CN104677778A - Device and method for evaluating temporarily freezing plugging properties of coalbed methane in process of fracturing - Google Patents

Device and method for evaluating temporarily freezing plugging properties of coalbed methane in process of fracturing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104677778A
CN104677778A CN201410804956.7A CN201410804956A CN104677778A CN 104677778 A CN104677778 A CN 104677778A CN 201410804956 A CN201410804956 A CN 201410804956A CN 104677778 A CN104677778 A CN 104677778A
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coal
heart
pressure
gas
coal heart
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张亮
崔国栋
李欣
任建华
任韶然
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China University of Petroleum Beijing CUPB
China University of Petroleum UPC East China
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China University of Petroleum UPC East China
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Abstract

The invention relates to the field of petroleum and gas development, and provides a device and a method for evaluating the temporarily freezing plugging properties of coalbed methane in the process of fracturing, which is designed for solving the problem that indoor research approaches are leaked in the implementation of temporarily freezing plugging de-filtration mechanisms in the process that low-temperature gas fractures/ helps to fracture coalbed methane. An experimental device comprises a booster pump, a middle container set, a high-pressure small container bottle, a core holder, a vacuum pump, a constant-temperature box, a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a data acquisition box and a control computer, and the like. Through the device and method disclosed by the invention, the plugging capacity of freezing or formed hydrates in a low-temperature environment to a coal seam and the influence of freezing or hydrate dissolving to the plugging capacity of the coal seam can be simulated, and therefore, the device and the method disclosed by the invention have great significance on the evaluation on the temporarily freezing and leakage plugging properties in the process that low-temperature gas fractures/ helps to fracture coalbed methane.

Description

Freezing stifled device for evaluating performance and method temporarily in CBM Fracturing process
Technical field
The present invention relates to natural petroleum gas field field, freezing stifled device for evaluating performance and method temporarily in particularly a kind of cryogenic gas pressure break/auxiliary pressure break coal-seam gas process.
Background technology
Waterfrac treatment is the major measure of coal-bed-gas production-increase.At present conventional active water pressure break have that fracturing fluid leak is serious, the row of returning lead low, fracturing fracture is short and the problems such as complexity, adopts New Fracturing Fluid and effective temporary plugging technique to be the keys improving fracturing effect.Utilize liquid nitrogen/liquid CO 2pressure break/auxiliary pressure break coal-seam gas, have energization and help row, filtrate reducing, formation to injure the advantages such as little, last century, the nineties, in North America shale gas new well pressure break and the old well refracturing of coal-seam gas, once selected liquid nitrogen as fracturing liquid; In recent years, China's liquid nitrogen/liquid CO 2pressure break/auxiliary fracturing technology is also successfully applied to the CBM Fracturings such as Northern Huaihe River Anhui, Jiaozhuo, Henan, North China Oilfield and Hancheng Region, Shaanxi from petroleum industry.These field practices all achieve effect of increasing production in various degree.For liquid nitrogen/liquid CO 2pressure break/auxiliary pressure break coal-seam gas, people still pay close attention to its conventional mechanism more, and for liquid nitrogen/liquid CO 2mention less Deng mechanism such as the cold shock effect produced behind cryogenic gas injection coal seam and freezing stifled filtrate reducing temporarily in the cards, lack theoretic knowledge, Lab-evaluation and on-site verification.
