CN104331567A - Method and system for predicting false protection action of heavy gas of compact transformer - Google Patents

Method and system for predicting false protection action of heavy gas of compact transformer Download PDF

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CN104331567A
CN104331567A CN201410635932.3A CN201410635932A CN104331567A CN 104331567 A CN104331567 A CN 104331567A CN 201410635932 A CN201410635932 A CN 201410635932A CN 104331567 A CN104331567 A CN 104331567A
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transformer
short
compact
circuit
finite
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CN201410635932.3A
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CN104331567B (en
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王俊波
罗容波
李雷
李国伟
徐鑫
刘少辉
陈贤熙
刘昊
李新
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广东电网有限责任公司佛山供电局
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Abstract

The invention provides a method and a system for predicting false protection action of heavy gas of a compact transformer. The method comprises the following steps of firstly, according to the structure parameters of the compact transformer, building a 1:1 three-dimensional coupled finite element model; then, calculating fluid-structure interaction numbers, and simulating to obtain the relationship of short-circuiting current and transform oil flow surge with different amplitudes; according to the simulation result, predicting whether the compact transformer has the false action of heavy gas or not. By adopting the technical scheme, the method has the advantages that the occurrence possibility of false action accidents of the heavy gas of the compact transformer is reduced, and the running reliability of the compact transformer is improved.

Description

Compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology and system

Technical field

The present invention relates to electrical equipment safety assessment field, particularly relate to a kind of compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology and system.

Background technology

At present, there is body grave gas false protection in electrical network compact transformer, thus causes transformer to trip often, directly affects the power supply reliability of electric system; According to system cloud gray model experience; gaseous shield of transformer correctly should be able to reflect winding interturn short-circuit or built-in electrical insulation arc fault; it is once malfunction thoroughly must investigate thoroughly reason of false action; can put into operation after checking transformer body non-fault; this adds increased a large amount of work on the spot, therefore must take measures to stop grave gas protection misoperation.

Operating experience shows, compact transformer body grave gas protection misoperation mainly electrical network transient state impacts (sudden short circuit) and causes.In China's UHV (ultra-high voltage) and ultra-high-tension power transmission line run, the trip accident caused that is struck by lightning accounts for 40% ~ 70% of total trip accident, the area that the many thunders especially picture south, soil resistivity are high, with a varied topography, and the trip-out rate that thunderbolt causes is higher.When thunderbolt causes insulator chain flashover to form stable power frequency arc, when short-circuit current is larger, to electrical equipment safe operation in transformer station, there is harmfulness, also may cause compact transformer body grave gas protection misoperation.

Transformer impacts (sudden short circuit) because of electrical network transient state and causes large area grid power blackout, the damage of the main-transformer be particularly directly connected with generator will force generator to stop generating electricity, have a strong impact on the reliability of power supply, and cause huge economic loss.It is very tired standard that the damage of Transformer Winding will be repaired at the scene.

According to statistics, during 1990 ~ 1996 years, national 110kV and above grade transformer have an accident 409 times altogether, accident total volume be 32306MVA. wherein because of the transformer totally 124 times of electrical network transient state impact failure, capacity 8432MVA.Statistics shows, China 110kV and above transformer impact the transformer damage accident caused because of electrical network transient state, and oneself becomes the first cause of Accident of Transformer, and year after year in rising trend.Therefore, for ensureing the safe operation of electrical network, improving transformer reliability of operation, necessarily requiring transformer to have enough anti-short circuit capabilities and could reduce the generation being impacted a series of accidents caused by electrical network transient state.

For this hot spot technology problem of transformer body grave gas false protection; current research normally judges the reason of Transformer Heavy Gas protection act and corresponding disposal route according to field accident by the flow process of a series of regulation, and this is kind of a passive prophylactico-therapeutic measures.And for application compact oil-immersed type transformer more and more widely, at present for the mechanism of the grave gas misoperation of compact oil-immersed type transformer under electrical network transient state is impacted, lack corresponding achievement in research, whether cannot there is grave gas misoperation and formation mechenism thereof by Accurate Prediction compact transformer, cause grave gas misoperation accident odds to remain high, have impact on compact transformer operational reliability.

Summary of the invention

Based on this, be necessary for above-mentioned technical matters, provide a kind of and reduce compact transformer grave gas misoperation accident odds, the compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology improving operational reliability and system.

