CN102707725B - Fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system and using method thereof - Google Patents

Fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system and using method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102707725B
CN102707725B CN201210192290.5A CN201210192290A CN102707725B CN 102707725 B CN102707725 B CN 102707725B CN 201210192290 A CN201210192290 A CN 201210192290A CN 102707725 B CN102707725 B CN 102707725B
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data
flight
control
attitude
navigation
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CN201210192290.5A
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CN102707725A (en
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魏承赟
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桂林飞宇电子科技有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system and a using method thereof. The fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system comprises an automatic navigation flight controller and ground station telemetry data monitoring software which are arranged on an aerocraft, wherein the automatic navigation flight controller comprises a central processing unit, a triaxial gyroscope, a triaxial acceleration sensor, a triaxial magnetic field sensor, a GPS (Global Positioning System) module, an air pressure sensor and a communication interface, the triaxial gyroscope, the triaxial acceleration sensor, the triaxial magnetic field sensor, the GPS (Global Positioning System) module, the air pressure sensor and the communication interface are respectively connected with the central processing unit, and a wireless receiving-transmitting device is mutually communicated with the central processing unit through the communicated interface; the ground station telemetry data monitoring software comprises a signal transfer plate, a data wireless transmission receiving-transmitting device, a remote controller receiver device and a USB transfer serial-port communication device, the data wireless transmission receiving-transmitting device, the remote controller receiver device and the USB transfer serial-port communication device are respectively connected with the signal transfer plate; the ground station telemetry data monitoring software is connected with the signal transfer plate through the USB transfer serial-port communication device; and the automatic navigation flight controller is communicated with the ground station telemetry data monitoring software through a wireless data transmission broadcasting station. The fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system can accurately complete the preset flight mission and lengthen the control distance and range of a plane through a remote-control transfer control device, thereby ensuring high reliability and high stability of flight.

Description

Fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system and using method thereof

Technical field

The present invention relates to flight control system, specifically a kind of fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system and using method thereof.

Background technology

Fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system is being played the part of important role in Armada International field in recent years.This system works is stable, and cost is relatively low, and very easy realization is taken off and landed, and in the process of executing the task, collect terrestrial information large, can realize telecommunication, also can carry more investigation equipment, hostile environment is investigated to the advantages such as detailed; And along with unmanned plane range of application is more and more extensive, the task that it completes also becomes increasingly complex, maneuverability requirement to this system is also more and more higher, and this just requires the control core of fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system to high integration and miniaturization development.Therefore fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system has very large application market.

In the world, be fully recognized that with the western countries headed by the U.S. this self-navigation flight control system brought into play great function in war, in the development that competitively high-tech technology is applied to self-navigation flight control system and development.Not the main force that air tasking is carried out in overhead, battlefield although equipped the unmanned plane of automatic flight controller, become indispensable important component part yet.Equip the fixed wing aircraft of self-navigation flight control system, by the good navigation way of PC control software set and flight parameter, realize unmanned beam riding, can carry out the investigation tasks of high-risk, so the favor of Shen Shou various countries aspect Military Application.Aspect civilian, the fixed wing aircraft that is equipped with self-navigation flight controller can be realized geographical mapping measurement, takes photo by plane, and many-sided application such as natural disaster surveillance, can save manpower and cost, therefore also has market application widely.

Fixed-wing self-navigation flight controller presents flourish trend at home and abroad, China is no exception, the research of automatic flight controller mainly contains three classes: one, adopt industrial computer as processing core, the weak point of existence has: whole module volume is large, structure between multilayer module is compact not; Two, the design design proposal taking single-chip microcomputer and DSP as core, shortcoming is: design technology complexity, the construction cycle is long, and workload is large, is not easy to realize the system integration; Three, adopt ARM technology to be applied in automatic flight controller, Embedded Operating System in ARM chip, on the platform of operating system, realize the collaborative work of multitask, really realize the task of high integration, high-speed data processing and computing automatic flight controller.Can be divided into data processing and equipment control phase separation structure, make more to simplify on algorithm, simultaneously more accurate in automatic airline operation.

Summary of the invention

The object of this invention is to provide a kind of fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system and using method thereof, this system can be under complicated environmental condition, can complete accurately predefined aerial mission, can also be by the remote control control device of transferring, extend command range and the scope of aircraft, ensured high reliability and the high stability of flight.

