CN103954143B - Bootstrap system for rotary cement kiln - Google Patents

Bootstrap system for rotary cement kiln Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103954143B
CN103954143B CN201410185332.1A CN201410185332A CN103954143B CN 103954143 B CN103954143 B CN 103954143B CN 201410185332 A CN201410185332 A CN 201410185332A CN 103954143 B CN103954143 B CN 103954143B
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tube bank
flue gas
heat
temperature
tube
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CN103954143A (en
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程林
杜文静
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Shandong Institute Of Energy & Environment
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Shandong Institute Of Energy & Environment
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Priority to CN201410573164.3A priority Critical patent/CN104266481B/en
Priority to CN201410565872.2A priority patent/CN104296546B/en
Priority to CN201410568132.4A priority patent/CN104296547B/en
Priority to CN201410185332.1A priority patent/CN103954143B/en
Publication of CN103954143A publication Critical patent/CN103954143A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/14Thermal energy storage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention provides a bootstrap system for a rotary cement kiln. When a measured exhaust gas temperature is lower than a certain numerical value, the opening degree of a control valve on a bypass flue is turned up automatically by a central control unit, while the opening degree of control valves of heat utilization devices is reduced; the exhaust gas temperature is improved by reducing flow of the exhaust gas participating in heat exchange, so as to avoid low-temperature corrosion. The bootstrap system fully utilizes waste heat generated in cement production, and enables the heat exchange efficiency to the maximum, so as to save energy, avoid low-temperature corrosion and achieve the goals of environmental protection and energy conservation.

Description

A kind of cement rotary kiln bootstrap system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of high-efficiency cement production process bootstrap system, belong to the UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN field of F27d.
Background technology
Cement industry is the industry of a highly energy-consuming, high pollution.The total energy consumption of China's 2012 annual cement industries is 2.7 hundred million tons of standard coals, accounts for 8% of China's raw coal total output in 2012.New dry process is a kind of advanced person's cement production process.The grog of cement burns till via dry method, has reduced dehydration link, thereby reduces significantly energy consumption, and therefore advanced New Type Dry-process Cement Production, than the energy-conservation 50%-60% of wet production, still still exists the wide energy saving space.2010, for further improving cement production enterprise efficiency of energy utilization, reduce cement production enterprise cost, Ministry of Industry and Information has issued " new dry process rotary kiln pure low-temperature cogeneration technology promotion and implementation scheme ", applies cement producing line cogeneration technology.Cogeneration technology is exactly that the waste gas residual heat of kiln hood, the discharge of kiln tail is converted into electric energy.Cement production enterprise makes full use of cogeneration, both can meet to greatest extent business electrical demand, can reduce again manufacture of cement cost, increases economic efficiency, and can also alleviate thermal pollution and environmental pollution, is the trend of world's cement industry development.China, as manufacture of cement the biggest in the world and consumption big country, makes full use of cement rotary kiln cogeneration imperative.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the problem existing in the thermal storage equipment of existing cement industry UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, proposed a kind of novel bootstrap system that holds.
To achieve these goals, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows: a kind of heat regenerator of cement production process UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, described heat exchanger comprises the first tube bank and the second tube bank, high-temperature flue gas import, high-temperature flue gas outlet, cryogenic fluid entrance, cryogenic fluid outlet and housing, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in housing, the flue gas that described the first tube bank produces for the cement production process that circulates, the second tube bank is used for the cryogenic media that circulates, and the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in a crossed manner; Described flue gas enters from high-temperature flue gas entry, through the first tube bank, then discharges from high-temperature flue gas outlet, and cryogenic media enters from cryogenic media entrance, through the second tube bank, then discharges from cryogenic media outlet; Heat-storing material is placed in the space outside the first tube bank and the second tube bank; The second tube bank is parallel-connection structure on the flow direction perpendicular to flue gas, and in the direction of flow of flue gas, the caliber of the second tube bank constantly reduces.
A kind of heat regenerator of cement production process UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, described heat exchanger comprises the first tube bank and the second tube bank, high-temperature flue gas import, high-temperature flue gas outlet, cryogenic fluid entrance, cryogenic fluid outlet and housing, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in housing, the flue gas that described the first tube bank produces for the cement production process that circulates, the second tube bank is used for the cryogenic media that circulates, and the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in a crossed manner; Described flue gas enters from high-temperature flue gas entry, through the first tube bank, then discharges from high-temperature flue gas outlet, and cryogenic media enters from cryogenic media entrance, through the second tube bank, then discharges from cryogenic media outlet; Heat-storing material is placed in the space outside the first tube bank and the second tube bank, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are many row's structures, two ranked first and between tube bank, arrange one and ranked second tube bank, two ranked second and between tube bank, arrange one and ranked first tube bank, between the first tube bank and the second tube bank, structure is set to 90 degrees, distance between the same center of circle that ranked first adjacent two pipes in tube bank is L2, and the relation between described L2 and the first tube bank outer diameter D 1 meets: 1.5<L2/D1<2.7.
