CN104765377A - Unmanned helicopter flying control platform system based on QNX - Google Patents

Unmanned helicopter flying control platform system based on QNX Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104765377A
CN104765377A CN201510169614.7A CN201510169614A CN104765377A CN 104765377 A CN104765377 A CN 104765377A CN 201510169614 A CN201510169614 A CN 201510169614A CN 104765377 A CN104765377 A CN 104765377A
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system
described
data
unmanned helicopter
flight
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CN201510169614.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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朱晓蕊
雷春林
曾文武
张振操
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哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院
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Publication of CN104765377A publication Critical patent/CN104765377A/en

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Abstract

The invention provides an unmanned helicopter flying control platform system based on QNX. The system solves the problems that a processor carried on an existing unmanned helicopter flying control platform is slow in calculation, too large in overall size and high in operation power consumption, and the real-time performance and security performance of an airborne software control system are short of guarantees. A QNX Neutrino real-time operation system good in real-time performance is adopted, a core control board PC104 high in performance and low in power consumption is carried, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is adopted for performing posture resolving and data fusing, and autonomous flight of the autonomous unmanned helicopter flying control platform is achieved through an INS/GPS integrated navigation algorithm. Meanwhile, the management structure of system software is improved, the robustness of the software is improved through designing the system in a modularized mode, the operation security and stability of the unmanned helicopter software system are guaranteed, and the real-time performance of the system is improved.

Description

Based on the unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system of QNX

Technical field

The present invention relates to flight parametric controller system, particularly relate to a kind of flight parametric controller system of unmanned helicopter.

Background technology

Depopulated helicopter is the challenging forward position research direction of a multi-crossed disciplines coupling, relates to the field such as physical construction, aerodynamics, flight dynamics, system modelling, Data Fusion of Sensor, strap-down navigation system, embedded system of band depopulated helicopter.The depopulated helicopter parametric controller of complete set is made up of avionics system, navigational system, earth station system:

1. avionics system is the basic module of depopulated helicopter, is mainly divided into hardware system, software systems.Hardware system has at least a MCU or computer system and relevant expansion board to form, and realizes on-line analysis flying quality, runs control algolithm, communicates with land station, records necessary flying quality.

2. navigational system is made up of attitude heading reference system, position reference system, and wherein attitude heading reference system provides to avionics system the flight attitude data that flight is necessary, and position reference system provides the relevant information of aerocraft real position.

3. earth station system is made up of land station's software and wireless telecommunications system, by wireless telecommunications system and depopulated helicopter interactive information, Real-Time Monitoring depopulated helicopter.

Current depopulated helicopter chooses embedded computer usually as airborne core control panel, coordinates the hardware system extending out feature board composition avionics system.Navigational system has INS(inertial navigation system, inertial navigation system) and GPS navigation system.Inertial navigation system is made up of typical three axis accelerometer, three-axis gyroscope, three axle magnetometers, can provide the practical flight attitude of depopulated helicopter; GPS navigation system can provide the information such as longitude and latitude, the speed of a ship or plane, height of depopulated helicopter position.

In the starting of depopulated helicopter field foreign study early, more achievement in research is obtained.The wherein hummingbird helicopter of Stanford University's development, difference is adopted to cut wave phase GPS as navigational system, flight attitude and the course information of depopulated helicopter is detected by the GPS of four on body, do not use the equipment that inertial navigator, altitude gauge etc. are numerous and diverse, autonomous hovering can be realized.But it does not use inertial navigation system, the dynamic boat appearance dynamic property of depopulated helicopter is poor, and Flight Control Law is difficult to design; MIT university development Xcell-60 depopulated helicopter adopt GPS, six degree of freedom IMU(Inertial Measurement Unit), three axle magnetometers composition navigational system, realize independently hover; HeLion and the SheLion depopulated helicopter of NUS's successively development, can realize the track following of view-based access control model.Avionics system is by the board of 2 pieces of PC104, a complete MNAV module (the IMU module of integrated MEMS technology, magnetometer, GPS).