A kind of compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology, comprises the steps:

The finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 is set up according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding;

According to different amplitude of short circuit, fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation is carried out to described finite element model, obtain the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge;

According to the action limit value of Buchholz relay, and utilize the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.

A kind of compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system, comprising:

MBM, for setting up the finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding;

Analysis module, for carrying out fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation according to different amplitude of short circuit to described finite element model, obtains the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge;

Prediction module, for the action limit value according to Buchholz relay, and utilizes the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.

Above-mentioned compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology and system, first set up the finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Then by fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation, emulation obtains the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge; Grave gas misoperation whether is there is again according to simulation result prediction compact transformer.This technical scheme can reduce compact transformer grave gas misoperation accident odds, improve compact transformer operational reliability.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology process flow diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the model schematic of compact transformer in the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the close distribution of results schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention iron core Three-Dimensional Magnetic;

Fig. 4 is the Temperature Distribution schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention compact transformer;

Fig. 5 is the high-pressure side Windings Electromagnetic Force vector distribution schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention compact transformer;

Fig. 6 is the velocity flow profile schematic diagram of oil flow surge in embodiment of the present invention compact transformer;

Fig. 7 is compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system structural representation of the present invention;

Fig. 8 is the structural representation of the analysis module of embodiment.

Embodiment

Be described in detail below in conjunction with the embodiment of accompanying drawing to compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology of the present invention and system.

Shown in figure 1, Fig. 1 is compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology process flow diagram of the present invention, comprises the steps:

S10, sets up the finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding.

By setting up the finite element model of three-dimensional coupling, compact transformer model be calculated as corresponding three-dimensional time humorous field problem, zoning mainly comprises iron core, high-voltage coil and low-voltage coil, air-gap etc.

Wherein, during finite element model three-dimensional, the governing equation of humorous field and boundary condition can be as follows:

Adopt A, A-φ method, under coulomb (Coulumb) specification ▽ A=0 condition, time humorous field differential governing equation be:

▿ × ( 1 μ ▿ × A ) - ▿ ( 1 μ ▿ · A ) = J s - - - ( 1 )

The boundary value problem of the Poisson equation under corresponding cylindrical-coordinate system is:

∂ ∂ z [ v ′ ∂ ( rA θ ) ∂ z ] + ∂ ∂ r [ v ′ ∂ ( rA θ ) ∂ r ] = - J θ District (2) is solved whole

rA θ = rA θ 0 Boundary (3) unshakable in one's determination

In formula, μ is magnetic permeability, and A is vector magnetic potential, J sbe coil current density, r is the radius under cylindrical-coordinate system.

S20, carries out fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation according to different amplitude of short circuit to described finite element model, obtains the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge.

Concrete, in the region that the solid misfortune of stream is closed, fluid is the mode of basket vibration to the pressure change of Transformer Winding, and the latter affects the distribution in flow field conversely, have identical speed and pressure at the solid intersection fluid of stream and elastic body, this is the physical condition carrying out flowing solid misfortune conjunction.

Wherein, described short-circuit current comprises from the relation of transformer oil flow surge: the size of the Transformer Winding short-circuit electromagnetic force caused under the short-circuit current of different amplitude, the basket vibration caused by electromagnetic force are out of shape and are out of shape the size of the transformer oil flow surge caused by basket vibration.

In one embodiment, step S20 obtains the step of the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge, can comprise as follows:

S201, carries out magnetic field analysis according to described finite element model to the stray field of transformer under the impact of electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, obtains stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force.

As an embodiment, S201 specifically can comprise following process:

Three dimensional hexagonal grid is taked to carry out subdivision to the corresponding body of described finite element model; Wherein, to position unshakable in one's determination with setting encryption subdivision; Apply the size of electric current as required, calculate current density, carry out loading and solving as loading environment; By calculating field humorous during described finite element model three-dimensional, obtain the close distribution of Three-Dimensional Magnetic at place unshakable in one's determination.

Shown in figure 2, Fig. 2 is the model schematic of compact transformer in the embodiment of the present invention; Consider in the calculating to humorous field during transformer three-dimensional, the quality that grid controls improves the key factor of computational solution precision; Therefore, the present embodiment, according to the design feature of this transformer, takes three dimensional hexagonal grid to carry out subdivision to corresponding body, to the suitable encryption subdivision in the positions such as iron core to ensure the Distribution of Magnetic Field computational accuracy at place unshakable in one's determination.