A kind of heat regenerator of cement production process UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, described heat exchanger comprises the first tube bank and the second tube bank, high-temperature flue gas import, high-temperature flue gas outlet, cryogenic fluid entrance, cryogenic fluid outlet and housing, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in housing, the flue gas that described the first tube bank produces for the cement production process that circulates, the second tube bank is used for the cryogenic media that circulates, and the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in a crossed manner; Described flue gas enters from high-temperature flue gas entry, through the first tube bank, then discharges from high-temperature flue gas outlet, and cryogenic media enters from cryogenic media entrance, through the second tube bank, then discharges from cryogenic media outlet; Heat-storing material is placed in the space outside the first tube bank and the second tube bank; On the flow direction of flue gas, multiple dividing plates are set, the first tube bank is divided into multiple independently passages; The described distance at intermediate space dividing plate is greater than the distance that is positioned at housing both sides dividing plate and housing.
A kind of multistage hold over system, described multistage hold over system comprises multistage heat regenerator, described regenerative heat exchanger connects by linkage section.
The heat storage capacity difference of the heat-storing material in regenerative heat exchangers at different levels, along the flow direction of flue gas, the heat storage capacity of the heat-storing material in regenerative heat exchangers at different levels declines gradually.
The cryogenic fluid tube bank of regenerative heat exchangers at different levels is mutually independently, on the entrance of every one-level working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, control valve is set, for regulating the flow of the medium that enters every one-level working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, simultaneously, set temperature sensor on the high-temperature flue gas exit position of hold over system, for measuring the temperature of flue gas of heat exchanger exit; Control valve, temperature sensor carry out data with central controller and are connected, and center-control, according to the size of the temperature of temperature sensor measurement, regulates the flow of the medium that enters working medium tube bank of every one-level regenerative heat exchanger automatically.
If the temperature of measuring is lower than the first temperature, the aperture of at least one in the every one-level control valve of the automatic minimizing of central controller, if the temperature of measuring is higher than the second temperature, the aperture of at least one in the every one-level control valve of the automatic increase of central controller, wherein the second temperature is greater than the first temperature.
The cryogenic fluid tube bank of regenerative heat exchangers at different levels is cascaded structures, on the entrance of working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, control valve is set, for regulating the flow of the medium that enters working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, simultaneously, set temperature sensor on the high-temperature flue gas exit position of hold over system, for measuring the temperature of flue gas of heat exchanger exit; Control valve, temperature sensor carry out data with central controller and are connected, and center-control, according to the size of the temperature of temperature sensor measurement, regulates the flow of the medium that enters working medium tube bank automatically.
If measure temperature lower than the first temperature, central controller reduces the aperture of control valve automatically, if measure temperature higher than the second temperature, central controller increases the aperture in control valve automatically, wherein the second temperature is greater than the first temperature.
On each grade of linkage section, control valve is set; for regulating the flue gas flow that enters next stage regenerative heat exchanger; between regenerative heat exchanger and control valve, bypass pipe is set simultaneously; bypass pipe control valve is set on bypass pipe; for regulating the flue gas flow that enters bypass pipe; described bypass pipe is connected on the pipeline between control valve and the regenerative heat exchanger of next stage linkage section, or is directly connected on the pipeline of exhanst gas outlet, and the bypass pipe of afterbody is directly connected on the pipeline of exhanst gas outlet; Control valve on control valve, bypass pipe on each grade of linkage section carries out data with central controller respectively and is connected, while is at the position set temperature sensor of the exhanst gas outlet of the regenerative heat exchanger of every one-level, according to the temperature of the flue gas of temperature sensor measurement, automatically regulate the aperture of the control valve on control valve, the bypass pipe on each grade of linkage section.
Compare with existing, heat regenerator of the present invention has advantages of as follows:
1) provide a kind of new residual heat system, avoided the cold end corrosion of tail gas.
2) provide a kind of new regenerative heat exchanger.
3) provide a kind of new steam-water separator.
4) provide a kind of new multistage hold over system.
5) provide a kind of new smoke separator.。
6) by the thickness of heat-storing material or the variation setting of heat storage capacity, in the situation that meeting accumulation of heat demand, provide cost savings.
7) provide a kind of new heat-storing material, met the demand of the UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN in manufacture of cement.
8) provide a kind of multistage bootstrap system, made full use of waste heat.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of bootstrap system of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of heat-absorbing structure in heat regenerator of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of heat radiation structure in heat regenerator of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the schematic top plan view of heat regenerator of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the upper left corner partial enlarged drawing of the heat regenerator of Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is another schematic diagram of heat radiation structure in heat regenerator of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is the schematic diagram of hold over system of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of flash vessel of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is the schematic diagram of steam-water separator of the present invention;
Figure 10 is the partial schematic diagram of separator segmental orifice plate;
Figure 11 is separator multi-hole orifice partial schematic diagram;
Figure 12 is the connected mode of steam inlet pipe, steam outlet pipe and the separator tube of separator;
Figure 13 is the detailed description of the invention of flue gas separation unit;
Figure 14 is another detailed description of the invention of flue gas separation unit;
Figure 15 is the schematic diagram of seeing from bottom of Figure 13 smoke inlet device.
