462A/en
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Publication of CN104838462B publication Critical patent/CN104838462B/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02HEMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
    • H02H3/00Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection
    • H02H3/08Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to excess current
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F27/00Details of transformers or inductances, in general
    • H01F27/28Coils; Windings; Conductive connections
    • H01F27/2823Wires
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F27/00Details of transformers or inductances, in general
    • H01F27/28Coils; Windings; Conductive connections
    • H01F27/29Terminals; Tapping arrangements for signal inductances
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F38/00Adaptations of transformers or inductances for specific applications or functions
    • H01F38/14Inductive couplings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H33/00High-tension or heavy-current switches with arc-extinguishing or arc-preventing means
    • H01H33/02Details
    • H01H33/59Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the switch and not otherwise provided for, e.g. for ensuring operation of the switch at a predetermined point in the ac cycle
    • H01H33/596Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the switch and not otherwise provided for, e.g. for ensuring operation of the switch at a predetermined point in the ac cycle for interrupting dc
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H9/00Details of switching devices, not covered by groups H01H1/00 - H01H7/00
    • H01H9/54Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the switching device and for which no provision exists elsewhere
    • H01H9/541Contacts shunted by semiconductor devices
    • H01H9/542Contacts shunted by static switch means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H2201/00Contacts
    • H01H2201/008Both contacts movable
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H9/00Details of switching devices, not covered by groups H01H1/00 - H01H7/00
    • H01H9/54Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the switching device and for which no provision exists elsewhere
    • H01H9/548Electromechanical and static switch connected in series

Abstract

The invention provides a device (1) for switching a direct current in a pole (4) of a direct current network having two connecting terminals (2, 3) to be connected in series with the pole (4), an operating current branch (5) extending between the connecting terminals (2, 3), in which there is arranged at least one mechanical switch (7), a shutdown branch (6), in which a power switching unit (9) is arranged that is equipped to shut down high short-circuit currents and has power semiconductor switches (14) that can be switched on and off, and commutation means (8, 18, 19, 20, 29) for commutating the current from the operating current path (5) to the shutdown path (6). In order to provide such a device which is economical, generates fewer losses and at the same time is able to switch high short-circuit currents quickly, the commutation means (8, 18, 19, 20, 29), according to the invention, have at least one inductive component (8, 18, 19, 29).

Description

For an equipment for extremely middle switching DC current in direct current network
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of equipment for extremely middle switching DC current in direct current network, have:For with Two binding posts that the pole is connected in series;The fortune with least one mechanical switch extended between the binding post Row current branch;It is disposed with the power semiconductor switch that can be switched on and off and is configured to disconnect big failure electricity The disconnected branches of the power switch unit of stream;And for electric current to be commutated to the commutation portion of disconnected branches from running current path Part.
Background technology
This equipment is known for example from WO2011/057675A1.There is shown with DC voltage switch have with organic The running current path of tool switch and the disconnected branches being connected in parallel with running current path.Power is arranged in disconnected branches The series circuit of semiconductor switch, the power semiconductor switch respectively with a fly-wheel diode reverse parallel connection.By power half Conductor is switched and the switch element differential concatenation ground of fly-wheel diode composition is arranged, wherein power semiconductor switch series connection can be disconnected Arrangement, and opened for one corresponding power semiconductor with opposite conductivity direction of each power semiconductor switch setting Close.The electric current in the both direction in disconnected branches can be interrupted by this way.Additionally, being arranged in running current path There is the active commutation part of electron assistant switch form.By running current path and thus running current in normal operation Flowed by the mechanical switch for closing, because the power semiconductor switch of disconnected branches is the resistance for improving for DC current. In order to interrupt the short circuit current for example as fault current, electron assistant switch is transformed into its rest position.Thus in operation Resistance in current path increases, so that during DC current commutates to disconnected branches.Quickly thus machinery disconnect switch may be used Disconnected with by no current.The short circuit current conducted by disconnected branches can be interrupted by power semiconductor switch now. In the direct current network, energy to be reduced in switching is stored in order to absorb, there is provided discharger, its work(with disconnected branches Rate semiconductor switch is connected in parallel.