Shown in figure 3, Fig. 3 is the close distribution of results schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention iron core Three-Dimensional Magnetic; Apply the size of electric current as required, calculate current density, carry out loading and solving as loading environment, by the calculating to field humorous during three-dimensional, obtain the close distribution of magnetic at place unshakable in one's determination.

S202, carries out structure analysis using described stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force as loading environment, obtains the distortion and the vibration regularity that are caused Transformer Winding by the effect of electromagnetic force.

Wherein structure analysis:

According to Lorentz lorentz's force method, current-carrying conductor suffered electromagnetic force in magnetic field can be solved:

dF=idl×B (4)

In formula: i is the electric current of current-carrying conductor, B is the magnetic flux density of current-carrying conductor position, and dF is the electromagnetic force on element length dl.

In finite element method, the force density of unit can be expressed as:

f → e = J → e × B → e - - - ( 5 )

In above formula, represent vector value.

As an embodiment, S202 specifically can comprise following process:

According to the principle of heat trnasfer, by the calculating in the transformer fluids-temperature field to described finite element model, obtain the Temperature Distribution of transformer; The size of the short-circuit current of transformer is calculated by field circuit method; The size of short-circuit current is carried out structure analysis as loading environment, the transient state electric power distribution of bearing when obtaining each short circuit in winding in the short circuit transient process of transformer.

Shown in figure 4, Fig. 4 is the Temperature Distribution schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention compact transformer; In heat transfer process, first heat heated the medium around it, and the temperature of winding, iron core and structural member is raised fast, winding and unshakable in one's determination by heat transfer and conductive heat transfer heat to transformer oil, the temperature of transformer oil is raised.Transformer oil is delivered to heat on oil tank wall again, is finally lost in air.When the heat that inside transformer produces is equal with the heat shed, heat just reaches equilibrium state, and the temperature of each parts no longer changes.According to the principle of heat trnasfer, by the calculating to transformer fluids-temperature field, obtain its Temperature Distribution.

Shown in figure 5, Fig. 5 is the high-pressure side Windings Electromagnetic Force vector distribution schematic diagram of embodiment of the present invention compact transformer; Calculated the size of short-circuit current by field circuit method, it can be used as the short circuit transient process that loading environment analysis obtains at transformer, the transient state electric power of bearing during each short circuit in winding distributes; Wherein, figure (a) is branch road A phase vertical view under high pressure, and figure (b) is branch road B phase vertical view under high pressure, and figure (c) is branch road C phase vertical view under high pressure.

S203, carries out wind-structure interaction using the distortion of Transformer Winding and vibration regularity as loading environment, and the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that calculating transformer basket vibration causes, obtains the relation of short-circuit current size and oil flow surge.

Wherein wind-structure interaction method:

Consider the effect of fluid, the dynamics equations after elastic body is discrete is in a liquid:

[M][δ]+[C][δ]+[K][δ]=F(t)+R f(t) (6)

Wherein, F (t) is node plus load vector, R f(t) for fluid-structure interaction and produce additional node vector, they are all the functions of pressure P, and [M] represents mass matrix, and [C] represents damping matrix, and [K] represents stiffness matrix, and [δ] represents displacement column vector.

In power flow field, the disturbance flow field solving fluid-elastomeric problem is not only relevant with elastomeric distortion, also relevant with the speed of initial flow-field.At this moment the pressure of disturbance fluid not only creates additional mass, also creates additional damping item and additional stiffness term; At this moment the physical substance of problem combines to solve:

AU + BUU + CP + DU = E + F GU = H [ M ] [ δ ] + [ C ] [ δ ] + [ K ] [ δ ] = F ( t ) + R f ( t ) - - - ( 7 )

Wherein, A represents mass matrix, and B represents convection current matrix, and U represents velocity, C represents pressure matrix, and D represents consume matrix, and E represents body force matrix, and F represents area force vector, δ represents displacement column vector, and G represents continuous matrix, and H represents boundary speed vector, and K represents stiffness matrix.