In fracturing process, inject liquid nitrogen/liquid CO 2cold shock is produced to coal seam, tentatively can improve Fracture System and the mechanical properties of rock in nearly well coal seam, freezing for follow-up temporarily stifledly reduce fracturing liquid leakage and provide a pore water to freeze and maintain the low temperature environment that certain thermodynamically metastable fixes time simultaneously.Coal petrography has less coefficient of heat conductivity and responsive characteristic of expanding with heat and contract with cold, when contacting with a large amount of cryogenic gas in the nearly well coal seam short time, coal petrography matrix can be caused acutely to shrink, when the differential contraction stress produced exceedes the tensile strength of coal petrography, many thermal stress crackings can be formed in inside, coal seam, cause coal petrography intensity to reduce, be conducive to fracturing fracture and extend to deeper layer.And under the low temperature environment of cold shock effect formation, the active water of the local water/injection in crack, coal seam can freeze, or with the cryogenic gas injected (as liquid CO 2)/primary methanogenesis gas hydrate.Local water freezes or forms the height that hydrate all can block coal seam and oozes passage, plays the effect reducing fracturing liquid leakage.And along with the rising of coal seam temperature, the ice of formation is stifled can be melted again, can not damage coal seam.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is exactly lack the problem of desk research means for the freezing stifled filtrate reducing mechanism temporarily in cryogenic gas pressure break/auxiliary pressure break coal-seam gas process, provides a kind of experimental provision and the method for evaluating freezing stifled performance temporarily in CBM Fracturing process.This experimental provision primarily of compositions such as supercharge pump, intermediate receptacle group, high pressure small container bottle, core holding unit, vacuum pump, constant temperature oven, pressure transducer, temperature sensor, data acquisition device, control computers, as accompanying drawing 1.
Experimental procedure mainly comprises: the coal heart is put into core holding unit by (1), connects equipment, pipeline; (2) pressure decline method gas is adopted to survey coal heart permeability; (3) pass into gas and water in the heart to coal, reach the gassiness of setting, water saturation; (4) open constant temperature oven and be cooled to-20 DEG C, treat coal water freezing in the heart or form hydrate (only there is gas-particle two-phase in coal central hole gap); (5) adopt pressure decline method gas to survey coal heart permeability again, evaluate freezing plugging effect; (6) constant temperature oven is heated to rapidly a certain temperature, record core holding unit temperature and front end change in pressure drop.
Wherein:
Step (1): adopt moisture-free coal heart size diameter 2.5cm, length 5cm; Adopt coal heart kind to comprise the original coal heart, the liquid nitrogen cold shock coal heart or the pressure break coal heart; The coal heart is positioned in liquid nitrogen and soaks 10min, produce a large amount of thermal stress cracking, treat that the coal heart and liquid nitrogen surface in contact no longer include a large amount of bubble and produce, show that the coal heart has cooled evenly, take out and return to normal temperature, the cold shock coal heart can be obtained; Keeping, under the prerequisite that the coal heart is relatively complete, by applying certain stress to coal heart two ends, making the coal heart produce one or more long crack, the pressure break coal heart can being obtained.(illustrating: rock core used is not limited to the coal heart, also comprises hypotonic, the special low permeability cores such as shale, tight sand)
Step (2): adopt N 2carry out pressure decline method gas and survey coal heart original permeability, namely high pressure N is equipped with in the access of coal heart front end 2small gas cylinder (5ml), the rear end emptying of the coal heart, along with N 2by the coal heart, the pressure decline curves of record coal heart front end, adopts perm-plug method principle, calculates the permeability (concrete calculation procedure sees below literary composition) of the coal heart.
Step (3): by supercharge pump and intermediate receptacle, first saturated to coal water filling in the heart, then set coal heart rear end counterbalance valve pressure, continue to be filled to set pressure, the gas that reinjects reaches set water saturation; The gas injected can be CO 2, N 2and CH 4deng one or more in gas; The water injected can be one or more of the water-based fluids such as distilled water, local water, active water, fracturing liquid.
Step (4): constant temperature oven temperature control scope is at-20 ~ 60 DEG C; By Thermostat Temperature Control at-20 DEG C, and keep the sufficiently long time, make all or most water freezing or form gas hydrate, now mainly there is gas-particle two-phase in coal central hole gap.
Step (5): adopt pressure decline method to measure the permeability of freezing or forming the hydrate coal heart again, step is as step 2, but now coal heart rear end exists back pressure; Evaluate freeze or hydrate on the impact of coal heart permeability.