In addition to this active power electronic commutating device, DC voltage switch is also described, wherein, due to being arranged in The arc voltage of the mechanical switch in running current path and carry out the commutation of total current.It is known that the power electricity in disconnected branches Subassembly can provide active commutation.Here, power electronic component is in the loop formed by running current path and disconnected branches It is middle to produce the loop current opposite with the running current or fault current in running current path.Phase is being carried out to power semiconductor During the control answered, the two electric currents are superposed to zero in the switch, so as to switch can be disconnected by no current.It is active for this Commutation, power semiconductor switch must very fast provide big power, because in case of a short circuit, electric current is gone up very fast Rise.
The content of the invention
Therefore, the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of equipment of aforementioned type, its low cost, The loss of generation is small, while rapidly switching major break down electric current.
The present invention solves above-mentioned technical problem by the part that commutates with least one inductance component.
According to the present invention, the feelings for supporting the electric current for for example being triggered due to short circuit to rise using inductance element or part Commutation under condition.In normal operation, total running current flows via mechanical switch completely at steady state, because disconnected Pay wages in the power electronics devices on road, when there is electric current flowing, producing ratio in mechanical switch in itself and series connection with it when needed Significantly larger voltage drop in the inductance component of connection.In order to quickly reach electric current via running current path flow it is this Desired stable state, it is also possible to which power electronics devices are controlled to ohmic state high.In other words, power switch list can be made The power semiconductor switch of unit is transformed into its rest position, so that running current or load current are reliably passed via operating path It is defeated.
Additionally, when being short-circuited on according to the direction of current flow of equipment of the invention, in running current path The constant load current of middle flowing flows also in running current path.But opened with power by small compared with power network inductance The inductance of the inductance compared to big inductance component of unit is closed, makes steepness main by power network inductance L automaticallyNThe fault current of determination turns To in disconnected branches.Therefore, within the scope of the invention, as a part for power switch unit or as running current What the power electronics devices of the auxiliary switch in path again need not be disconnected load current and fault current from each together In commutating to power switch unit in mechanical switch, and only load current is commutated to from the mechanical switch that each to be disconnected In power switch unit.
According at least two inductance components that a kind of preferable configuration, setting are coupled each other perceptually.By being arranged in switch Different branch in inductance component it is inductive coupled, commutation can be better achieved.Furthermore it is possible to suppress the electricity via switch Stream flowing, therefore, it is possible to almost disconnect mechanical switch in the case where active commutation is not used no current.
Advantageously, in addition to inductance component, commutation part also includes controllable power semiconductor switch, its at least portion It is configured to create backward voltage with dividing, it suppresses the fault current in the mechanical switch to be disconnected.Further below will be more detailed This active commutation part of ground description.Due to inductance component, can be with the active commutation part of low-cost construction.
According to a kind of suitable construction related to this, controllable power semiconductor switch has at least one to be arranged in fortune IGCT in row current path.Within the scope of the invention, IGCT is combined with regulation or control unit.The control is single Unit for example ensures that when power network normally runs rated current can flow via IGCT along the direction that each needs.Therefore, example Such as IGCT is persistently triggered.However, in case of a failure, IGCT suppresses via the mechanical switch to be disconnected Undesirable electric current flowing.This can be carried out by suitable control.Desirably, with each IGCT cloth in parallel Put surge arrester or other overvoltage protective devices.
According to the first variation of the invention, two mechanical switch are disposed with running current path, wherein, bypass electricity Extend in the parallel circuit in running current path of the stream branch road between binding post, equally arranged in by-pass current branch road There are two mechanical switch and/or two power semiconductors, wherein, disconnected branches are arranged in mechanical switch by running current path Between middle branch potential point and by-pass current loop be arranged between mechanical switch or power semiconductor in the middle of branch Road potential point connection.According to the advantageous extension scheme, so-called H circuits are set, it is changed equipped with inductance component for support To.In so-called H bridges, electric current flows preferably via running current path.Certainly, in principle, so-called H bridges is full symmetric Construction it is also possible.In the case of symmetrical construction, running current can not only flow via running current path, and And can fifty-fifty be flowed via by-pass current branch road.H circuits have the advantages that independently of the sense of current on switch, the electricity Stream is always diverted into middle branch to switch over.Then, arrangement power switch unit there is allowed for electricity Stream is switched to only according to a direction.In case of a short circuit, inductance component not only supports running current but also supports short circuit electricity The commutation in disconnected branches is flowed to, the disconnection of electric current is carried out there.
Desirably, each inductance component is arranged in the middle branch potential point in running current path and switch Between, and/or be arranged between in the middle branch potential point of by-pass current branch road and switch or power semiconductor.