As an embodiment, S203 specifically can comprise following process:

According to the transient state electric power distribution of bearing during each short circuit in winding, wind-structure interaction method is utilized to calculate the velocity flow profile of transformer oil in compact transformer, according to the short-circuit current of velocity flow profile determination transformer in different amplitude and the relation of oil flow surge.

Shown in figure 6, Fig. 6 is the velocity flow profile schematic diagram of oil flow surge in embodiment of the present invention compact transformer; According to transient state electric power distribution during each short circuit in winding, fluid structure interaction mode is utilized to calculate the velocity flow profile of transformer oil in compact transformer.

S30, according to the action limit value of Buchholz relay, and utilizes the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.

Comprehensive above-described embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention, adopt computer simulation technique, the transformer three-dimensional finite element model of 1:1 is set up according to compact transformer structural parameters, magnetic field analysis is carried out to the stray field of transformer under impacting in electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, result of calculation is carried out as loading environment distortion and the vibration regularity that structure analysis obtains being caused by the effect of electromagnetic force Transformer Winding, again result of calculation is carried out in wind-structure interaction as loading environment, calculate the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that basket vibration causes.According to the principle of work of Buchholz relay and utilize above-mentioned simulation result to predict whether compact transformer there is grave gas misoperation, and further solution can be provided according to predicting the outcome.Wherein can explain the reason of compact transformer generation grave gas misoperation from action mechanism to the simulation analysis of electromagnetic property, stressing conditions, fluid movable pole point characteristic in compact transformer labyrinth, for preventing Accident of Transformer and laying a solid foundation to the appropriate design of transformer, there is important theory value and commercial Application meaning.

Shown in figure 7, Fig. 7 is compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system structural representation of the present invention, comprising:

MBM, for setting up the finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding;

Analysis module, for carrying out fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation according to different amplitude of short circuit to described finite element model, obtains the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge;

Prediction module, for the action limit value according to Buchholz relay, and utilizes the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.

In one embodiment, described short-circuit current comprises from the relation of transformer oil flow surge: the size of the Transformer Winding short-circuit electromagnetic force caused under the short-circuit current of different amplitude, the basket vibration caused by electromagnetic force are out of shape and are out of shape the size of the transformer oil flow surge caused by basket vibration.

In one embodiment, shown in figure 8, Fig. 8 is the structural representation of the analysis module of embodiment, and described analysis module can comprise:

Magnetic field analysis unit, for carrying out magnetic field analysis according to described finite element model to the stray field of transformer under the impact of electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, obtains stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force;

Structure analysis unit, for described stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force are carried out structure analysis as loading environment, obtains the distortion and the vibration regularity that are caused Transformer Winding by the effect of electromagnetic force;

Wind-structure interaction unit, for the distortion of Transformer Winding and vibration regularity are carried out wind-structure interaction as loading environment, the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that calculating transformer basket vibration causes, obtains the relation of short-circuit current size and oil flow surge.

Compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system of the present invention and compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology one_to_one corresponding of the present invention; the technical characteristic of setting forth in the embodiment of above-mentioned compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology and beneficial effect thereof are all applicable to, in the embodiment of compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system, hereby state.

The above embodiment only have expressed several embodiment of the present invention, and it describes comparatively concrete and detailed, but therefore can not be interpreted as the restriction to the scope of the claims of the present invention.It should be pointed out that for the person of ordinary skill of the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, can also make some distortion and improvement, these all belong to protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, the protection domain of patent of the present invention should be as the criterion with claims.

Claims (10)