reference numeral
1 cement rotary kiln, 2 first heat utilization device, 3 second heat utilization device, 4 by-pass flues, 5 first control valves, 6 second control valves, 7 bypass valves, 8 temperature sensors, 9 high-temperature flue gas outlets, 10 heat exchanger shells, 11 first tube banks, 12 vertical baffles, 13 high-temperature flue gas imports, 14 vertical baffles, 15 vertical baffles, 16 working medium entrances, 17 second tube banks, 18 sender property outlets, 19 inlet tubes, 20 inlet headers, 21 control valves, 22 linkage sections, 23 linkage sections, 24 one-level regenerative heat exchangers, 25 secondary regenerative heat exchangers, 26 3 grades of regenerative heat exchangers, 27 supports, 28 hot water inlets, 29 steam (vapor) outlets, 30 hot water outlets, 31 air intake flanges, 32 delivery port flanges, 33 housings, 34 separator tubes, 35 steam inlet pipes, 36 segmental orifice plates one, 37 tube connectors, 38 segmental orifice plates two, 39 multi-hole orifices, 40 steam outlet pipes, 41 venthole flanges, 42 capable of regulating gas baffles, 43 flue gas dusting baffle plates, 44 housings, 45 ash removal pipes, 46 smoke inlet pipelines.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in detail.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of cement rotary kiln bootstrap system comprises cement rotary kiln 1, at least one heat utilization device, and (Fig. 1 has only shown two, in fact be not limited to two) and by-pass flue 4, the flue gas that described cement rotary kiln 1 produces, after heat utilization device is carried out heat exchange, is drained from back-end ductwork.
As shown in Figure 1, heat utilization device is two, and two heat utilization device 2, the pipeline at 3 places is parallel-connection structure, and in parallel with bypass flue 4, the pipeline at two heat utilization device 2,3 places arranges respectively control valve 5 and 6, for regulating the flow that enters heat utilization device and participate in the flue gas of heat exchange, control valve 7 is set, for regulating the flue gas flow that enters bypass flue 4 on by-pass flue 4; In the flue gas of the pipeline at described heat utilization device 2,3 places and bypass flue 4, flue gas enters back-end ductwork after mixing, at back-end ductwork set temperature sensor 8, for measuring the exhaust gas temperature of back-end ductwork.
Described system further comprises central controller 9, and central controller 9 carries out data with control valve 5,6,7 and temperature sensor 8 and is connected, for controlling to adjust the aperture and the measurement data of accepting temperature sensor of valve.
When the exhaust gas temperature of measuring is during lower than certain numerical value, central controller tunes up the aperture of control valve 7 automatically, reduces the aperture of control valve 5,6 simultaneously, and the flow that participates in the flue gas of heat exchange by minimizing promotes exhaust gas temperature, avoids cold end corrosion.
Described at least one heat utilization device is heat regenerator, described heat exchanger comprises the first tube bank 11 and the second tube bank 17, high-temperature flue gas import 13, high-temperature flue gas outlet 9, cryogenic fluid entrance 16, cryogenic fluid outlet 18 and housing 10, described the first tube bank 11 and the second tube bank 17 are arranged in housing 10, described the first tube bank 11 flue gases that produce for the cement production process that circulates, the second tube bank 12 is for the cryogenic media that circulates, and the first tube bank 11 and the second tube bank 17 are arranged in a crossed manner; Described flue gas enters from high-temperature flue gas entry 13, through the first tube bank 11, then discharges from high-temperature flue gas outlet 9, and cryogenic media enters from cryogenic media entrance 16, through the second tube bank 17, then discharges from cryogenic media outlet 18; Heat-storing material is placed in the first tube bank 11 and second space of restraining outside 17 of heat exchanger shell.
Flue gas is through the first tube bank time, and heat-storing material absorbs the heat in flue gas, and then heat storage medium passes to the heat of absorption the cryogenic media of the second tube bank, thereby completes heat transfer process.
Flue gas and cryogenic media can flow simultaneously, and heat-storing material, in absorbing flue gas heat, transfers heat to cryogenic media.
Certainly select as another, flue gas and cryogenic media can different time sections carry out heat exchange with heat storage medium respectively.In endothermic process, high-temperature flue gas heat release in pipe, heat-storing material storing heat; In the time of heat that needs utilization stores, in the second tube bank, by cryogenic media, absorb the heat of heat storage medium.For example, in the time that high-temperature flue gas intermittence stops, the cryogenic fluid in heat-storing material and the second tube bank carries out exothermic reaction, realizes storage and the utilization of cement production process waste heat, has improved the utilization rate of the energy.
As one preferably, the first tube bank 11 and the second tube bank 17 be many row's structures, and two ranked first and between tube bank 11, arrange one and ranked second tube bank 17, two and ranked second and between tube bank 17, arrange one and ranked first and restrain 11, structure angle setting in 90 ° between the first tube bank 11 and the second tube bank 17, as shown in Figure 3.Wherein the distance between the first tube bank 3 and the second tube bank 17 center lines can not be excessive, if excessive, can there is no enough heats because of flue gas, cause heat-storing material cannot hold full heat, cause the waste of heat-storing material, also can cause the temperature of outlet 13 flue gases too low simultaneously, cause cold end corrosion; If distance is too small, cause heat-storing material to hold and meet enough heats, cause the demand that cannot meet heat exchange, caused the waste of the energy, therefore, the present invention is the size relationship of the best heat exchanger that sums up of the test data of the heat exchanger by multiple different tube diameters.
