CN104708495B  A kind of two linktype ball bar of space based on spherical hinge  Google Patents
A kind of two linktype ball bar of space based on spherical hinge Download PDFInfo
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 CN104708495B CN104708495B CN201510060537.1A CN201510060537A CN104708495B CN 104708495 B CN104708495 B CN 104708495B CN 201510060537 A CN201510060537 A CN 201510060537A CN 104708495 B CN104708495 B CN 104708495B
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 spherical
 rod
 spherical hinge
 sphere
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[Sn] ATJFFYVFTNAWJDUHFFFAOYSAN 0.000 description 1
Classifications

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B23—MACHINE TOOLS; METALWORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 B23Q—DETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METALWORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
 B23Q17/00—Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
 B23Q17/007—Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for managing machine functions not concerning the tool
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to NC Machine Error detection field, and in particular to a kind of two connectionrod type golf of space based on spherical hinge Bar instrument.
Background technology
Lathe is the machinetool in machinery manufacturing industry, and its precision directly affects manufacturing level.As numerical control sets Standby popularization and application, the method for improving accuracy of various Digit Control Machine Tools also become the focus that researchers are studied with technology.
The detection mode of NC Machine Error mainly has the measurement of the direct method of measurement, the indirect method of measurement and synthetic error at present Method.A kind of typical synthetic error measuring method based on the measurement method of ball bar, with detect quick, simple to operate, carry The advantages of facilitating, is usually used in evaluating and diagnosing Digit Control Machine Tool dynamic accuracy.
Ball bar is carried by the James B.Bryan in U.S.'s Lao Lunsi livermore national laboratories (LLNL) Go out, some enterprises and scholar had carried out indepth study to this later, have developed several different types of ball bars, such as：Beautiful Department of mechanical engineering of University of Florida of state John C.Ziegert teaching inventives laser driven shock wave, domestic Northwestern Polytechnical University horse Stannum fine jade proposes double gauge ball measuring instruments etc..Had has also formed commercially produced product, such as：QC10 ball bars of Reinshaw company etc..But It is, although the bar length of these ball bars can be stretched at present, excursion very little.In order to meet different measuring spatial dimension Demand, these ball bars would generally be equipped with the bar that several length differ simultaneously.Additionally, the circle of existing ball bar measurement space Orbital radius are basically unchanged (stroke that variable quantity depends on the 1mm or so due to bar length), it is impossible to cover (or traversal) lathe worker Make all area of space in stroke range.Japanese scholars have invented two linktype ball bars, and wherein two connecting rods are by common Rotary joint be connected and by rotary encoder measure two bars between angle, effectively increase ball bar measurement range, but As structure is limited, instrument can only be in a move in plane, if necessary to carry out XY, the survey of tri planes of YZ, ZX to lathe During examination, then need to carry out multiple Installation And Test to ball bar, therefore measurement efficiency is relatively low, it is difficult to ensure higher measurement essence Degree.
Content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is the deficiency for existing ball bar, proposes a kind of two connectionrod type golf of space based on spherical hinge Bar instrument, realizes threedimensional motion of the ball bar in spatial dimension using spherical hinge, while being examined with the principle of sphere capacitance sensor The space angle between two connecting rod axis is surveyed, two length of connecting rods that the angle value according to measurement is connected with spherical hinge, by simple Method of geometry calculate main shaft doing space circular arc move when Circular test, draw the geometry motion precision of lathe.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is：
The present invention is mainly by first connecting rod, second connecting rod, accurate spherical hinge, the first accurate magnetic force bowl seat, the second accurate magnetic Power bowl seat, sphere capacitance sensor, the first accurate bead and the second accurate bead composition；The accurate bead of described first is fixed on The outer end of first connecting rod, and be fixed in the way of 3 points of machinery positionings on the first accurate magnetic force bowl seat；Described second is accurate Bead is fixed on the outer end of second connecting rod, and is fixed in the way of 3 points of machinery positionings on the second accurate magnetic force bowl seat；Described The bulb of accurate spherical hinge is fixed on the inner of second connecting rod, and the ballandsocket that supports of accurate spherical hinge is fixed on the interior of first connecting rod End；Described sphere capacitance sensor includes the first spherical capacitance electrode and the second spherical capacitance electrode；Described first Spherical capacitance electrode is arranged on the bulb bottom of accurate spherical hinge, and the second spherical capacitance electrode is arranged on the bottom for supporting ballandsocket Portion.