Step (6): for evaluating when environment temperature raises, icing or hydrate is to the maintenance ability of coal seam shut-off capacity.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
By apparatus and method of the present invention, the hydrate frozen under can simulating low temperature environment or formed is to the shut-off capacity in coal seam, and along with after environment temperature rising, freeze or hydrate dissolution on the impact of coal seam shut-off capacity, significant for the freezing stifled leakage performance of falling temporarily evaluated in cryogenic gas pressure break/auxiliary pressure break coal-seam gas process.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing 1 is the fundamental diagram of the specific embodiment of the invention
In figure: 1, water supply beaker, 2-supercharge pump, 3, intermediate receptacle (for loading distilled water), 4, intermediate receptacle is (for loading high pressure N 2), 5, intermediate receptacle (for loading the water-based fluids such as distilled water/local water/active water/fracturing liquid), 6, intermediate receptacle is (for loading N 2/ CO 2/ CH 4deng gases at high pressure), 7, high pressure small gas cylinder (5ml), 8, core holding unit and the coal heart, 9, counterbalance valve, 10, liquid measure cylinder is connect, 11, vacuum pump, 12, constant temperature oven (temperature control scope-20 ~ 60 DEG C), 13, pressure transducer, 14, core holding unit temperature sensor, 15, calorstat temperature sensor, 16, data acquisition device, 17, control computer, 18, gas cylinder, 19-22, valve 19-22 (from left to right), 23-26, valve 23-26 (from left to right), 27-35, valve.
Accompanying drawing 2 is core holding unit entrance pressure fall-off curve
Embodiment
By reference to the accompanying drawings 1, the present invention will be further described.
Concrete steps are as follows:
(1) the moisture-free coal heart is put into core holding unit 8, and according to accompanying drawing, equipment and pipeline are connected, initial all valve Close Alls.(ready work)
(2) open valve 19,23,29, start supercharge pump 2, inject distilled water by intermediate receptacle 3, device is accommodated to rock core and applies confined pressure to P s(8MPa), then valve-off 19,23,29.(confined pressure is added to core holding unit)
(3) open valve 34, start vacuum pump 11, to high pressure small gas cylinder 7 (V btl=5ml) vacuumize 1-2 hour, then stop vacuum pump 11, and valve-off 34.(high pressure small gas cylinder is vacuumized)
(4) open valve 20,24,27,33, start supercharge pump 2, in high pressure small gas cylinder 7, inject high pressure N2, to P by intermediate receptacle 4 1(6MPa), then valve-off 20,24,27,33.(being filled with high pressure nitrogen to high pressure small gas cylinder)
(5) open valve 35,28, start vacuum pump 11,3-4 hour is vacuumized to the coal heart in core holding unit 8 and relevant pipeline, then stop vacuum pump 11, valve-off 35.(the coal heart is vacuumized)
(6) open valve 33, the high pressure N2 in high pressure small gas cylinder 7 enters the coal heart in rock core blessing device 8, after waiting for pressure equilibrium, and the pressure P of record high pressure small gas cylinder 1eq, according to the equation of gas state, calculate coal heart volume of voids V por, wherein enclosure space inner connection tube line volume is designated as V line.(asking volume of voids according to pressure change)
(7) valve 30 is opened, by core holding unit 8 rear end emptying, the pressure P in high pressure small gas cylinder 7 1to be declined exhaustion gradually, adopt pressure transducer 13 and the change of data acquisition device 16 monitoring pressure in real time, and be stored in by pressure data in control computer 17, when the pressure stability in high pressure small gas cylinder 7 no longer declines, and valve-off 33,28,30; Process pressure fall-off curve, calculate coal heart permeability, computing method see below literary composition.(adopting pressure decline method to measure permeability)
(8) valve 32 is opened, by gas cylinder 18, for counterbalance valve 9 provides back pressure P 2(6MPa).(unlatching back pressure)