Wherein the external diameter of the first tube bank is D1, and the external diameter of the second tube bank is D2, and the distance between the center line of the first tube bank and the center line of the second tube bank is L, and D1, D2 and L meet following formula:
L=a* (D1 2+ D2 2) b, wherein a, b is parameter, wherein 0.95<=a<=1.05,0.53<=b<=0.55;
25mm<=D1<=60mm,?25mm<=D2<=60mm,
L, D1, the unit of D2 is mm.
The numerical value of L is the numerical value of unit while being mm, and the unit of L is mm, D1, and the numerical value of D2 is the numerical value of unit while being mm
As one preferably, a=1, b=0.54.
Distance between the same center of circle that ranked first adjacent two pipes in tube bank is L2, the distance of L2 can not be excessive, cause heat cannot hold completely if cross conference, cause the waste of heat-storing material, if too small, can cause the heat storage capacity of heat-storing material too low, cannot meet accumulation of heat demand, can cause the loss of waste heat.By test of many times, the relation between definite described L2 and the first tube bank outer diameter D 1 meets: 1.5<L2/D1<2.7, and preferred, 1.9<L2/D1<2.1.
As preferably, as in Figure 2-4, described heat exchanger is vertical structure, the first tube bank 11 is vertical direction setting, the second tube bank 17 is horizontal direction setting, and in the vertical direction arranges multiple dividing plates 12,14,15, by multiple dividing plates, the first tube bank is divided into multiple independently passages.By dividing plate, be conducive to further improve the convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection performance of flue gas.Vertical baffle 12, vertical baffle 14 and vertical baffle 15 are also the gripper shoes of the second tube bank 17 simultaneously.
As one preferably, along the vertical middle alignment housing both sides of housing, the distance between dividing plate is more and more less.The distance of the intermediate space that for example described dividing plate forms is greater than the distance that is positioned at housing both sides.Space and 14 and 15 spaces that form that its median septum 12,14 forms are greater than dividing plate 12 and the space that left side housing forms, and are greater than the space that dividing plate 15 and right side housing form simultaneously.Main cause is because the speed of the speed of the flue gas of housing both sides in the middle of being less than, and can be that speed air flow in whole housing is consistent substantially, thereby make heat-storing material evenly heat absorption on the whole by arranging of dividing plate.
As preferably, as shown in Figure 3, between the above second adjacent tube bank 17 of above-below direction, bend pipe structure is set, thereby makes the second tube bank on above-below direction, form coiled pipe structure.
As one preferably, along the direction of flow of flue gas, the heat storage capacity of described heat-storing material reduces gradually.Main cause is the flow direction along flue gas, and the temperature of flue gas is more and more lower, and the heat release ability of flue gas reduces gradually, does not therefore need the material of high accumulation of heat energy, can save like this cost of heat-storing material.
In Fig. 3, the second tube bank is that many coiled pipes in parallel parallel to each other are set in vertical direction, and cryogenic media flows along vertical direction, but the arrangement mode of the second tube bank is not limited to the form shown in Fig. 2.As shown in Figure 6, as another kind of set-up mode, the second tube bank is many pipes in parallel parallel to each other in the horizontal direction, described pipe can be coiled pipe, being that pipe on same plane links together by bend pipe in end, is cascaded structure, is parallel-connection structure at the pipe of Different Plane.Certainly, described pipe also can not arrange bend pipe, in the plane with vertical direction on all pipes be all parallel-connection structure.
For the form shown in Fig. 6, as one preferably, in the direction of flow of flue gas, the caliber of the second tube bank constantly reduces.Main cause is because of the direction along flow of flue gas, the temperature of flue gas constantly declines, heat-storing material institute storing heat is also fewer and feweri, therefore by reducing caliber, reduce the flow of the cryogenic media of the heat-storing material of flowing through, thereby make on the flow direction of delaying, the overall temperature rising difference of cryogenic media is little, the temperature of cryogenic media before mixing after heating is consistent substantially, avoid temperature inhomogeneous of heating, also can avoid the second tube bank be heated inhomogeneous and cause local temperature too high, affect its service life simultaneously.
As one preferably, along the direction of flow of flue gas, the distance between the center line of the first described tube bank 11 and the center line of the second tube bank 17 is that L reduces gradually.Main cause is the flow direction along flue gas, and the temperature of flue gas is more and more lower, and the heat release ability of flue gas reduces gradually, and therefore needed heat-storing material is also just fewer and feweri, can save like this cost of heat-storing material.
For above-mentioned situation, but L numerical value now also meets above-mentioned formula.Can adjust the numerical value that L constantly changes by adjusting the size of a, two parameters of b.
As preferably, along flow of flue gas direction, described heat-storing material is given into multistage, and each section is mutually independently, and the difference of the insulation material heat storage capacity by each section realizes the reduction gradually of heat storage capacity.For example can be by the difference of heat-storing material (comprising composition difference).