According to a suitable expansion scheme related to this, at least one inductance component is arranged in disconnected branches, and And perceptual with least one inductance component in running current path and/or by-pass current path couple.
In a variation different from H circuits of the invention, running current path can be disconnected branch road bridge joint.According to The advantageous extension scheme, only has two each other according to equipment of the invention, i.e. according to direct-voltage power of the invention switch The branch road of parallel laying, i.e. running current path and its disconnected branches are bridged at least in part.Commutation part is with inductance department During the form of part is arranged in running current path, in disconnected branches and/be arranged in binding post and running current when needed Between branch point between path and disconnected branches.
Advantageously, at least one inductance component is arranged in the section of the be disconnected branch road bridge joint in running current path In.In normal operation, load current flows via the running current path that inductance component is arranged therein.Because electric current does not have Change, therefore the not induced potential in inductance component.On the direction of the running current seen according to equipment of the invention When being short-circuited, electric current rapid increase.The steepness of rising is determined by the inductance of the direct current network for being connected again.On electric current suddenly Rise and voltage is produced in inductance component, during it ensures for short circuit current to commutate to disconnected branches.Only a fraction of short circuit current is also Via the running current bypass flow including switching.In order to during it also to commutate to disconnected branches, such as power switch unit Power electronics devices can produce voltage, the ring that its section in the running current path bridged by disconnected branches and by it is constituted The electric current opposite with the running current in the mechanical switch to be disconnected is driven in road.This ensures to produce current over-zero in the switch Point, so that it being capable of no current ground disconnection as far as possible.Therefore, it is to avoid the formation of electric arc or electric arc can rapidly extinguish.
According to a different variation related to this of the invention, inductance component is arranged in binding post with operation electricity Between branch point between flow path and disconnected branches, and be arranged in be disconnected branch road bridging running current path area Section in or disconnected branches in itself in another inductance component couple perceptually.According to the advantageous extension scheme of the invention, no It is, using only single inductance, i.e. single inductance component, but to use each other perceptual the multiple inductance components for coupling.Especially Ground, the yoke that these inductance components are made via ferromagnetic material, such as iron core or iron yoke or by other ferromagnetic materials is each other Coupling.Here, running current flows through in inductance component all the time.Another inductance component is only located in two current paths One in, i.e., in running current path or in disconnected branches.Due to this arrangement, within the scope of the invention Further advantage can be realized.Therefore, as also will be described in detail here, in this construction of the invention, merely due to Inductance component can be carried out electric current from running current path to disconnected branches in commutation completely.
Advantageously, each branch point between each binding post and running current path and disconnected branches it Between be disposed with inductance component, itself and be arranged in running current path or in disconnected branches another inductance component perception ground coupling Close.
According to an advantageous extension scheme, the inductance component for coupling each other perceptually have direction of winding reciprocal around Group.According to the advantageous extension scheme, the magnetic flux produced by inductance component can cancel each other in for the core for being coupled, So as on preferably one direction, i.e. for example via the electric current flowing of turn-off current branch road.This significantly supports commutation.
Here, for example desirably, the quantity of two windings of the inductance component for coupling is identical each other perceptually.
Unlike this, two quantity of the winding of the inductance component for coupling each other perceptually are different.According to the variation, can To produce loop current in the loop that the section in the running current path bridged by disconnected branches and by it is formed, it ensures Running current produces current zero-crossing point in path.Therefore, mechanical switch almost can disconnect on no current ground.
According to a kind of preferable configuration of the invention, power switch unit is included with least one power semiconductor switch The series circuit of the two poles of the earth submodule and the part for reducing the energy discharged in switch.Within the range, the structure of submodule It is essentially arbitrary to make.Therefore, each submodule for example can only have a power semiconductor that can be switched on and off to open Close, its can reverse-conducting or its be connected in antiparallel with a fly-wheel diode.
However, within the scope of the invention, preferably each submodule has the energy accumulator and and energy stores of oneself The power semiconductor circuits that device is connected in parallel, energy is dropped to so as to be produced on two binding posts of each submodule Voltage or no-voltage on memory.Power semiconductor circuits can form so-called full-bridge electricity with corresponding energy accumulator Road or half-bridge circuit.In full-bridge circuit, using four power semiconductor switch that can be switched on and off, such as IGBT, GTO, IGCT etc..Four power semiconductor switch are arranged in two series circuits being made up of two power semiconductor switch respectively In.Each in the series circuit is connected in parallel with energy accumulator, wherein, a submodule binding post is connected to Potential point between the power semiconductor switch of one series circuit, the second submodule binding post is connected to the second series circuit Potential point between power semiconductor switch.Therefore, it can be produced on two submodule binding posts and drop to energy stores Voltage, no-voltage or backward energy memory voltage on device.