(9) open valve 35,27,28,31, start vacuum pump 11,3-4 hour is vacuumized to the coal heart in core holding unit 8 and relevant pipeline, then stop vacuum pump 11, valve-off 35.(the coal heart is vacuumized)
(10) open valve 21,25, start supercharge pump 2, by intermediate receptacle 5, inject the water-based fluids such as distilled water/local water/active water/fracturing liquid to coal in the heart, reach P to pressure 2(6MPa), after, counterbalance valve back pressure P is broken through 2(6MPa) 3 times, are injected continuously to coal heart volume of voids (3V por) water-based fluid, then valve-off 21,25.(the saturated water-based fluid of high pressure)
(11) open valve 22,26, inject the N of certain volume to coal in the heart 2/ CH 4/ CO 2deng gases at high pressure (or without the need to injecting gas), graduated cylinder 10 is adopted to measure the volume V of output water-based fluid pro, calculate coal gas in the heart, water saturation S g, S w, then valve-off 22,26,27,28,31.(high pressure saturated gas)
(12) open constant temperature oven 12, be cooled to-20 DEG C, and keep 6-12 hour, wait for that whole or most pore waters of the coal heart in core holding unit 8 freeze or form hydrate, now only there is gas-particle two-phase in coal central hole gap.(pore water is frozen or forms hydrate)
(13) adopt the method in similar step (2-7) again, measure coal heart permeability, but require that core holding unit 8 confined pressure is increased to P s '(14MPa) original pressure, in high pressure small gas cylinder 7 is increased to P 1 '(12MPa), core holding unit rear end counterbalance valve 9 pressure still remains on P 2(6MPa); Analyze the permeability variation of the coal heart in freezing front and back, evaluate freezing plugging effect.(measuring freezing coal heart permeability rate)
(14) adopt the method in similar step (13) again, the pressure in high pressure small gas cylinder is increased to P 1 '(12MPa); The temperature of constant temperature oven 12 is increased to 10-60 DEG C rapidly, adopts temperature sensor 14,15 respectively, the temperature variation of record constant temperature oven 12 and core holding unit 8; Open valve 33,28,31, adopt pressure transducer 13, the pressure decline curves in record high pressure small gas cylinder 7; According to pressure fall-off curve, analyze Pressure Drop Characteristics, in conjunction with constant temperature oven 12 and core holding unit 8 temperature variation feature, evaluate when environment temperature raises, icing or hydrate is to the maintenance ability of coal heart shutoff.(evaluate shutoff and maintain situation)
Coal central hole porosity computing method: according to the equation of gas state, P 1v btl/ z 1=P 1ep(V por+ V btl+ V line)/z 2, try to achieve
V por = z 2 P 1 V btl z 1 P 1 eq - ( V btl + V line ) - - - ( 1 )
Coal heart calculation of permeability: perm-plug method formula is as follows:
K g = 2 Q 0 p 0 μL A ( P 1 2 - P 2 2 ) - - - ( 2 )
Wherein, k gfor gas permeability, D; P 1for import (core holding unit front end) pressure, 10 -1mPa; P 2for outlet (core holding unit rear end) pressure, 10 -1mPa; P 0for atmospheric pressure, 10 -1mPa; μ is gas viscosity, mPas; Q 0for the volumetric flow of gas under atmospheric pressure, cm 3/ s; A is the sectional area of coal core sample, cm 2; L is the length of coal heart product, cm.
The pressure fall-off curve obtaining core holding unit front end (high pressure small gas cylinder) by experiment as Fig. 2, then at t i~ t i+1(i is between 0 ~ n), in the time period, core holding unit front end mean pressure is:
P 1ia=(P 1i+P 1i+1)/2 (3)
Gas flow then can be tried to achieve according to the pressure change in state equation and high pressure small gas cylinder, as follows:
n i = P 1 i V btl z i RT , n i + 1 = P 1 i + 1 V btl z i + 1 RT - - - ( 4 )
Q 0 i = 22.4 × ( n i - n i + 1 ) t i + 1 - t i - - - ( 5 )
Formula (3), (5) are substituted into formula (2), so just can in the hope of random time section t i~ t i+1interior coal heart perm-plug method K gi, draw K gi~ P 1irelation curve, row index Function Fitting of going forward side by side, it is the permeability of the coal heart in the intercept of the longitudinal axis.