The domestic research to depopulated helicopter is started late, and technology is backwardness relatively, but also obtains many achievements in research.Current many colleges and universities and research institute carry out deep research to depopulated helicopter field, such as Northwestern Polytechnical University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Nanjing Aero-Space University, Zhejiang University etc.The paper " emulation of micro-unmanned helicopter flight Control System Software and system " that wherein Zhejiang University professor Li Ping instructs describes the software emulation of depopulated helicopter, this article is mainly in conjunction with each mathematical model, design of Simulation is carried out to unmanned helicopter system, and the attitude subsystem of this unmanned helicopter system, navigation subsystem imperfection, also enough could not carry out actual loading test, but it obtains larger achievement in research to the simulating, verifying of unmanned helicopter system.

Summary of the invention

In order to solve the problems of the prior art, the present invention is directed to the deficiency of domestic unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller soft and hardware, unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system based on QNX is proposed, the simultaneously management framework of also improved system software, the robustness of software is improved by modularized design, ensure the safety and stability that depopulated helicopter software systems are run, also improve the real-time performance of system simultaneously.

The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:

Based on a unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system of QNX, described system comprises airborne avionics system, earth station system and manual control system; Described airborne avionics system comprises core control panel, sensor collecting circuit board, servo driving circuit board, XTend wireless module and remote signal receiver; Wherein, kernel control module is PC104 embedded computer, and described PC104 for running QNX real time operating system, and runs Airborne Software system, and described Airborne Software system comprises attitude algorithm algorithm, data anastomosing algorithm, Flight Control Algorithm; Described airborne avionics system by remote signal receiver, XTend wireless module respectively with described manual control system, described earth station system communication, obtain the control signal of manual control system, the control command of earth station system and the data such as real-time flight position attitude are sent to earth station system, for the state of flight of Real-Time Monitoring depopulated helicopter; The MCU communication of described core control panel and sensor collecting circuit board, obtains the real-time flight supplemental characteristic of depopulated helicopter; The MCU communication of core control panel and servo driving circuit board, obtains the remote controller signal of manual control system, the servos control signal of depopulated helicopter is outputted to each steering wheel, to control described depopulated helicopter simultaneously.

As a further improvement on the present invention, described core control panel expands by serial communication the data that plate receives GPS; Described airborne avionics system also comprises inertial navigation system INS, described software systems also comprise the INS/GPS integrated navigation system based on expanding Kalman filtering EKF algorithm, the attitude data recorded by INS by EKF algorithm and gps satellite data are merged, and obtain position data and the attitude data of unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller more accurately.

As a further improvement on the present invention, described sensor collecting circuit board comprises MCU, Inertial Measurement Unit IMU, magnetometer and barometer; Wherein, described IMU adopts SPI communication protocol, and barometer adopts I2C communication protocol, and magnetometer adopts the serial communication protocol of Transistor-Transistor Logic level.

As a further improvement on the present invention, described servo driving circuit board comprises MCU and steering engine driver, and wherein, described steering engine driver comprises can protect steering wheel and power supply by recovery-type fuse, and adopt light-coupled isolation technology, isolation external equipment is to the interference of MCU simultaneously.

As a further improvement on the present invention, described Airborne Software system, based on the exploitation of QNX Neutrino real time operating system, uses multi-threaded system framework, performs multitask; In order to effectively realize automatic control, have employed based on the stratification of PIOS framework, modular construction, the various operations of unmanned plane are organized by modules.

As a further improvement on the present invention, described land station comprises foreground, backstage and kernel; Wherein, foreground is directly mutual with terminal user, and be mainly user and provide a graphical boundary be simple and easy to, friendly interface, backstage is used for data and transmits, by wireless channel and Airborne Software module communication.The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system based on QNX that the present invention proposes, solve the problem that arithmetic speed is comparatively slow, overall volume is excessive, operation power consumption is higher, the real-time performance of Airborne Software control system, security performance shortage ensure of the processor that current unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller carries.Adopt the extraordinary QNX real time operating system of real-time performance, carry the PC104 core control panel of high-performance low-power-consumption, use attitude algorithm algorithm, data anastomosing algorithm, Flight Control Algorithm, realize the autonomous flight of autonomous unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller.Simultaneously the management framework of also improved system software, is improved the robustness of software, ensures the safety and stability that depopulated helicopter software systems are run, also improve the real-time performance of system simultaneously by modularized design.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the depopulated helicopter parametric controller system schematic based on QNX of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is depopulated helicopter hardware block diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the circuit theory diagrams of sensor Acquisition Circuit;

Fig. 4 is the circuit theory diagrams of remote signal and servo driving circuit;

Fig. 5 is the data sharing schematic diagram of Airborne Software intermodule;

Fig. 6 is Airborne Software structural representation;

Tu7Shi land station hierarchical chart.