In half-bridge circuit, two power semiconductor switch are provided only with, it is arranged in single series circuit, itself and energy Amount memory is connected in parallel.One submodule binding post is also connected between the power semiconductor switch of the series circuit Potential point.Second submodule binding post is directly connected to a pole of energy accumulator.Therefore, it can in submodule terminals The voltage or no-voltage dropped on energy accumulator are produced on son.
In the suitable construction of another kind of the invention, commutation part only has inductance component.Due to the advantageous extension side Case, can completely abandon power electronic, i.e. active commutation part.Certainly, it is only electric when there is the failure with sufficiently large di/dt During stream i, the switching according to the advantageous extension scheme can be just used.Cannot switch by the commutation part for being based only upon inductance component Running current.
Brief description of the drawings
Other suitable constructions of the invention and advantage are in the description below with reference to accompanying drawing to embodiments of the invention Hold, wherein identical reference represents the part and wherein of phase same-action:
Fig. 1 schematically shows the first embodiment according to equipment of the invention,
Fig. 2 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention,
Fig. 3 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention,
Fig. 4 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention,
Fig. 5 schematically shows the schematic diagram of current curve,
Fig. 6 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention,
Fig. 7 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention, and
Fig. 8 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention, and
Fig. 9 is schematically shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention.
Specific embodiment
Fig. 1 shows the first embodiment according to equipment of the invention 1, and it has two binding posts 2 and 3, and equipment 1 is led to Cross the pole 4, in other words that the two binding posts 2 and 3 are connected in series to the direct current network not shown further in figure In one wire.The pole 4 has the power network inductance L for schematically showing in Fig. 1N
Equipment 1 has the running current path 5 for being disconnected the bridge joint of branch road 6.Fast quick-break is disposed with running current path 5 The mechanical switch 7 opened and with inductance L3Inductance component 8.Inductance component 8 is, for example, coil or choke coil.In disconnected branches Power switch unit 9 is disposed with 6, it has the series circuit being made up of the two poles of the earth submodule 10, illustrate only in Fig. 1 wherein A submodule 10.
Each submodule 10 have energy accumulator 11, its with opened by two power semiconductors that can be switched on and off respectively Two series circuits 12 and 13 for closing 14, such as IGBT, IGCT or GTO composition are connected in parallel.Each power semiconductor switch 14 It is connected in antiparallel with a fly-wheel diode 15.First submodule binding post 16 is connected to the power of the first series circuit 12 Potential point between semiconductor switch 14, and the second submodule binding post 17 is connected to the power half of the second series circuit 13 Potential point between conductor switch 14.Therefore, can be produced on the submodule binding post 16 and 17 and drop to energy and deposit Reservoir, here it is condenser voltage Uc on capacitor 11, no-voltage or reciprocal capacitance device voltage-Uc.
Additionally, power switch unit 9 is included in the discharger not shown in figure, for deriving what is discharged when being switched Energy.If the power semiconductor switch 14 of control submodule 10 so that produce zero electricity on submodule binding post 16 and 17 Pressure, then can flow through DC current on whole power switch unit 9.However, the power semiconductor being connected in series due to multiple 13rd, 14 Ohmic resistance, produces so big voltage drop so that when mechanical switch 7 is closed on power switch unit 9, Only DC current is flowed through on running current path 5.
In the embodiment illustrated in fig. 1, electric current flows from binding post 2 to binding post 3 from left to right, i.e..If There is short circuit on the direction of the electric current flowing behind equipment 1, then cause the electric current flowed on running current path 5 steep So rise.The change of the magnetic flux in the inductance component 8 for thus bringing induced potential in inductance component 8, it ensures short-circuit electricity During stream commutates to turn-off current branch road 6 from running current path 5.Inductance component 8 has inductance L3, itself and power network inductance LNCompare It is small, however it is big compared with the inductance of power switch unit 9.Even if however, additionally, in a short-circuit situation in running current path 5 In also flow through constant load current.Controlled accordingly by power switch unit 9, as long as in power switch unit 9 Voltage as upper generation so that flow through loop current in the loop formed by running current path 5 and disconnected branches, its It is opposite with running current and the short circuit current component for flowing there and ensure total current through zero crossing in mechanical switch 7, together During the load current can be commutated to disconnected branches by sample.Then mechanical switch 7 can almost be disconnected with no current.Therefore, by In inductance component 8, the power needed for producing current zero-crossing point in mechanical switch 7 by power electronics devices 9 is substantially reduced.