The inside radius of the Proberadius of the accurate spherical hinge and support ballandsocket is R_{2}, bulb and support ballandsocket the centre of sphere Overlap, be designated as point C.The centre of sphere of the first accurate bead is designated as L to the distance of C_{1}, the distance note of the centre of sphere of the second accurate bead to C For L_{2}.The centre of sphere distance of the first accurate bead and the second accurate bead is equivalent to a connecting rod, therefore the long L of equivalent bar can be represented For：
L^{2}=L_{1} ^{2}+L_{2} ^{2}2L_{1}L_{2}cos(πθ)
Wherein, θ is the angle between the first connecting rod and second connecting rod axis that the detection of sphere capacitance sensor is obtained.When θ=0 When, the long L of corresponding equivalent bar obtains maximum L_{max}=L_{1}+L_{2}；As θ=θ_{max}When, the long L of corresponding equivalent bar obtains minima L_{min}；θ_{max}=90 ° ofarcsin (h/R_{2})arcsin(r/R_{2}) be accurate spherical hinge limit pivot angle, wherein, r is second connecting rod Cylindrical radius surface, h be using horizontal split type structure support ballandsocket end cap height.Therefore, the excursion of equivalent bar length It is L_{max}L_{min}.
The first spherical capacitance electrode, corresponding between the edge center of circle in spherical crown center of the second spherical capacitance electrode Angle is equal, is 10～60 °.
The first described spherical capacitance electrode and the second spherical capacitance electrode constitute two of sphere capacitance sensor Detection electrode.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows：
1st, as spherical hinge has the advantages that compact conformation and moves flexible so as to for the connection of two connecting rods, it is easy to real The seriality (all standing) of existing motion and measurement range of the instrument in whole spatial dimensions.
2nd, the present invention detects the angle between two connecting rod axis using the principle of sphere capacitance sensor, it is ensured that higher Certainty of measurement.
3rd, the present invention realizes the measurement function of ball bar by two connecting rods and spherical hinge, and simple structure, algorithm are simple Easily.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the overall construction drawing of the present invention；
Fig. 2 is the assembling schematic diagram of first connecting rod and second connecting rod in the present invention；
Fig. 3 is the arrangement schematic diagram of two spherical capacitance electrodes in the present invention；
Fig. 4 is position view of the first spherical capacitance electrode on the bulb of accurate spherical hinge in the present invention；
Fig. 5 is the position view that support ballandsocket in of the second spherical capacitance electrode in accurate spherical hinge in the present invention.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiment the invention will be further described.
As illustrated in fig. 1 and 2, a kind of two linktype ball bar of space based on spherical hinge, mainly by first connecting rod 11, Two connecting rod 21, accurate spherical hinge the 4, second accurate magnetic force bowl seat 5, sphere capacitance sensor of the 3, first accurate magnetic force bowl seat, first The accurate bead 22 compositions of accurate bead 12 and second；Sphere capacitance sensor includes the first spherical capacitance electrode D1 and second Spherical capacitance electrode D_{2}.First precision bead 12 is fixed on the outer end of first connecting rod 11, and the second precision bead 22 is fixed on The outer end of second connecting rod 21；The bulb 31 of accurate spherical hinge 3 is fixed on the inner of second connecting rod 21, accurate spherical hinge 3 Support ballandsocket 32 is fixed on the inner of first connecting rod 11.The radius of the accurate bead 22 of the first precision bead 12 and second is R_{1}, its centre of sphere is designated as point A and point B respectively；The inside radius of the Proberadius of accurate spherical hinge 3 and support ballandsocket is R_{2}, bulb and Support the centre of sphere of ballandsocket to overlap, be designated as point C.The length of AC is designated as L_{1}, the length of BC is designated as L_{2}.
As shown in Fig. 3,4 and 5, the bulb bottom of accurate spherical hinge 3 arranges the first spherical capacitance electrode D1, supports ballandsocket Bottom arrange the second spherical capacitance electrode D_{2}；First spherical capacitance electrode D1, the second spherical capacitance electrode D_{2}Spherical crown Between center and edge, corresponding central angle is α=60 °.First spherical capacitance electrode D1 and the second spherical capacitance electrode D_{2} Two Detection electrodes of sphere capacitance sensor are constituted, for detecting the folder between first connecting rod 11 and second connecting rod 21 axis Angle.First accurate magnetic force bowl seat 4 can be fixed on platen by Tslot, and the second accurate magnetic force bowl seat 5 is installed on lathe On main shaft.It is accurate that first precision bead 12 and the second precision bead 22 are separately fixed at first in the way of 3 points of machinery positionings On magnetic force bowl seat 4 and the second accurate magnetic force bowl seat 5.
In the course of work, the bulb 31 of accurate spherical hinge 3 rotates relative to support ballandsocket 32, the first spherical electricity Hold electrode D1 and the second spherical capacitance electrode D_{2}Between effective overlapping area change, cause the output electricity of sphere capacitance sensor Capacitance changes, and can calculate the angle theta between two connecting rod axis according to output capacitance value.