As one preferably, control valve 21 is set on the entrance of the second tube bank 17, for regulating the flow of the medium that enters the second tube bank 17, simultaneously, export set temperature sensor (not shown) on 9 positions at high-temperature flue gas, for measuring the temperature of flue gas of heat exchanger exit; Control valve 21, temperature sensor carry out data with central controller (not shown) and are connected, and center-control, according to the size of the temperature of temperature sensor measurement, regulates the flow of the medium that enters the second tube bank 17 automatically.
If measure temperature lower than the first temperature, central controller reduces the aperture of control valve automatically, if measure temperature higher than the second temperature, central controller increases the aperture of control valve automatically, wherein the second temperature is greater than the first temperature.
Why take above-mentioned measure, main purpose is in order to prevent cold end corrosion.Because if exhanst gas outlet temperature is too low, can cause flue-gas temperature lower than dew-point temperature, can cause the cold end corrosion to smoke discharging pipe and heat exchanger, participate in the flow of the cryogenic media of heat exchange by minimizing, reduce heat exchange amount, improve outlet temperature, can avoid the generation of cold end corrosion to the control of temperature; In like manner, if the temperature of measuring is higher than uniform temperature, show that exhaust gas temperature is too high, can cause waste, therefore, need to increase the flow of fluid, absorb more heat.
Preferably, described heat storage medium is middle thermohaline based phase-change material, and described middle thermohaline sill consists of the following composition: KNO 3, NaNO 3, NaNO 2, CaNO 3, KNO 2, the mass percent of each composition is respectively: 33-35%KNO 3, 19-21%NaNO 3, 32-33%NaNO 2, 7.14%CaNO 3, all the other are KNO 2.
Preferably, 33.34%KNO 3, 20.21%NaNO 3, 32.35%NaNO 2, 7.14%CaNO 3, all the other are KNO 2.
Obtain the heat-storing material of different melting points by adjusting the composition of heat-storing material.
Above-mentioned heat-storing material is the result obtaining by test of many times, and fusing point, more than 200 DEG C, has met the absorbing waste heat in cement production process completely.
At least one described heat utilization device is multistage hold over system.As shown in Figure 7, multistage hold over system comprises three grades of heat regenerator 24-26 and two linkage sections 22,23, and regenerative heat exchanger can adopt regenerative heat exchanger noted earlier, can certainly adopt other the regenerative heat exchanger of this area.Wherein between first order regenerative heat exchanger 24 and second level regenerative heat exchanger 25, be connected by linkage section 23, second level regenerative heat exchanger 25 is connected by linkage section 22 with third level regenerative heat exchanger 26.
Although Fig. 7 has shown three grades of regenerative heat exchangers, be in fact not limited to three grades, two-stage heat exchanger or the above regenerative heat exchanger of other level Four can be set.Adjacent at different levelsly connect by linkage section.
Linkage section is not limited to form shown in the drawings, can be the form of pipe.
Along the flow direction of flue gas, the heat storage capacity of the heat-storing material in regenerative heat exchangers at different levels declines gradually.For example, the middle thermohaline sill that can choose different melting points is realized different heat storage capacities.For first order regenerative heat exchanger 24, the fusing point 230-250 DEG C of heat-storing material, preferably 240 DEG C; For second level regenerative heat exchanger 25, the fusing point 150-170 DEG C of heat-storing material, preferably 160 DEG C, for third level regenerative heat exchanger 26, the fusing point 90-110 DEG C of heat-storing material, preferably 100 DEG C.
The inlet temperature of the high-temperature flue gas of regenerative heat exchangers at different levels is within the scope of 140 DEG C-300 DEG C.
In endothermic process, the shell-side at the second tube bank place of first order regenerative heat exchanger 24 is spaces of high temperature fusing point alkali material, high-temperature flue gas heat release in pipe, and salt sill heat absorption liquefy, corresponding fusing point is 240 DEG C of left and right.In exothermic process, the heat-storing material exothermic temperature of one-level regenerative heat exchanger reduces, and the cryogenic fluid endothermic temperature in the second tube bank of one-level regenerative heat exchanger raises.
In endothermic process, the shell-side at the second tube bank place of second level regenerative heat exchanger 25 is spaces of high-melting-point salt sill, high-temperature flue gas heat release in secondary heat exchange face, secondary salt sill heat absorption liquefy.Because flue gas reduces along Cheng Wendu, therefore, must select the secondary salt sill having compared with low melting point, corresponding fusing point is 160 DEG C of left and right.In exothermic process, secondary salt sill exothermic temperature reduces, and the cryogenic fluid endothermic temperature in secondary the second tube bank raises.
In endothermic process, second level regenerative heat exchanger working medium is the space of high temperature fusing point alkali material with the shell-side at heat-exchanging tube bundle place, high-temperature flue gas heat release in three grades of heat-transfer surfaces, three grades of salt sill heat absorption liquefies.Because flue gas reduces along Cheng Wendu, need to select to there are more three grades of salt sills of low melting point herein, corresponding fusing point is 140 DEG C of left and right.In exothermic process, three grades of salt sill exothermic temperatures reduce, and three grades of working medium raise with the cryogenic fluid endothermic temperature in heat-exchanging tube bundle.