Fig. 2 shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention 1, its with figure 1 illustrates embodiment not It is that commutation part has two inductance components 18 and 19, is also substantially configured to coil or choke coil both it with part.Inductance department Part 18 be arranged in one 2 the first branch point 20 and running current path 5 and turn-off current branch road 6 between in binding post it Between.Another inductance component 19 is only located in disconnected branches 6.It can be seen that, inductance component 18 and 19 by by ferromagnetic material, this In the core 21 that is made for iron couple each other perceptually.Part 19 has the direction of winding opposite with the direction of winding of part 18.Change Sentence is talked about, and inductance component 18 and 19 has opposite direction of winding.
Here, the quantity of two windings of inductance component 18,19 can be with identical.As shown in fig. 2 from a left side In the case of the constant load current for flowing to the right, the inductance of inductance component 18 and 19 does not work.However, due to power switch Voltage drop on unit 9, constant load current flows on running current path 5.Certainly, under this normal condition, machinery Switch 7 is closed.In case of a short circuit, electric current is produced to rise in the direction of current flow behind equipment 1, di/dt is more than zero. If the electric current of the change does not flow only through inductance component 18 and flows through inductance component 19, the electric current produces magnetic flux change, It is offset in the core 21 of coupling inductance part 18 and 19.Therefore, for the electric current, almost no inductance works.Phase Instead, the electric current for being flowed on running current path flows only through the inductance component 18 with inductance L1.Inductance L1 rises to the electric current Effect, it is ensured that it is commutated in disconnected branches 6.Power switch unit 9 can produce loop current now, and it is by switch 7 Middle generation reverse current only makes the component being held essentially constant of load current be reduced to zero.
If off the inductance component 19 in branch road 6 winding quantity less than inductance component 18 winding quantity, then The inductance L of the inductance component 19 in disconnected branches2Less than the inductance L of inductance component 181。L1In for example due to short circuit and produce Curent change in the case that raw electric current rises causes that the magnetic flux of core 21 changes.The also induced magnetism in inductance component 19 Flux, it is acted on the contrary with its reason.Because the number of turn of inductance component 19 is smaller, therefore compared with inductance component 18, The electric current for flowing through there is bigger such that it is able to offset the magnetic flux in core 21.Therefore, electric current compares fault current in part 19 Quickly rise.Additional electric current rises the generation loop electricity in the loop formed by disconnected branches 6 and running current path 5 Stream.Loop current by the inductance component 19 in disconnected branches less inductance L2Produce.Its edge and short circuit in disconnected branches 6 Flow in electric current identical direction.However, its in running current path 5 with the load current that flows there and there compared with Small short circuit current component flows on the contrary.Therefore, the loop current causes that the electric current in mechanical switch 7 reduces.It is big in part It is small it is suitable in the case of, can almost suppress the electric current on switch 7.Power for producing current zero-crossing point in switch 7 is opened Therefore the additional intervention for closing the power electronics devices of unit 9 becomes there is no need.Commutation is separately through passive element, i.e. by electricity Sense part 18 and 19 and its carried out via the inductive coupled of core 21.
Fig. 3 shows that according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention 1 it is with embodiment shown in figure 2 not It is that the second inductance 19 is no longer arranged in disconnected branches 6 and is arranged in running current branch road 5 with part.Therefore, exist In the variation, constant load current flows along direction in Figure 5 shown in arrow in low ohm running current path 5 It is dynamic, and as in the other embodiments, cause certain fundamental wave of core 21 to magnetize.For example due to short circuit with inductance L1Inductance component 18 in the current gradient that produces the magnetic flux of change is produced in core 21, thus with inductance L2Inductance Electric current is produced in part 19, it acts on and suppresses the magnetic flux change in core 21 on the contrary with its reason.
