CN104761059B - The method of heavy metal in the rainwash of river is cut down in water plant collocation plantation - Google Patents

The method of heavy metal in the rainwash of river is cut down in water plant collocation plantation Download PDF

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CN104761059B
CN104761059B CN201510166817.0A CN201510166817A CN104761059B CN 104761059 B CN104761059 B CN 104761059B CN 201510166817 A CN201510166817 A CN 201510166817A CN 104761059 B CN104761059 B CN 104761059B
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plant
water
heavy metal
river
planting
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CN104761059A (en
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董颖博
林海
陈思
王亮
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/327Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae characterised by animals and plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/20Heavy metals or heavy metal compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/007Contaminated open waterways, rivers, lakes or ponds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/40Protecting water resources
    • Y02A20/402River restoration
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The present invention provides the collocation plantation of a kind of water plant to cut down the method for heavy metal in the rainwash of river, belongs to recovery technique field, heavy metal pollution river course.The method plants emergent aquactic plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei, phragmites communis, submerged plant Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, watermifoil, floating plant Herba Eichhorniae from riverbank to centre, korneforos.Wherein emergent aquactic plant planting density is 10~20 strains/m2, Rhizoma Acori Graminei and reed planting ratio are 1:1~3;Submerged plant planting density 30~50 clumps/m2, Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, the ratio of watermifoil are 1:1~2:3~5:1~2;The planting density 10 of floating plant Herba Eichhorniae~20 strains/m2.Utilize the growth course of plant, absorb the heavy metal ion in enrichment water, thus reach to repair the purpose into various heavy combined pollution river course, river.The advantages such as it is little that the method has secondary pollution, easy to maintenance, and cost is little, and the balance of ecosystem in water can be maintained.Utilize the method pollution administration river course not only to have environmental value, the ecological value and there is aesthetic value simultaneously.