For two spherical capacitance electrodes of area equation, i.e. the spherical crown center and edge of two spherical capacitance electrodes Between corresponding central angle when being α, the angle theta between effective overlapping area S of two spherical capacitance electrodes and two connecting rod axis Relation be represented by：
In formula,
η=tan^{1}[(cos αcos α cos θ)/(cos α sin θs)],
It is known as spherical crown center central angle corresponding between edge is α, according to formula (1), two spherical Angle theta between effective overlapping area S of capacitance electrode and two connecting rod axis has onetoone mathematical relationship, for the ease of table Show, can be designated as：
S=g (θ) (2)
According to capacitance computing formulaWherein, d represents that the two poles of the earth sheet separation, ε represent dielectric constant.Bulb and Support ballandsocket one layer of epoxy resin of surface distributed is used as electrolyte, and ε and d keeps constant, by formula (2), the expression formula of capacitanceTherefore the angle theta between two connecting rod axis is had with the capacitance C that sphere capacitance sensor is detected correspondingly Mathematical relationship, for the ease of representing, can be designated as：
θ=f (C) (3)
First spherical capacitance electrode onload voltage V_{INPUT}, and the second spherical capacitance electrode onload voltage 0.Two spherical crowns By cable connection to capacitive sensor signal process circuit, builtin computer has data collecting card and data processing to shape capacitance electrode Software, is analyzed process to the signal for carrying out selfcapacitance, obtains the angle between first connecting rod 11 and second connecting rod 21 axis.
The centre of sphere of accurate for the first precision bead 12 and second bead 22 is equivalent to a connecting rod apart from AB, therefore equivalent The long L of bar is represented by：
L^{2}=L_{1} ^{2}+L_{2} ^{2}2L_{1}L_{2}cos(πθ) (4)
When θ=0, the long L of corresponding equivalent bar obtains maximum L_{max}=L_{1}+L_{2}；As θ=θ_{max}When, corresponding equivalent bar is long L obtains minima L_{min}, wherein, θ_{max}=90 ° ofarcsin (h/R_{2})arcsin(r/R_{2}) be accurate spherical hinge 3 limit pivot angle, Cylindrical radius surfaces of the r for second connecting rod 21, h are the support ballandsocket end cap height using horizontal split type structure.Therefore, equivalent The excursion of bar length is L_{max}L_{min}.
(0,0,0) coincidence, P (x, y, z) are second to the origin O of the centre of sphere A of the first accurate bead 12 and stage coordinates system The nominal coordinate of accurate bead 22 centre of sphere B, when machine tool motion is to target location, if the physical location of lathe is P'(x', y', z').Then the space error of lathe is represented by：
In formula, Δ x, Δ y, the displacement error that Δ z is point P and P'.
When there is error delta x, Δ y, Δ z, then following formula is set up：
L^{2}=x '^{2}+y′^{2}+z′^{2}=(x+ Δ x)^{2}+(y+Δy)^{2}+(z+Δz)^{2}(6)
When ball bar works, Circular test of centre mount of the lathe on workbench by radius set in advance for R runs, Therefore the ideal distance of AB is R, ignores the higher order error item of more than second order, then R^{2}=x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}.According to (4) and (6) formula, then Can obtain：
Formula (7) represents the angle relation of accurate spherical hinge in the position error at point P and ball bar, and therefore the formula can use Error diagnostics in lathe.
The measurement function that ball bar is realized by two connecting rods and spherical hinge, it is easy to accomplish instrument is in whole space models The seriality (all standing) of motion and measurement range in enclosing.Additionally, using sphere capacitance sensor principle detecting two companies Angle between rod axis, it is ensured that higher certainty of measurement.General arrangement simple structure, algorithm are simple.
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US5259120A (en) *  19910727  19931109  Renishaw Transducer Systems Limited  Calibration and measurement device 
CN1346964A (en) *  20011023  20020501  北京邮电大学  Method and device for measuring position and attitude in space 
CN201787901U (en) *  20100915  20110406  上海汽车变速器有限公司  Lever measurement conversion mechanism based on circular arc 
CN104132675A (en) *  20140714  20141105  杭州电子科技大学  Spherical hinge movement direction measuring method based on spherical capacitor 

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US5259120A (en) *  19910727  19931109  Renishaw Transducer Systems Limited  Calibration and measurement device 
CN1346964A (en) *  20011023  20020501  北京邮电大学  Method and device for measuring position and attitude in space 
CN201787901U (en) *  20100915  20110406  上海汽车变速器有限公司  Lever measurement conversion mechanism based on circular arc 
CN104132675A (en) *  20140714  20141105  杭州电子科技大学  Spherical hinge movement direction measuring method based on spherical capacitor 
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