Embodiment

In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearly understand, below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.

The invention provides the depopulated helicopter parametric controller based on QNX of complete set, and a set ofly expand Kalman filtering based on EKF(for depopulated helicopter control system is formulated) the INS/GPS integrated navigation system of algorithm.INS/GPS integrated navigation system by EKF algorithm by INS(inertial navigation system) attitude data that records (comprise three-axis gyroscope data, 3-axis acceleration counts, three axle electronic compass data, barometer data), GPS navigation system acceptance to satellite data merge, obtain position data and the attitude data of unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller more accurately, for depopulated helicopter provides position, the attitude reference system of a set of cheapness.For the movement characteristic design Flight Control Law of depopulated helicopter, comprise pitch control subsystem, control of sideward roll, Heading control, fixed high control, position control.

Unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system of the present invention, as shown in Figure 1, be made up of airborne avionics system, earth station system and manual control system, this parametric controller system controls and receives the data that wireless remote control helicopter sends to wireless remote control helicopter.Wherein, airborne avionics system by wireless device (remote-control receiver, XTend wireless module) respectively with manual control system, earth station system communication, obtain the control signal of manual control system, the control command of earth station system.Meanwhile, pass the flight parameter of depopulated helicopter back earth station system, for the state of flight of Real-Time Monitoring depopulated helicopter.Avionics system is by controlling the steering wheel of wireless remote control helicopter, change the flare maneuver of wireless remote control helicopter, again by airborne INS(inertial navigation system) measure the actual attitude data of wireless remote control helicopter, realize avionics system and control wireless remote control helicopter.

Avionics system comprises hardware system and software systems, wherein hardware system is divided into kernel control module and extends out module, kernel control module is PX104 embedded computer, extends out module and comprises pose unit, communication unit, control signal input-output unit; Software systems comprise attitude algorithm algorithm, Flight Control Algorithm, land station's software.

For small-sized be people's helicopter flight control device, the at present main embedded computer system adopting Based PC 104.PC104 association is directed to a kind of embedded computer standard that industrial circle Embedded Application is formulated.PC104 standard adopts pin shell type connector, can in the reliability of the conditions warrant data transmission of strong jamming and vibration, and be some special embedding assembly environment and designing, these features are particularly suitable for unmanned helicopter flight device.This connected mode of PC104 is also integrated with other modules, and such as image data acquiring module, analog/digital conversion plate, Extending of Serial Communication plate, power panel etc., do not need in integrating process to reconfigure system, thus have better compatibility.

Depopulated helicopter hardware block diagram as shown in Figure 2.Core control panel PC104 runs QNX Neutrino real time operating system, and runs Airborne Software system.The MCU(STM32F405 of core control panel and sensor collecting circuit board) communication, obtain the real-time flight data (ADI16355 is IMU and Inertial Measurement Unit, HMR3000 is electronic compass, MS5611 be barometer) of wireless remote control helicopter; The MCU(STM32F103 of core control panel and remote signal and servo driving circuit board) communication, obtain the remote controller signal of manual control system, the servos control signal of wireless remote control helicopter is outputted to each steering wheel simultaneously; Core control panel, by Xtend wireless device and earth station system communication, obtains the control command of earth station system and the data such as real-time flight position attitude is sent to earth station system, for the state of flight of Real-Time Monitoring depopulated helicopter; Core control panel expands by serial communication the data that plate receives GPS, and interface is expanded in reserved two-way serial communication.

The circuit theory diagrams of sensor Acquisition Circuit as shown in Figure 3.ADI16355(IMU Inertial Measurement Unit) adopt SPI communication protocol, barometer MS5611 adopts I2C communication protocol, HMR3000(magnetometer) adopt the serial communication protocol of Transistor-Transistor Logic level, simultaneously in order to ensure the real-time of sensor data acquisition, adopt STM32F405 as the MCU of data acquisition, it has abundant I/O port resource, and dominant frequency is the highest can reach 168MHz, operating voltage 3.3V.For better installing IMU and improve effectiveness in vibration suppression, be installation box of sensor data acquisition Unit Design specially.