If inductance component 18 and inductance component 19 have identical winding quantity respectively, curent change di/dt is in tool There is inductance L1Inductance component 18 in produce the magnetic flux of change.With inductance L2Inductance component 19 in due to the number of turn it is identical And produce identical electric current to rise, so that two magnetic flux in offsetting core 21.In inductance component 19, thus also have switch 7 in Electric current to rise on constant load current be negative, therefore cause that electric current is equal to zero in switch 7 sooner or later.Ratio between inductance L2/L1It is smaller, more reach current zero-crossing point in switching 7.Here, during electric current is from running current path 5 to disconnected branches 6 Commutation can also be supported by the power electronics devices of power switch unit 9.However, in the sizeable of inductance component 18 and 19 In the case of, commutation can be carried out only by passive inductance component 18 and 19.
Fig. 4 shows another variation of the invention.It can be seen that, except the phase herein of combined Fig. 2 descriptions Should ground lay or the part that can lay outside, be also provided with other inductance components.I.e. in the second terminals 3 and the second branch It is disposed with inductance L between point 223Coil or choke coil form the second inductance component 30.Inductance component 30 be arranged in In turn-off current branch road 6 with inductance L4Inductance component 31 couple perceptually.It is inductive coupled in order to carry out, again using by iron The core 21 that magnetic material is made.The working method of the two additional inductance components 30 and 31 and the inductance component 18 having been described above and 18 working method is corresponding.Certainly, within the scope of the invention, inductance component 31 can also be based on according to the embodiment of Fig. 3 It is arranged in running current path 5.
Fig. 5 is schematically shown in moment t from left to right on the equipment 1 according to Fig. 2 by means of dotted line0It is short-circuited In the case of running current path 5 in electric current IsCurve.t0It is in Figure 5 2ms.Current curve IsVery fast, also It is to say after 500 μ s, in t1Proceed to current zero-crossing point, wherein, t1=t0+ 500 μ s set up.Here, 500 μ s should only be managed It is example to solve.However, it is important that from failure until first current zero-crossing point elapsed time is significantly less than 1ms.Cause It is usual switching delay time about in 2ms, therefore first current zero-crossing point cannot be used, machine is disconnected come almost no current Tool switch 7.However, learnt from Fig. 5, in moment t3Obtain second current zero-crossing point.Because in t0And t3Between may pass through Very many time, therefore possibly cannot wait until second current zero-crossing point in some applications.However, as repeatedly said As bright, active commutation part can be a part for switching units 9, wherein, by running current path 5 and turn-off current branch The loop that road 6 is formed drives the loop current opposite with the electric current in switch 7.The loop current accelerates second current zero-crossing point Appearance.In Figure 5 the current curve I in the switch 7 using active commutation is schematically shown by means of solid lines.Can be with See, by this way, second current zero-crossing point can have been produced after 2 ms, wherein, subsequent electric current is almost remained Zero.
Additionally, showing the 3rd current curve by dotted line in Figure 5.The current curve can be using largely On corresponding with the embodiment shown in figure 2 equipment according to Fig. 6 obtain, but wherein, the cloth in running current path 5 IGCT 32 is equipped with, it is connected in parallel with surge arrester 33.IGCT 32 is controllable power semiconductor switch, so And it cannot disconnect on one's own initiative.
In a rated operation, electric current flows through running current path 5, therefore for example flows through IGCT 32 from terminals 2 Terminals 3 are reached with mechanical switch 7.In a rated operation, IGCT 32 always delays triggering, to ensure its electric conductivity. In the case of there is short circuit in direction of current flow behind according to equipment of the invention 1, in dtThe electric current for producing afterwards rises di, so as to via ferromagnetic core 21 it is each other perceptual the inductance component 18 and 19 that couples in moment t1, referring to Fig. 5, that is, exist Current zero-crossing point is rapidly produced after 500 μ s.Because IGCT 32 is unable to reverse-conducting, therefore from moment t1Rise and flow through The electric current in running current path 5 remains zero.If preventing the trigger command to IGCT 32, in generation positive current again, i.e. During from binding post 2 to the electric current of binding post 3, electric current flowing is also held equal to zero.There is corresponding pass for IGCT 32 Disconnected interval.The surge arrester 33 being connected in parallel with IGCT 32 is, for example, piezo-resistance.Determine the piezo-resistance Size so that when there is TRV, does not allow actually electric current to flow through surge arrester 33.In this embodiment, machinery Switch can disconnect no current completely, because electric current flowing is prevented by IGCT.Where it determines that the size of IGCT, makes it It is only used for small voltage, is significantly less than the voltage of DC rated voltages.