The technical scheme that realizes the object of the invention is:

A kind of fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system, mainly be made up of the telemetry monitoring software of carry-on self-navigation flight controller and land station, self-navigation flight controller is made up of with the three-axis gyroscope being connected with central processing unit respectively, 3-axis acceleration sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor, GPS module, baroceptor, communication interface central processing unit; Wireless transmitter is communicated by letter mutually by communication interface with central processing unit; Land station's telemetry monitoring software is by Signals Transfer Board and the data wireless transmitting transceiver device being connected with Signals Transfer Board respectively, remote control receiver device, USB switching serial communication installation composition; Land station's telemetry monitoring software is connected with Signals Transfer Board by the USB serial communication device of transferring; Self-navigation flight controller is communicated with by Wireless Data Transmission radio station with land station telemetry monitoring software.

Described central processing unit has the communication protocol of oneself, and the wireless transmission protocol of customized is intercomed mutually by wireless transmitter and land station telemetry monitoring software, has ensured security and the integrality of signal transmission in communication process.

Described Signals Transfer Board is connected to form by remote control switching transceiver module and data wireless transmit port, ground-based computer communication interface, remote control receiver signal port, and Signals Transfer Board has two kinds of functions: a kind of is the host-host protocol that remote control receiver signal is converted to customization; Another kind is that the self-navigation information that in land station's telemetry monitoring software, user sets is voluntarily sent to self-navigation flight controller by signal transducer, Signals Transfer Board sends the self-navigation controller that flies positional information and the attitude information of returning and sends ground-based computer back to, and shows on computers.

The wireless transmission protocol of described customized includes: parameter, GPS position data, three-axle magnetic field data and magnetic heading angle are controlled in attitude measurement data, flight.

The control signal of this self-navigation flight control system, not only can directly control by telepilot, can also remote signal be converted to special host-host protocol by remote control switching device, utilize wireless data transceiving radio station and navigation and flight control to communicate, extended transmission range, ensured the reliability of signal transmitting and receiving.

The course of work of fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system of the present invention is:

1, on ground:

(1) open computer, operation land station software;

(2) connect card extender power supply, card extender pilot lamp is flicker at a slow speed normally, at GCS software, selects correct PORT COM to connect, baud rate 19200;

(3) drive RC telepilot;

(4) connect and fly to control power supply;

(5) as all are normal, should see and receive telemetry at land station's software, barometer altitude is 0 meter of left and right (initial start is highly 0 meter automatically), controls telepilot rudder face, should be able in rudder face indicator gauge, see the output of rudder face.Illustrate that land station has been communicated with robot pilot;

2, on aircraft:

(1) robot pilot is installed in parallel on fixed wing aircraft, substantially keeps a surface level with aircraft, and robot pilot is done to corresponding glissando;

(2) switch on power, telepilot is switched to balanced mode;

(3) debugging aircraft, left and right, upper and lower, rolling aircraft, observe steering wheel corresponding to aircraft and whether provide corresponding control effect;

(4) start automatic takeoff function, aircraft can fly according to predefined course line, after finishing the work, can automatically land according to predefined route.

Good effect of the present invention is:

1, the present invention has adopted arm processor technology to realize data acquisition and real-time intelligent expert PID control phase separation structure, realizes the collaborative work of multitask, has ensured data acquisition, data fusion accuracy and has controlled in real time accuracy;

2, fixed-wing flight control system integrated tri-axial micromechanical gyro, three axis accelerometer, magnetic sensor, high precision barometer; In this system, use inertia strapdown attitude algorithm, in conjunction with Kalman's numeral filtering and data anastomosing algorithm, provide high-precision attitude;

3, the integrated High-performance GPS Receiver of fixed-wing flight control system, 10Hz Refresh Data speed, 35 seconds quick positioning times, 2.5 meters of CEP precision, GPS charged pool can be remembered positional parameter, and secondary significantly improves positioning time;

4, divide the control of different rates, carry out encircling attitude control in 100Hz to adjusting the flight attitude of aircraft, the steering wheel of aircraft is implemented to 10Hz outer shroud Navigation Control;

5, this control system can realize multiple passage mixing control output, very convenient adjustment mixing.Practical various dissimilar fixed wing aircrafts;

6, control and remote manual control are merged automatically, higher dependable with function, and compatible all RC remote control equipments, and steering wheel outgoing inspection function is provided;

7, system can, the in the situation that of communication disruption, realize the state that automatically makes a return voyage;

8, the present invention supports spacing auto photographing and the auto photographing of fixing time, coordinate POS information recording module can record a longitude and latitude of taking pictures, highly, speed, the information such as flight attitude while taking pictures, be convenient to later image data processing;