The circuit theory diagrams of remote signal and servo driving circuit as shown in Figure 4.The output signal of remote control receiver is the pwm signal of 50Hz frequency, positive pulse width 1ms-2ms, but controller process is digital, so PWM simulating signal must be described with numerical value accurately.And the drive singal that steering wheel and electricity are adjusted must be pwm signal, therefore require that MCU possesses PWM and catches and output function.Update cycle due to signal is 20ms, so do not need too high primary frequency MCU just can meet the demands, therefore have employed lower-cost STM32F103 to the output of the reception and drive singal that process remote signal.In order to improve the security of driving circuit, servo driving adds can protect steering wheel and power supply by recovery-type fuse, and adopt light-coupled isolation technology, isolation external equipment is to the interference of MCU simultaneously.

Airborne Software system, based on the exploitation of QNX Neutrino real time operating system, uses multi-threaded system framework, performs multitask.In order to effectively realize automatic control, have employed based on the stratification of PIOS framework, modular construction, the various operations of unmanned plane are organized by modules.This structure is that new module and function provide good dirigibility and extendability.Do not have direct communication interface between module to module, module can not expose any public functions, and that is, modules runs in the thread of oneself.Each module can access each UAVObject by Using Call Library Function, and reading and more new data, carry out data interaction by this structure, as shown in Figure 5.

Airborne Software system needs to ensure that whole hardware can normally, effectively work, and can monitor each module work situation, carries out good communication and cooperates simultaneously with earth station system.Its basic task comprises: collect navigation data; run Flight Control Algorithm; receive remote signal and send steering wheel, motor control signal; communicate with land station; record online flying quality.In each performance period, these tasks all must be performed strictly in order, need to be performed in time to guarantee flight safety for some special duties.

In accompanying drawing 5, UAVObjects is the data capsule shared between module.In order to realize data sharing, usual Module upgating object data, then another one Module uses these data.The UAVObjects:Regular Data Objects of three types is had, Timer Objects (for controlling the renewal rate of other Objects) and Settings Objects (operation for control module) in this system.

Flight controller Airborne Software structure as shown in Figure 6.Airborne Software is made up of different modules, the corresponding a kind of equipment of each module or task.

(1) Sensor module is for collecting all the sensors data, for AHRS module and Navigation module provide following measurement data acceleration; angular speed; spend before magnetic field; with the geographic position that longitude and latitude and height are coordinate; the speed of NED axle system.

(2) AHRS module is navigation attitude reference system, calculates UAV Attitude angle according to current sensing data.

(3) Navigation module, the online flying quality read needed for automatically controlling estimates measuring state, and it further comprises a set of perfect INS/GPS navigation algorithm, for UAV Flight Control provides position and the attitude information of aircraft.

(4) Stabilization module increases steady module, it is the interior ring controller of unmanned plane, be input as the controlled quentity controlled variable of roll, pitch, yaw and the current pose of UAV of current remote pilot amount or position ring output, export the controlled quentity controlled variable for roll, pitch, yaw tri-directions by PID controller.

(5) AutoControl module realizes automatic Flight Control Law.In Flight Control Software, this unique does not carry out mutual module with hardware, and its major function comprises the unmanned plane during flying attitude and positional information that obtain and send from Navigation module, runs control algolithm based on current state of flight, produce control signal, drive Servo-controller.

(6) Actuator is execution module, collects roll, pitch, yaw controlled quentity controlled variable and the throttle controlled quentity controlled variable of the output of Stabilization module, and the cross plate through unmanned plane resolves the control output converting each steering wheel and throttle to.

(7) Telemetry is wireless communication module, is communicated with earth station system for mobile system by 2.4G module, realizes the required download of online data and uploading of user command/flight path instruction.

(8) Logger is data recordin module, real time record flying quality, employs SSD storer as storage medium.

(9) ManualControl is the input of resolving ground remote control device order, collects the rocking bar order of each passage of telepilot, realizes switching and the ground assisting in flying of offline mode, manual backup module very necessary in experimentation.

(10) Manager manages above-mentioned all modules, shares data-selected scheme i.e. PIOS above, complete the mutual of software systems internal data, and monitor the running status of modules by the overall situation.