Mobile between cryogenic media and flue gas is counter-current flow.For the second tube bank of every one-level regenerative heat exchanger, can be heating system independently mutually, also can connect tube bank by arranging, the second tube bank of adjacent two-stage is coupled together, thereby form the second tube bank of a series connection.After described cryogenic fluid heats in third level regenerative heat exchanger, continue heating entering in the regenerative heat exchanger of the second level, in the regenerative heat exchanger of the second level after heating, heat entering in first order regenerative heat exchanger.
Control valve is set on the entrance of every one-level working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle (if working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle is cascaded structure, only need on the entrance of third level working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, control valve be set), for regulating the flow of the medium that enters every one-level working medium heat-exchanging tube bundle, simultaneously, export set temperature sensor (not shown) on 1 position at high-temperature flue gas, for measuring the temperature of flue gas of heat exchanger exit; Control valve, temperature sensor carry out data with central controller (not shown) and are connected, and center-control, according to the size of the temperature of temperature sensor measurement, regulates the flow of the medium that enters working medium tube bank of every one-level regenerative heat exchanger automatically.
If the temperature of measuring is lower than the first temperature, the aperture of at least one in the every one-level control valve of the automatic minimizing of central controller, if the temperature of measuring is higher than the second temperature, the aperture of at least one in the every one-level control valve of the automatic increase of central controller, wherein the second temperature is greater than the first temperature.
Why take above-mentioned measure, main purpose is in order to prevent cold end corrosion.Because if exhanst gas outlet temperature is too low, can cause flue-gas temperature lower than dew-point temperature, can cause the cold end corrosion to smoke discharging pipe and heat exchanger, participate in the flow of the cryogenic media of heat exchange by minimizing, reduce heat exchange amount, improve outlet temperature, can avoid the generation of cold end corrosion to the control of temperature; In like manner, if the temperature of measuring is higher than uniform temperature, show that exhaust gas temperature is too high, can cause waste, therefore, need to increase the flow of fluid, absorb more heat.
Preferably, at least one described heat utilization device is flash vessel, described flash vessel comprises support 27, hot water inlet 28, steam (vapor) outlet 29, hot water outlet 30, enters flash vessel from the high-temperature water of afterheat generating system from flash vessel hot water inlet 28, and the saturated vapor producing after dilatation flash distillation under certain pressure is incorporated into afterheat generating system from flash vessel steam (vapor) outlet 29.The hot water that in flash vessel, temperature reduces is discharged from flash vessel hot water outlet 30.
Flash vessel steam (vapor) outlet 29 arranges a kind of high-efficiency steam-water separator, comprises housing 33, separator tube 34, steam inlet pipe 35, segmental orifice plate 1, segmental orifice plate 2 38, multi-hole orifice 39, tube connector 37 and steam outlet pipe 40.
Steam-water separator is vertical, and the steam inlet pipe 35 of steam-water separator and steam outlet pipe 40 are arranged in respectively bottom and the tip position of separator, and outlet pipe is positioned at housing 33 bottom sides.Separator tube 34 is divided into two sections, between two sections, connect by intermediate connection tube 37, steam inlet pipe 35 ports of export and steam outlet pipe 40 entrance points insert respectively in two sections of separator 34, use steel bar in fillet welding mode, separator tube 34 to be connected with 35 and 40, and connected mode is as accompanying drawing 12.Segmental orifice plate 1 and segmental orifice plate 2 38 are arranged on steam inlet end and the port of export in tube connector 37, segmental orifice plate perforate mouth is placed in tube connector heteropleural, as shown in Figure 10, this arrangement makes mobile in tube connector of steam be streamlined, improves separative efficiency.Multi-hole orifice 39 is arranged in the second segment in steam outlet pipe end separator tube 40, has aperture on orifice plate, and aperture is the center of circle to be arranged, as shown in figure 11.
Enter after steam inlet pipe 35 in moist steam, Existential Space between steam inlet pipe 35 outlets and separator 34, the steam that goes out steam inlet pipe expands in separator, steam flow rate reduces, in steam, part water droplet is because the effect flow velocity of gravity also reduces, in the space of steam between separator tube 34 and steam inlet pipe 35, carry out carbonated drink and separate, the passage that provides water droplet to fall in the connected mode that steam inlet pipe 35 and separator tube 34 adopt, part water droplet under the effect of gravity along separator tube inwall side direction current downflow.This process is that in steam, vapour separates for the first time with water.
Admission pipe end separator 34 is connected with tube connector 37, tube connector 37 calibers are less than separator 34, tube connector 37 entrance points arrange segmental orifice plate 1, steam carries out throttling by segmental orifice plate 1, the circulation area of fluid reduces, and the throttling action of orifice plate makes the pressure drop of steam, and the flow velocity of vapor stream increases, most of steam pushes through throttling scallop hole, and steam flow rate is again because increase and a fluid stream diffusion of circulation area reduce.The port of export of tube connector 37 be provided with one with the segmental orifice plate 2 38 of tube connector entrance point same size, the supercharging of slowing down herein again of the steam a fluid stream of diffusion, steam by orifice plate after circulation area again increase, a fluid stream spreads again.In this process, steam a fluid stream is due to the throttling of orifice plate and the weight of drop, effect of inertia, and moisture is more separated, and is the efficient section separating of vapor stream.Steam carries out second, third carbonated drink and separates in tube connector.