Fig. 7 shows that according to the embodiment of Fig. 6, but wherein the circuit can be used for two senses of current.Therefore, setting Another IGCT 34 is put, it is connected in antiparallel with the first IGCT 32.However, the working method pair of IGCT 32,34 Ying Yu combine figure 6 illustrates equipment 1 illustrated by working method, but wherein, breaking down at each occurrence In the case of interrupt IGCT triggering.
Figure 8 illustrates the another kind construction according to equipment of the invention 1, it corresponds to so-called H circuits.According to In the embodiment of equipment of the invention 1, two mechanical switch 7 and 23 are disposed with running current path 5.Additionally, setting By-pass current branch road 24, it extends in the parallel circuit in running current path 5 between binding post 2 and 3, wherein, Two branch points 20 and 22 are formed between running current path 5 and by-pass current branch road 24.The cloth in by-pass current branch road 24 Two diodes 25 and 26 are equipped with, as the power semiconductor with reciprocal conducting direction.In running current path 5 The middle branch potential point 27 in running current path 5 is formed between mechanical switch 7 and 23.The middle branch electricity in by-pass current path Gesture point 28 is located between two diodes 25 and 26.With relative with the power switch unit 9 according to Fig. 1 to 6 in other side The disconnected branches 6 of the power switch unit 9 answered extend between described two middle branch potential points 27 and 28.In running current The inductance with inductance L3 or L3' is disposed between the middle branch potential point 27 in path 5 and each mechanical switch 7 and 23 again Part 8.In normal operation, due to high voltage drop of the constant load current on power switch unit 9, electric current is only in operation electricity Flowed on flow path 5, therefore flow through two switches 7 and 23 and the inductance component 8 arranged there.It is electric in case of a short circuit When stream rises, two inductance components 8 will prevent electric current from rising.However, due to the diode being arranged in by-pass current branch road 24 25 and 26, this can only be carried out in the branch road that its switch should disconnect.If electric current flows to binding post 3 from binding post 2, Then this is mechanical switch 23.Electric current is then commutated in disconnected branches 6, and flows to binding post 3 via diode 26.
Fig. 9 is shown according to another embodiment of equipment of the invention 1.The embodiment with figure 7 illustrates deformation The difference of example is, in addition to two inductance components 8 in running current path 5, the cloth also in turn-off current branch road 6 Another inductance component 29 has been put, wherein, all three inductance component 8 and 29 is felt each other via the core 21 being made up of ferromagnetic material Property ground coupling.In normal operation, constant load current flows via the running current branch road 5 with switch 7 and 23.Due to When short-circuit and electric current rises, inductance component 8 and 29 works, wherein, due to the orientation of diode 25 and 26, commutate the current to disconnected In spending road 6.Due to there is the disconnected of opposite direction of winding and the identical number of turn on the inductance component 8 in running current path Inductance component 29 in spending road 6, due to being coupled by the perception of core 21, is produced for the electric current commutated in disconnected branches 6 It is zero effective inductance.This is further conducive to commutating the current in disconnected branches 6.
In another variation not shown in figure, there is no the 3rd inductance component 29 in disconnected branches 6, wherein, fortune Inductance component 8 in row current path 5 is coupled to each other.In the variation, the electric current in the switch 23 to be disconnected is prevented to rise. However, constant load current also flows via switch 23.Therefore, in such configuration, the power electronic device of switching units 9 must The active commutation of the electric current via the holding flowing of switch 23 must be ensured.For example, this can by induct with running current path The in opposite direction electric current flowed via branch point 27,28 and 22 of constant load current carry out.

Claims (17)

1. switch the equipment (1) of DC current in an a kind of pole (4) in direct current network, have:
- two binding posts (2,3), for being connected in series with the pole (4),
- running current the path (5) extended between the binding post (2,3), wherein being disposed with least one mechanical switch (7,23),
- disconnected branches (6), wherein be disposed with can switch on and off it is power semiconductor switch (14), be configured to Disconnect the power switch unit (9) of big fault current;And
- commutation part (8,18,19,20,29,30,31), for electric current to be commutated into disconnected branches from running current path (5) (6),
Characterized in that,
Commutation part (8,18,19,20,29,30,31) is with least one inductance component (8,18,19,29,30,31).
2. equipment (1) according to claim 1,
Characterized in that,
The commutation part has at least two inductance components (18,19,30,31) for coupling each other perceptually.
3. equipment (1) according to claim 1,
Characterized in that,
The commutation part has controllable power semiconductor switch (14,32,34), and it is configured to create at least in part Backward voltage, the backward voltage suppresses the fault current in the mechanical switch to be disconnected (7,23).