Description

The method of heavy metal in the rainwash of river is cut down in water plant collocation plantation
Technical field
The present invention relates to recovery technique field, heavy metal pollution river course, particularly relate to a kind of water plant collocation kind Plant the method for heavy metal in the rainwash of river of cutting down.
Background technology
Along with high-tech area is fast-developing, the demand of vanadium is growing, the harm also day brought to environment Benefit is prominent.Extract at present the technique of vanadium produces in waste water and waste residue and all can contain certain density high price vanadium, It is directly discharged into water body and surrounding aqueous environment is caused severe contamination, and animals and plants, health are produced harm.
China's heavy metal pollution of water body problem is the most prominent, and water pollutant emission source is concentrated mainly on big or middle City and industry prosperity area.Non-ferrous metal selecting and purchasing, smelting industry, lead battery and ickel-cadmium cell manufacturing industry, The increasing of industry such as leather and leather products industry, electroplating industry, chemical raw material and chemical product manufacturing are led Cause to produce a large amount of heavy metal containing sewage that contains, behind sewage entrance river or lake, make heavy metal in water content substantially rise High.Heavy metal, owing to being degraded, by directly drinking-water, eats by the grain of sewage irrigation, vegetables The approach such as dish, heavy metal easily enters accumulation in human body, has a strong impact on health.
At present many grains, vegetable produce field by industrial triwaste pollution, the heavy metal such as cadmium in arable layer, copper A large amount of enrichments, cause the content of beary metal in grain, victual to exceed standard, cause consumer's heavy metal chronic Intoxicating phenomenon occurs.Both at home and abroad mostly the technical measures of water remediation are to utilize the method for physical absorption, utilize Fixing device equipped with adsorbate removes the heavy metal ion in water body.But at huge in the face of flowing Source, complicated ecosystem, physical method just exposes its limitation.Utilize root system of plant to absorb, turn The method moved, be enriched with, is current study hotspot.
As far back as the most just there being the single plant in treating water eutrophication of use to pollute, the aggregate species of plant Whether the repair ability of implant system heavy metal water body is better than single cropping system, still carry out deeper into grind Study carefully.The collocation cropping pattern of composite plant plantation has material impact for pollutant repairing effect.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of water plant collocation plantation and cuts down into footpath, earth's surface, river The method of heavy metal in stream.
By utilizing the vertical ecosystem that very water, heavy water, floating plant are arranged to repair heavy metal-polluted water, V, Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Hg content is made to significantly reduce.Implementation is littoral to the plantation of river central authorities Emergent aquactic plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei, phragmites communis, submerged plant Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, watermifoil, floating plant phoenix Eye lotus, forms vertical ecosystem.Wherein emergent aquactic plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei and reed planting density are 10~20 strains/m2, Planting proportion is 1:1~3;Submerged plant Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, the planting density of watermifoil are 30~50 Clump/m2, planting proportion is 1:1~2:3~5:1~2;The planting density of floating plant Herba Eichhorniae is 10~20 Strain/m2
Various aquatic plants growth conditions and feature are as follows:
(1) emergent aquactic plant: phragmites communis, Rhizoma Acori Graminei have that deep water is cold-resistant, drought resisting, high temperature resistance, resistant to lodging, becomes Motility rate is high, can reach the advantages such as short-term molding;It is the sociales plant of land inland water ecotone and there is purification water Matter effect.
(2) submerged plant: Potamogeton pusillus L, watermifoil, black algae, the perennial heavy pasture and water of water caltrop originally, can give birth to Long from lean nutrition to eutrophic Different Waters, aquation situation there is is wider tolerance range.
(3) floating plant: Herba Eichhorniae is the good plant beautified the environment, purify water;To nitrogen, phosphorus, The multiple Elements such as potassium, calcium has a stronger enrichment, wherein to the enrichment of a great number of elements potassium particularly Prominent.
Having the beneficial effect that of the technique scheme of the present invention:
In such scheme, Rhizoma Acori Graminei, phragmites communis have the function of enriching heavy metal Pb, Cd, and adapt to water potential Power is strong and can the most in groups;By force, wherein water caltrop can for Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, watermifoil fertility Surviving the winter existence, these submerged plants can effectively cut down heavy metal As, Cd, Pb, Hg;And Herba Eichhorniae counterweight Metal Cr, Cd removal effect is good and can purify water, beautify the environment.This vertical ecosystem simultaneously There is provided habitat condition for aquatic animal, increase species diversity, and can effectively control body eutrophication. This ecological restoring method has and is easily maintained, and to advantages such as secondary environmental pollution are little, has higher attractive in appearance Value, the ecological value and environmental economic value.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1
The static shallow water of simulation builds test platform, length and width a size of 3 × 2 (m), and the bed mud degree of depth is 0.5m, Depth of water 0.7m.Emergent aquactic plant planting density is 16 strains/m2, Rhizoma Acori Graminei is 1:2 with the planting proportion of phragmites communis;Heavy The planting density of water plant is 48 clumps/m2, Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, the planting proportion of watermifoil are 1:2:3:1;The planting density of Herba Eichhorniae is 15 strains/m2.Cultivate selected water plant, treat that its maturation is transplanted to Experiment porch.
With heavy metal Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Hg, V as subjects, preparation heavy metal mixed solution A, B.A, B solution contain each metal concentration:
After cultivating 50 days, use each metal concentration in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry water, A, B The content of beary metal of solution is as follows:
This vertical ecosystem i.e. is as follows to the reduction rate of six heavy metal species:
Embodiment 2
Choose certain bone coal navajoite sewage draining exit with this 20 meters of upstream junction basin, section as implementing ground, in shore Bank plantation emergent aquactic plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei, phragmites communis, planting proportion is 1:1;Plant Herba Eichhorniae on river surface, use ecology Floating bed is fixed, and plantation spacing is 45cm;River bed kind planting submerged plant Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, Vulpes Tail algae, planting proportion is 1:1:4:2;Planting density is 35 clumps/m2.Take former water water sample sampling Graphite Furnace Atomic to inhale Receipts method measures heavy metal Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Hg, V content, tests after two months, then water sampling is surveyed Content of beary metal in water after must processing.Result is as follows:
Heavy metal As(μg/L) Cd(μg/L) Cr(μg/L) Pb(μg/L) V(μg/L) Hg(μg/L)
Before process 7.9 17.8 1.7 3.7 18.6 8.3
After process 5.4 9.5 ND ND 14.3 6.2
Reduction rate 31.9% 46.7% 23.1% 25.6%
The above is the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the common skill of the art For art personnel, on the premise of without departing from principle of the present invention, it is also possible to make some improvements and modifications, These improvements and modifications also should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a method for heavy metal in the rainwash of river is cut down in water plant collocation plantation, and its feature exists In: in bank shallow water area plantation emergent aquactic plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei and phragmites communis, middle part plantation floating plant Herba Eichhorniae, korneforos Centre kind planting submerged plant Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop and watermifoil;Emergent aquactic plant planting density is 10~20 Strain/m2, the planting density of submerged plant is 30~50 clumps/m2, the planting density of floating plant is 10~20 strains /m2;Described Rhizoma Acori Graminei is 1:1~3 with the planting proportion of phragmites communis, described Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop and fox-brush The planting proportion of algae is 1:1~2:3~5:1~2;Rhizoma Acori Graminei, phragmites communis have the function of enriching heavy metal Pb, Cd, And it is strong and can the most in groups to adapt to water level ability;Potamogeton pusillus L, black algae, water caltrop, watermifoil fertility are strong, Wherein water caltrop can survive the winter existence;These submerged plants can effectively cut down heavy metal As, Cd, Pb, Hg;And Herba Eichhorniae heavy metal Cr, Cd removal effect are good and can purify water, beautify the environment.
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CN107129121B (en) * 2017-06-23 2020-09-11 杭州西湖风景名胜区灵隐管理处 Method for fixing and stabilizing heavy metal Cd in lake sediment by using calamus flavus
CN107695087A (en) * 2017-10-19 2018-02-16 福州清河源环保科技有限公司 A kind of method of restoration of the ecosystem heavy-metal contaminated soil
CN108383243B (en) * 2018-04-03 2021-06-29 中国科学院武汉植物园 Method for enriching heavy metals in eutrophic water by utilizing configuration of submerged plants

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