1. a compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology, is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
The finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 is set up according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding;
According to different amplitude of short circuit, fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation is carried out to described finite element model, obtain the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge;
According to the action limit value of Buchholz relay, and utilize the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.
2. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 1; it is characterized in that, described short-circuit current comprises from the relation of transformer oil flow surge: the size of the Transformer Winding short-circuit electromagnetic force caused under the short-circuit current of different amplitude, the basket vibration caused by electromagnetic force are out of shape and are out of shape the size of the transformer oil flow surge caused by basket vibration.
3. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 2; it is characterized in that; carry out fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation according to different amplitude of short circuit to described finite element model, the step obtaining the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge comprises:
According to described finite element model, magnetic field analysis is carried out to the stray field of transformer under the impact of electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, obtain stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force;
Described stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force are carried out structure analysis as loading environment, obtains the distortion and the vibration regularity that are caused Transformer Winding by the effect of electromagnetic force;
The distortion of Transformer Winding and vibration regularity are carried out wind-structure interaction as loading environment, and the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that calculating transformer basket vibration causes, obtains the relation of short-circuit current size and oil flow surge.
4. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 3; it is characterized in that; carry out magnetic field analysis according to described finite element model to the stray field of transformer under the impact of electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, the step obtaining stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force comprises:
Three dimensional hexagonal grid is taked to carry out subdivision to the corresponding body of described finite element model; Wherein, to position unshakable in one's determination with setting encryption subdivision;
Apply the size of electric current as required, calculate current density, carry out loading and solving as loading environment;
By calculating field humorous during described finite element model three-dimensional, obtain the close distribution of Three-Dimensional Magnetic at place unshakable in one's determination.
5. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 3; it is characterized in that; described stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force are carried out structure analysis as loading environment, obtain causing the distortion of Transformer Winding and the step of vibration regularity to comprise by the effect of electromagnetic force:
According to the principle of heat trnasfer, by the calculating in the transformer fluids-temperature field to described finite element model, obtain the Temperature Distribution of transformer;
The size of the short-circuit current of transformer is calculated by field circuit method;
The size of short-circuit current is carried out structure analysis as loading environment, the transient state electric power distribution of bearing when obtaining each short circuit in winding in the short circuit transient process of transformer.
6. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 5; it is characterized in that; the distortion of Transformer Winding and vibration regularity are carried out wind-structure interaction as loading environment; the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that calculating transformer basket vibration causes, the step obtaining the relation of short-circuit current size and oil flow surge comprises:
According to the transient state electric power distribution of bearing during each short circuit in winding, wind-structure interaction method is utilized to calculate the velocity flow profile of transformer oil in compact transformer, according to the short-circuit current of velocity flow profile determination transformer in different amplitude and the relation of oil flow surge.
7. compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology according to claim 1, the governing equation of described finite element model is:
▿ × ( 1 μ ▿ × A ) - ▿ ( 1 μ ▿ · A ) = J s
Boundary condition is:
∂ ∂ z [ v ′ ∂ ( rA θ ) ∂ z ] + ∂ ∂ r [ v ′ ∂ ( rA θ ) ∂ r ] = - J θ
rA θ = rA θ 0
In formula, μ is magnetic permeability, and A is vector magnetic potential, J sbe coil current density, r is the radius under cylindrical-coordinate system.
8. a compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system, is characterized in that, comprising:
MBM, for setting up the finite element model of the three-dimensional coupling of 1:1 according to the structural parameters of compact transformer; Wherein, described finite element model comprises transformer core, and high-tension coil, low-voltage coil winding;
Analysis module, for carrying out fluid structurecoupling numerical evaluation according to different amplitude of short circuit to described finite element model, obtains the short-circuit current of different amplitude and the relation of transformer oil flow surge;
Prediction module, for the action limit value according to Buchholz relay, and utilizes the Relationship Prediction compact transformer of short-circuit current and transformer oil flow surge whether grave gas misoperation occurs.
9. compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system according to claim 8; it is characterized in that, described short-circuit current comprises from the relation of transformer oil flow surge: the size of the Transformer Winding short-circuit electromagnetic force caused under the short-circuit current of different amplitude, the basket vibration caused by electromagnetic force are out of shape and are out of shape the size of the transformer oil flow surge caused by basket vibration.
10. compact transformer grave gas false protection prognoses system according to claim 9, it is characterized in that, described analysis module comprises:
Magnetic field analysis unit, for carrying out magnetic field analysis according to described finite element model to the stray field of transformer under the impact of electrical network transient state and Windings Electromagnetic Force, obtains stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force;
Structure analysis unit, for described stray field and short-circuit electromagnetic force are carried out structure analysis as loading environment, obtains the distortion and the vibration regularity that are caused Transformer Winding by the effect of electromagnetic force;
Wind-structure interaction unit, for the distortion of Transformer Winding and vibration regularity are carried out wind-structure interaction as loading environment, the oil flow surge of the compact transformer that calculating transformer basket vibration causes, obtains the relation of short-circuit current size and oil flow surge.
CN201410635932.3A 2014-11-11 2014-11-11 Compact transformer grave gas false protection Forecasting Methodology and system CN104331567B (en)

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