4. equipment (1) according to claim 3,
Characterized in that,
The controllable power semiconductor switch includes that at least one is arranged in the IGCT (32,34) in running current path.
5. according to the described equipment of any one of preceding claims (1),
Characterized in that,
Two mechanical switch (7,23) are disposed with running current path (5), wherein, by-pass current branch road (24) with wiring Extend in the parallel circuit in the running current path (5) between terminal (2,3), equally arranged in by-pass current branch road (24) There are two mechanical switch and/or two power semiconductors (25,26), wherein, disconnected branches (6) are by running current path (5) The middle branch potential point (27) being arranged between mechanical switch (7,23) is opened with the machinery that is arranged in of by-pass current branch road (24) Middle branch potential point (28) connection between pass or power semiconductor (25,26).
6. equipment (1) according to claim 5,
Characterized in that,
Inductance component (8) is arranged between the middle branch potential point (27) in running current path (5) and a switch (7,23), And/or it is arranged in the middle branch potential point (28) and a switch or power semiconductor (25,26) of by-pass current branch road (24) Between.
7. equipment (1) according to claim 6,
Characterized in that,
At least one inductance component (29) is arranged in disconnected branches (6), and electric with running current path (5) and/or bypass At least one inductance component (8) of stream branch road (24) is coupled perceptually.
8. equipment (1) according to claim 1,
Characterized in that,
Running current path (5) can be disconnected branch road (6) bridge joint.
9. equipment (1) according to claim 8,
Characterized in that,
At least one inductance component (18) be arranged in running current path be disconnected branch road bridge joint section in.
10. equipment (1) according to claim 8,
Characterized in that,
Inductance component (18) is arranged in binding post (2,3) and the branch between running current path (5) and disconnected branches (6) Between point (20,22), and with another inductance component being arranged in running current path (5) or in disconnected branches (6) (19) couple perceptually.
11. equipment (1) according to claim 8,
Characterized in that,
Each branch point in each binding post (2,3) and between running current path (5) and disconnected branches (6) Inductance component (18) is disposed between (20,22), its be arranged in it is another in running current path (5) or in disconnected branches (6) One inductance component (19) couples perceptually.
12. equipment (1) according to claim 10 or 11,
Characterized in that,
The inductance component (18,19,30,31) for coupling each other perceptually is with the reciprocal winding of direction of winding.
13. equipment (1) according to claim 12,
Characterized in that,
The quantity of two windings of inductance component (18,19,30,31) is identical.
14. equipment (1) according to claim 12,
Characterized in that,
Two quantity of the winding of the inductance component for coupling each other perceptually (18,19,30,31) are different.
15. according to any one of claim 1-4 described equipment (1),
Characterized in that,
The two poles of the earth of power semiconductor switch (14) of the power switch unit (9) including that can be switched on and off with least one The series circuit of submodule (10) and the part for reducing the energy discharged in switch.
16. equipment (1) according to claim 15,
Characterized in that,
The power semiconductor electricity that each submodule (10) is connected in parallel with energy accumulator (11) and with energy accumulator (11) Road (12,13), energy stores are dropped to so as to be produced on two binding posts (16,17) of each submodule (10) Voltage or no-voltage on device (11).
17. equipment (1) according to claim 1 and 2,
Characterized in that,
The commutation part only has inductance component (8,18,19,20,29,30,31).
CN201280077562.5A 2012-12-19 2012-12-19 Device for switching direct current in pole of direct current network CN104838462B (en)

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JP6815030B2 (en) * 2014-12-26 2021-01-20 国立大学法人東京工業大学 Circuit breaker
JP6525308B2 (en) * 2015-02-10 2019-06-05 国立大学法人東京工業大学 Circuit breaker
JP6430294B2 (en) * 2015-03-05 2018-11-28 株式会社東芝 DC breaker
JP6382757B2 (en) * 2015-03-18 2018-08-29 株式会社東芝 DC breaker
JP6591204B2 (en) * 2015-06-02 2019-10-16 株式会社東芝 DC current interrupter
DE102016202661A1 (en) * 2016-02-22 2017-08-24 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for switching a direct current in a pole of a direct voltage network
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CN106549357A (en) * 2016-11-11 2017-03-29 西安交通大学 A kind of magnetic field impulse sensing transfer type dc circuit breaker and its using method
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DK2907152T3 (en) 2016-12-05
CN104838462A (en) 2015-08-12

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