9, land station of the present invention software package, containing electronic map function, can be revised online course line and issue flight orders, can carry out in real time half autonomous type remote control, and real time record flying quality and support offline playback; Remote control receiver device can be realized data-switching by remote control interconnecting module, with wireless transport module, remote signal is changed into the radio station control signal of special format, extends transmission distance; And can adjust online and preserve all flight control parameters, the convenient independently parameter adjustment software of collateral use.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is self-navigation flight control system theory diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is that the data acquisition and fusion system of control system of the present invention connects block diagram;

Fig. 3 is the master control system block diagram of control system of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is that the land station of control system of the present invention connects block diagram;

Fig. 5 is the schematic flow sheet of control system of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is self-navigation flight control system hardware block diagram of the present invention.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further details.

As shown in Figure 1, this flight control assemblies is divided into attitude data measurement and Navigation Control signal operating part and remote signal conversion and telesignalisation monitoring part.Three-axis attitude survey sensor device comprises: three axle micro-mechanical gyroscopes, 3-axis acceleration sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor, be connected to the calibration of carrying out data acquisition and each axial data in attitude orientation frame of reference; The measured positional information out of GPS positional information acquisition device and high-precision sensor device information and attitude data carry out Kalman filtering algorithm, get that it is of living in, keep away its shortage.Position after the connection of intelligent Expert PID control device is merged and attitude data, steering engine control device, according to the received navigation information in Wireless Data Transmission radio station, to the fixed wing aircraft control of flying, and by positional information, the information of taking pictures records and preserves.The monitoring of current electrokinetic cell voltage and current is provided simultaneously, also navigational state information is returned to land station together simultaneously; Remote signal conversion and telesignalisation monitoring part comprise: Wireless Data Transmission radio station R-T unit, remote control adapting system device, remote control reception machine, USB turn the computer system that serial communication device and land station's monitoring and telemetry arrange.Land station's monitoring can be set the line of flight by user automatically with the computer system of telemetry setting, the contents such as the flight parameter of practical flight, and turn serial port device by USB data are sent in remote control adapting system device, remote control adapting system converts these information to the protocol format having customized, and sends by Wireless Data Transmission radio station.The steering wheel control signal that remote control receiver device sends out, after remote control adapting system, converts special radio station control signal to and transmits by Wireless Data Transmission radio station, and fixed wing aircraft is controlled in real time.

With reference to Fig. 2, flight control system data acquisition and fusion system is connected with 3-axis acceleration sensor, three-axis gyroscope, triaxial magnetic field sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor, GPS positional information acquisition device, and the principle of work of each device is:

1, inertia strapdown Attitude Calculation processor carries out data acquisition and filtering algorithm to three-axis acceleration sensor device, calculates three axial linear acceleration data;

2, inertia strapdown Attitude Calculation processor carries out data acquisition and filtering algorithm to three-axis gyroscope, and according to the data analysis of 3-axis acceleration data and magnetic field sensor device and processing, and carry out quaternary element attitude algorithm, calculate stable attitude data, and by actual alignment value, various sensors are carried out calibration and the compensation of reference value.

3, inertia strapdown Attitude Calculation processor carries out integration to linear acceleration, and the velocity information measuring from GPS positional information acquisition device, and the velocity amplitude that the velocity amplitude obtaining after acceleration transducer integration and GPS are obtained carries out Kalman filtering filtering.Revise and proofread and correct flying quality and the measuring accuracy of fixed wing aircraft;

4, inertia strapdown Attitude Calculation processor sends flying quality and attitude data to self-navigation flight control system master control system by attitude and position data dispensing device.

With reference to Fig. 3, this system is moved according to predefined route by the navigation data control fixed wing aircraft that obtains attitude data in data acquisition and fusion system, flying quality, ground control system.Its principle of work is: the target destination planning information by GPS positional information and user's defined is compared, obtain needing the bogey heading data of control, again according to the residing course heading of current aircraft, finally obtain the course heading that a needs control is rotated, the course heading that master control system computing machine rotates needs control converts actual steering wheel controlled quentity controlled variable to, and the steering wheel of respective direction is carried out to real-time PID expert Intelligence Control; Also consistent with course control mode to the locking of aircraft altitude.