Land station serves as the role of user terminal, monitors the state of flight of unmanned plane and upload command by radio.In flight test, the online flying quality of depopulated helicopter passes to land station's display from mobile system, and the task of land station, just for user provides a close friend, real interface, monitors and flies over journey, realize data visualization.Land station is divided into three layers: foreground, backstage and kernel, as shown in Figure 7.

(1) foreground is directly mutual with terminal user, is mainly user and provides a graphical boundary being simple and easy to use, friendly interface.

(2) backstage is used for data transmission, is communicated with Airborne Software module (i.e. Telemetry thread) by wireless channel.The data receiver thread on backstage reads the serial port that land station is connected with wireless communication module Xtend continuously, upgrades the overall shared data bank memory block having inner nuclear layer to create; On the other hand, the data transmission line journey on backstage constantly checks that the overall situation shares data storage area, to catch the user command of foreground process in time, then writes serial port.

(3) kernel is a document class, shares the host of data as the overall situation, is integrated with various process and access algorithm, connects each view of communication thread and front/rear, designs two dynamic data linking: when back-end data receiving thread receives new online data bag, kernel upgrades its data in overall memory block, activates foreground and calls explicit function; after foreground has processed a new user command, kernel has upgraded its data storage area similarly, activates backstage and uploads data to mobile system.

Above content is in conjunction with concrete preferred implementation further description made for the present invention, can not assert that specific embodiment of the invention is confined to these explanations.For general technical staff of the technical field of the invention, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, some simple deduction or replace can also be made, all should be considered as belonging to protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1., based on a unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system of QNX, described system comprises airborne avionics system, earth station system and manual control system; It is characterized in that: described airborne avionics system comprises core control panel, sensor collecting circuit board, servo driving circuit board, XTend wireless module and remote signal receiver; Wherein, kernel control module is PC104 embedded computer, and described PC104 for running QNX real time operating system, and runs Airborne Software system, and described Airborne Software system comprises attitude algorithm algorithm, data anastomosing algorithm, Flight Control Algorithm; Described airborne avionics system by remote signal receiver, XTend wireless module respectively with described manual control system, described earth station system communication, obtain the control signal of manual control system, the control command of earth station system and the data such as real-time flight position attitude are sent to earth station system, for the state of flight of Real-Time Monitoring depopulated helicopter; The MCU communication of described core control panel and sensor collecting circuit board, obtains the real-time flight supplemental characteristic of depopulated helicopter; The MCU communication of core control panel and servo driving circuit board, obtains the remote controller signal of manual control system, the servos control signal of depopulated helicopter is outputted to each steering wheel, to control described depopulated helicopter simultaneously.
2. unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described core control panel expands by serial communication the data that plate receives GPS; Described airborne avionics system also comprises inertial navigation system INS, described software systems also comprise the INS/GPS integrated navigation system based on expanding Kalman filtering EKF algorithm, the attitude data recorded by INS by EKF algorithm and gps satellite data are merged, and obtain position data and the attitude data of unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller more accurately.
3. unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described sensor collecting circuit board comprises MCU, Inertial Measurement Unit IMU, magnetometer and barometer; Wherein, described IMU adopts SPI communication protocol, and barometer adopts I2C communication protocol, and magnetometer adopts the serial communication protocol of Transistor-Transistor Logic level.
4. unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system according to claim 1; it is characterized in that: described servo driving circuit board comprises MCU and steering engine driver; wherein; described steering engine driver comprises can protect steering wheel and power supply by recovery-type fuse; adopt light-coupled isolation technology, isolation external equipment is to the interference of described MCU simultaneously.
5. unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described Airborne Software system, based on the exploitation of QNX Neutrino real time operating system, uses multi-threaded system framework, performs multitask; In order to effectively realize automatic control, have employed based on the stratification of PIOS framework, modular construction, the various operations of unmanned plane are organized by modules.
6. unmanned helicopter flight parametric controller system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described land station comprises foreground, backstage and kernel; Wherein, foreground is directly mutual with terminal user, and be mainly user and provide a graphical boundary be simple and easy to, friendly interface, backstage is used for data and transmits, by wireless channel and Airborne Software module communication.
CN201510169614.7A 2015-04-10 2015-04-10 Unmanned helicopter flying control platform system based on QNX CN104765377A (en)

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Application publication date: 20150708