Claims (7)

1. evaluate experimental provision and the method for freezing stifled performance temporarily in CBM Fracturing process, it is characterized in that: experimental procedure is:
(1) the coal heart is put into core holding unit, connect equipment, pipeline;
(2) pressure decline method gas is adopted to survey coal heart permeability;
(3) pass into gas and water in the heart to coal, reach the gassiness of setting, water saturation;
(4) open constant temperature oven and be cooled to-20 DEG C, treat coal water freezing in the heart or form hydrate (only there is gas-particle two-phase in coal central hole gap);
(5) adopt pressure decline method gas to survey coal heart permeability again, evaluate freezing plugging effect;
(6) constant temperature oven is heated to rapidly a certain temperature, record core holding unit temperature and front end change in pressure drop.
2. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, is characterized in that: in step (1) adopt moisture-free coal heart size diameter 2.5cm, length 5cm; Adopt coal heart kind to comprise the original coal heart, the liquid nitrogen cold shock coal heart or the pressure break coal heart; The coal heart is positioned in liquid nitrogen and soaks 10min, produce a large amount of thermal stress cracking, treat that the coal heart and liquid nitrogen surface in contact no longer include a large amount of bubble and produce, show that the coal heart has cooled evenly, take out and return to normal temperature, the cold shock coal heart can be obtained; Keeping, under the prerequisite that the coal heart is relatively complete, by applying certain stress to coal heart two ends, making the coal heart produce one or more long crack, the pressure break coal heart can being obtained.(illustrating: rock core used is not limited to the coal heart, also comprises hypotonic, the special low permeability cores such as shale, tight sand).
3. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, is characterized in that: adopt N in step (2) 2carry out pressure decline method gas and survey coal heart original permeability, namely high pressure N is equipped with in the access of coal heart front end 2small gas cylinder (5ml), the rear end emptying of the coal heart, along with N 2by the coal heart, the pressure decline curves of record coal heart front end, adopts perm-plug method principle, calculates the permeability of the coal heart.
4. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, it is characterized in that: by supercharge pump and intermediate receptacle in step (3), first saturated to coal water filling in the heart, then set coal heart rear end counterbalance valve pressure, continue to be filled to set pressure, the gas that reinjects reaches set water saturation; The gas injected can be CO 2, N 2and CH 4deng one or more in gas; The water injected can be one or more of the water-based fluids such as distilled water, local water, active water, fracturing liquid.
5. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, is characterized in that: in step (4), constant temperature oven temperature control scope is at-20 ~ 60 DEG C; By Thermostat Temperature Control at-20 DEG C, and keep the sufficiently long time, make all or most water freezing or form gas hydrate, now mainly there is gas-particle two-phase in coal central hole gap.
6. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, is characterized in that: adopt pressure decline method to measure the permeability of freezing or forming the hydrate coal heart in step (5) again, and step is as stated in claim 3, but now coal heart rear end exists back pressure; Contrast by recording permeability with step (2), evaluate freeze or hydrate on the impact of coal heart permeability.
7. note supercritical CO as described in claim 1 2the pre-antiseep technique of exploitation dry-hot-rock geothermal, is characterized in that: by record front end change in pressure drop in step (6), calculate when environment temperature raises, and icing or hydrate is to the maintenance ability of coal seam shut-off capacity.
CN201410804956.7A 2014-12-22 2014-12-22 Device and method for evaluating temporarily freezing plugging properties of coalbed methane in process of fracturing Pending CN104677778A (en)

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CN110793864A (en) * 2019-11-01 2020-02-14 中国石油大学(北京) Method and device for measuring thermal stress of rock test piece under action of liquid nitrogen
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Application publication date: 20150603