With reference to Fig. 4, its principle of work is: remote control receiver device is transferred to operator's control signal in remote control adapting system receiving trap, remote controller signal is converted after adapting system to radio station control signal, controls the flight attitude of aircraft; StoreFront station supervisory computer system, user can turn serial port device by USB from edlin destination information and flight parameter and be sent in adapting system, and adapting system sends to data in the control system of aircraft by radio station again.Land station's supervisory computer system can realize the transmission of data on the one hand, can receive various flying qualities and the monitoring information that flight control system passes down on the one hand in addition.

With reference to Fig. 5, the process flow diagram of this control system comprises the steps:

S501: start, central processing unit powers on and starts working, starts watchdog reset system;

S502: system is prepared inner parameter calibration parameter and read;

S503: read the initialization of host computer gyro, magnetic field calibration instruction, so that micro mechanical sensor is calibrated;

S504: read inner FLASH calibration parameter; When employing is dispatched from the factory, default parameter value is carried out Attitude Calculation;

S505: open processor timer and interrupt, start the system break of arm processor inside, carry out internal data fusion, the work such as Attitude Calculation;

S506: signals collecting and filtering algorithm, according to the output characteristics of micro mechanical sensor data, adopt Kalman Filter Technology to carry out filtering; And to being entrained with high frequency noise in the output data of high precision baroceptor, adopt differential mode to carry out filtering processing to baroceptor;

S507: data fusion and attitude algorithm, to three axle micro-mechanical gyroscopes, triaxial accelerometer sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor adopts Quaternion method to solve attitude orientation angle;

S508: telemetry encoding and decoding, attitude data and position data that CPU is gathered are encoded, and the decoding data that land station's data are beamed back carry out corresponding instruction;

S509: flight steering order obtain, if flight steering order obtain successfully, continue 10 attitudes, highly, position Navigation Control, continue to obtain otherwise just get back to 8 telemetry encoding and decoding the data that land station's data are beamed back;

S510: attitude, highly, position Navigation Control, obtain data successes, the height of setting voluntarily according to user and navigation data, adjust the flight attitude of flight in real time, reaches the control effect of setting;

S511: attitude, highly, position Intelligent PID Control resolves, and current attitude data, position data and targeted attitude data, position data are carried out to expert intelligence PID control;

S512: the output of steering wheel controlled quentity controlled variable, by the PID controlled quentity controlled variable drawing in 11, actual converted becomes to control the steering wheel controlled quentity controlled variable of each rudder face of aircraft, gets back to 7 data fusion and attitude algorithm after execution.

With reference to Fig. 6, the present invention includes central microprocessor 8, attitude sensor comprises three-axis gyroscope 1,3-axis acceleration sensor 2 and triaxial magnetic field sensor 3, and GPS module, baroceptor, communication interface 4 are connected with wireless transmitter 5, and be responsible for and central microprocessor 8 carry out data interaction.

Central microprocessor 8 inside are with A/D translation interface, are responsible for gathering three-axis gyroscope 1,, the data of 3-axis acceleration sensor 2 and triaxial magnetic field sensor 3, and sensing data is carried out to filtering and data fusion, draw 3 d pose position angle accurately;

Central microprocessor 8 utilizes inner serial ports to collect the location information data of GPS module 6, and calculates accurate navigational parameter at central microprocessor 8;

Central microprocessor 8 adopts SPI communication interface standard to gather baroceptor 7, its data is carried out to low-pass filtering central microprocessor 8 is interior, and is converted into height and speed according to real-time air pressure logarithmic data;

Central microprocessor 8 utilizes communication interface 4 and wireless transmitter 5 to carry out data interaction, sends real-time control parameter and flight parameter that self-navigation flight is controlled.

Research experiment result of the present invention shows: simultaneously under identical simulation step length condition, apply the calculation accuracy of above method under high dynamic angular movement environment high, the angle of pitch algorithm drift error being caused by conical motion has also obtained effective inhibition.Velocity information is merged by data processing method and the Kalman filter of optimal estimation theory, ensured accuracy and the real-time of measuring accuracy.And adopt linear kalman filter to provide minimum variance estimate for inertial navigation system error, then utilize the estimated value of these errors to go to revise attitude control system.Use remote control adapting system not only to improve the distance of signal transmission, also improved greatly the reliability of signal in transmitting procedure, also ensure the real-time of signal transmission.