Between tube connector 37 and steam outlet pipe end separator tube 34, caliber is different, steam from tube connector 37 out flow section occur larger variation, flowing velocity increase, a fluid stream diffusion increase, in separator tube 34 again separate.Tube connector 37 exits arrange a multi-hole orifice 39, and for the separating for several times of steam vapour and water, steam is isolated preferably dry saturated steam and water after by multiple apertures of multi-hole orifice 39 in steam-water separator, realize separating for the 4th time of vapour and water in steam.Existential Space between steam outlet pipe 40 and separator 34, steam changes entering the rear flow section of steam outlet pipe 40, and the vapour of steam inside separates again with water, realizes separating for the 5th time of vapour and water in steam.The position that in whole process, steam carries out carbonated drink separation comprises between steam inlet pipe and separator tube, between separator tube and tube connector interface, segmental orifice plate one, segmental orifice plate two, multi-hole orifice and steam outlet pipe and separator tube.The water droplet of finally separating is finally discharged outside steam-water separator by delivery port because the effect of gravity flows downward.
Preferably, above-mentioned separator is arranged on the exit position of flash vessel, and described delivery port is connected with the delivery port of flash vessel, in order to separate vapour and water, avoids water to enter in steam turbine.
By experiment repeatedly, obtain optimum size relationship.The caliber of described tube connector 37 is 0.45-0.55 times of separator tube 34 calibers, and the caliber of two sections of separator tubes 34 is identical; Steam inlet pipe 35 is identical with the caliber of steam outlet pipe 40, and be the 0.45-0.55 of separator tube caliber doubly, the length that steam inlet pipe stretches into separator tube first paragraph is the 30-45% of the length of separator tube first end, the length that steam outlet pipe stretches into separator tube second segment is the 30-45% of the length of separator tube the second end, the distance of the bottom of separator tube first paragraph lower end and shell separator is the 15-20% of housing total length, and the distance on the top of separator tube second segment upper end and shell separator is the 15-20% of housing total length; The circle of segmental orifice plate one and segmental orifice plate one lacks 0.2-0.3 times that height a is diameter.Preferably, described multi-hole orifice is the 8-10% of second segment total length apart from the distance of separator tube second segment lower end.
Preferably, the described mouth that enters at least one heat utilization device is installed smoke separator, as shown in figure 13.Described smoke inlet device is arranged on the position of entering mouth of afterheat heat exchanger, to avoid more solid combustion particle to enter afterheat heat exchanger, avoids dust stratification.
As shown in figure 13, smoke inlet device, comprises capable of regulating gas baffle 42, flue gas dusting baffle plate 43, housing 44, ash removal pipe 45, smoke inlet pipeline 46.Smoke inlet pipeline 46 is positioned at lower end, is the entrance point of flue gas, rounded.Flue gas from cement production process is entered by inlet duct 46 from bottom to top, after sedimentation ash disposal, is flowed out by the exit position of housing 44 crown centers.Smoke outlet is square, as shown in figure 14.Ash removal pipe 45 is built in housing 55, and for the dust of sedimentation and collection flue gas, its below connects regular ash exhauster.Flue gas dusting baffle plate 43 interconnects with ash removal pipe 45 tops, is Y-type layout, to increase the area gathering dust.Capable of regulating baffle plate 42 is arranged on the top of housing 44, is flexibly connected with housing 44.Can adjust the flow velocity of smoke outlet by changing the angle of capable of regulating baffle plate 44, to obtain good dust removing effects.
As shown in figure 13, described housing 44 by lower end first vertically section, with the first outside tilting section that vertically section is connected, the second vertical section and be positioned at forming with second vertical section of horizontal segment being connected of top of being connected with tilting section, described capable of regulating gas baffle 42 is connected with the other end of horizontal segment, adjusts angle round the other end of horizontal segment; The first described vertical section has formed the entrance of flue gas, and described ash removal pipe 45 is deep in housing 44 from smoke inlet, and flue gas dusting baffle plate 43 is connected with the upper end that is positioned at housing 44 of ash removal pipe 45; In the vertical direction, the top and bottom of described flue gas dusting baffle plate 43 are between the top and bottom of the second vertical section; Described tilting section is outward-dipping, and the circulation area of flue gas is increased, and has reduced the flow velocity of flue gas, then passes through the second vertical section, and the circulation area of flue gas remains unchanged substantially, last because the existence of second vertical section makes flue gas change flow direction.
The first vertical section can be pipe as shown in figure 14, can be also square tube or other structures.