Claims (3)

1. a fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system, comprise self-navigation flight controller, this self-navigation flight controller is made up of with the three-axis gyroscope being connected with central processing unit respectively, 3-axis acceleration sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor, GPS module, baroceptor, communication interface central processing unit; Wireless transmitter is communicated by letter mutually by communication interface with central processing unit, it is characterized in that:
Also comprise land station's telemetry monitoring software, this land station's telemetry monitoring software is by Signals Transfer Board and the data wireless transmitting transceiver device being connected with Signals Transfer Board respectively, remote control receiver device, USB switching serial communication installation composition; Land station's telemetry monitoring software is connected with Signals Transfer Board by the USB serial communication device of transferring; Self-navigation flight controller is communicated with by Wireless Data Transmission radio station with land station telemetry monitoring software, specifically:
Land station's monitoring can be set the line of flight by user automatically with the computer system of telemetry setting, the contents such as the flight parameter of practical flight, and turn serial port device by USB data are sent in remote control adapting system device, remote control adapting system converts these information to the protocol format having customized, and sends by Wireless Data Transmission radio station;
The steering wheel control signal that remote control receiver device sends out, after remote control adapting system, converts special radio station control signal to and transmits by Wireless Data Transmission radio station, and fixed wing aircraft is controlled in real time;
The measured positional information out of described GPS positional information module acquisition device and high-precision sensor device information and attitude data carry out Kalman filtering algorithm;
Described central microprocessor inside, with A/D translation interface, is responsible for gathering the data of three-axis gyroscope, 3-axis acceleration sensor and triaxial magnetic field sensor, and sensing data is carried out to filtering and data fusion, draws 3 d pose position angle accurately;
Central microprocessor utilizes inner serial ports to collect the location information data of GPS module, and calculates accurate navigational parameter at central microprocessor;
Central microprocessor adopts SPI communication interface standard to gather baroceptor, in central microprocessor, its data is carried out to low-pass filtering, and is converted into height and speed according to real-time air pressure logarithmic data;
Central microprocessor utilizes communication interface and wireless transmitter to carry out data interaction, sends real-time control parameter and flight parameter that self-navigation flight is controlled;
The workflow of its system and device is as follows:
S501: start, central processing unit powers on and starts working, starts watchdog reset system;
S502: system is prepared inner parameter calibration parameter and read;
S503: read the initialization of host computer gyro, magnetic field calibration instruction, so that micro mechanical sensor is calibrated;
S504: read inner FLASH calibration parameter; When employing is dispatched from the factory, default parameter value is carried out Attitude Calculation;
S505: open processor timer and interrupt, start the system break of arm processor inside, carry out internal data fusion, the work such as Attitude Calculation;
S506: signals collecting and filtering algorithm, according to the output characteristics of micro mechanical sensor data, adopt Kalman Filter Technology to carry out filtering; And to being entrained with high frequency noise in the output data of high precision baroceptor, adopt differential mode to carry out filtering processing to baroceptor;
S507: data fusion and attitude algorithm, to three axle micro-mechanical gyroscopes, triaxial accelerometer sensor, triaxial magnetic field sensor adopts Quaternion method to solve attitude orientation angle;
S508: telemetry encoding and decoding, attitude data and position data that CPU is gathered are encoded, and the decoding data that land station's data are beamed back carry out corresponding instruction;
S509: flight steering order obtain, if flight steering order obtain successfully, continue 10 attitudes, highly, position Navigation Control, continue to obtain otherwise just get back to 8 telemetry encoding and decoding the data that land station's data are beamed back;
S510: attitude, highly, position Navigation Control, obtain data successes, the height of setting voluntarily according to user and navigation data, adjust the flight attitude of flight in real time, reaches the control effect of setting;
S511: attitude, highly, position Intelligent PID Control resolves, and current attitude data, position data and targeted attitude data, position data are carried out to expert intelligence PID control;
S512: the output of steering wheel controlled quentity controlled variable, by the PID controlled quentity controlled variable drawing in 11, actual converted becomes to control the steering wheel controlled quentity controlled variable of each rudder face of aircraft, gets back to 7 data fusion and attitude algorithm after execution.
2. fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the wireless transmission protocol of described customized includes: parameter, GPS position data, three-axle magnetic field data and magnetic heading angle are controlled in attitude measurement data, flight.
3. fixed-wing self-navigation flight control system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the control signal of this self-navigation flight control system, not only can directly control by telepilot, can also remote signal be converted to special host-host protocol by remote control switching device, utilize wireless data transceiving radio station and navigation and flight control to communicate.
CN201210192290.5A 2012-06-12 2012-06-12 Fixed-wing automatic navigation flight control system and using method thereof CN102707725B (en)

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