In implementation process, flue gas enters smoke inlet device via smoke inlet pipeline, and by the space being formed by smoke inlet pipeline and ash removal pipe, now the circulation area of flue gas is less, and corresponding flow velocity is larger.In flue gas uphill process, the circulation area of flue gas increases gradually, and flow velocity reduces gradually, and contained dust separates gradually with flue gas, and this thing has occurred to separate for the first time.In the time that air-flow continues to rise, owing to being subject to the obstruction of flue gas dusting baffle plate 17, flue gas deflects, and the dust in flue gas is subject to the effect of gravity and inertia force, and dust separates for the second time with flue gas.In the process that continues to rise at flue gas, because the reason of horizontal segment, flue gas turns round, and in turning process, dust has carried out separating for the third time with flue gas; Along with the continuation of flue gas is flowed, between capable of regulating gas baffle and flue gas dusting baffle plate, form one with the passage of flow of flue gas opposite direction, in flowing when smoke gas flow is crossed herein passage, be subject to larger disturbance, due to the inhibition of inertia, gravity and capable of regulating baffle plate and flue gas dusting baffle plate, flue gas separates for the 4th time with dust.This region is flue gas and the efficient region separating of dust.Isolated dust falls into ash removal pipe and builds up, and when dust stratification reaches certain degree, opens the ash-removing mouth of ash removal pipe bottom and implements ash discharge.By adjusting the angle of capable of regulating baffle plate, can either form specific flue gas flexure type runner, can regulate again the velocity of liquid assets of flue gas.Therefore, the structure of capable of regulating gas baffle and flue gas dusting baffle plate can realize the repeatedly high-effective dust-removing of flue gas, has reduced significantly equipment dust stratification problem in flue, has improved again flue gas and has entered the heat exchange efficiency after heat exchanger.
For above-mentioned separating for four times, wherein most importantly separate for the 4th time, the dust now separating is maximum, and for the dust of first three separation, relative is less, and therefore the device of ash disposal is not set separately.
As one preferably, described flue gas enters in housing by independent flue 46, as shown in figure 14, in such cases, the dust of first three separation can fall into the space between the first vertical section and flue 46, then the spatial placement ash handling equipment between the first vertical section and flue 46, intermittent dust removal.
Preferably, the height in the housing that flue 46 stretches into will be higher than the height of the first vertical section.
For above-mentioned two kinds of embodiment, as one preferably, align with the end in the vertical direction being connected with capable of regulating gas baffle of horizontal segment in the end of described flue gas dusting baffle plate, described flue gas dusting baffle plate and the angle of horizontal direction are 15-40 °, described tilting section and the angle of horizontal direction are 20-45 °, in the vertical direction, the height of the second vertical section is 2.5-5.6 times of tilting section height.
Preferably, align with first vertical section of in the vertical direction in the end being connected with capable of regulating gas baffle of horizontal segment.
Although the present invention discloses as above with preferred embodiment, the present invention is not defined in this.Any those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, all can make various changes or modifications, and therefore protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with claim limited range.

Claims (1)

1. a cement rotary kiln bootstrap system, comprises cement rotary kiln, multiple heat utilization device, and the flue gas that described cement rotary kiln produces, after heat utilization device is carried out heat exchange, is drained from back-end ductwork; The pipeline at multiple heat utilization device place is parallel-connection structure, and the flue gas after the heat exchange of the pipeline at described heat utilization device place enters back-end ductwork after mixing;
Described at least one heat utilization device is heat regenerator, described heat exchanger comprises the first tube bank and the second tube bank, high-temperature flue gas import, high-temperature flue gas outlet, cryogenic fluid entrance, cryogenic fluid outlet and housing, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in housing, the flue gas that described the first tube bank produces for the cement production process that circulates, the second tube bank is used for the cryogenic media that circulates, and the first tube bank and the second tube bank are arranged in a crossed manner; Described flue gas enters from high-temperature flue gas entry, through the first tube bank, then discharges from high-temperature flue gas outlet, and cryogenic media enters from cryogenic media entrance, through the second tube bank, then discharges from cryogenic media outlet; Heat-storing material is placed in the space outside the first tube bank and the second tube bank, described the first tube bank and the second tube bank are many row's structures, two ranked first and between tube bank, arrange one and ranked second tube bank, two ranked second and between tube bank, arrange one and ranked first tube bank, between the first tube bank and the second tube bank, structure is set to 90 degrees, distance between the same center of circle that ranked first adjacent two pipes in tube bank is L2, and the relation between described L2 and the first tube bank outer diameter D 1 meets: 1.5<L2/D1<2.7;
Described heat-storing material is middle thermohaline based phase-change material, and described middle thermohaline based phase-change material consists of the following composition: KNO 3, NaNO 3, NaNO 2, CaNO 3, KNO 2, the mass percent of each composition is respectively: 33-35%KNO 3, 19-21%NaNO 3, 32-33%NaNO 2, 7.14%CaNO 3, all the other are KNO 2.
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CN201410573164.3A CN104266481B (en) 2014-05-05 2014-05-05 A kind of cement rotary kiln bootstrap system with multistage hold over system
CN201410565872.2A CN104296546B (en) 2014-05-05 2014-05-05 A kind of cement rotary kiln bootstrap system that smoke separator is set
CN201410568132.4A CN104296547B (en) 2014-05-05 2014-05-05 A kind of cement rotary kiln bootstrap system that flash vessel is set
CN201410185332.1A CN103954143B (en) 2014-05-05 2014-05-05 Bootstrap system for rotary cement kiln

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CN104296546A (en) 2015-01-21
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