CN103884830A - Automatic temperature compensation type soil water tension meter system and determination method - Google Patents

Automatic temperature compensation type soil water tension meter system and determination method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103884830A
CN103884830A CN201410118302.9A CN201410118302A CN103884830A CN 103884830 A CN103884830 A CN 103884830A CN 201410118302 A CN201410118302 A CN 201410118302A CN 103884830 A CN103884830 A CN 103884830A
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temperature
tensiometer
compensation
water
tension meter
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唐玉邦
虞利俊
徐磊
裴勤
曹庆穗
王恒义
褚芳
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Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention relates to an automatic temperature compensation type soil water tension meter system and a determination method. The system is composed of a tension meter end and a control center end, wherein the tension meter end and the control center end transmit by virtue of a wireless signal; the tension meter end comprises a tension meter and a data acquisition and processing transmitter; the tension meter is internally provided with a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor; all the sensors are connected with the data acquisition and processing transmitter; the control center end comprises a computer and a receiver; the receiver and the data acquisition and processing transmitter of the tension meter end wirelessly transmit data or instructions. According to the automatic temperature compensation type soil water tension meter system and the determination method, the errors of the tension meter system, caused by the change of environment temperatures, are reduced. Meanwhile, temperature and water content conditions of a soil environment can be subjected to all-weather real-time monitoring; the data acquisition amount is great and the data can be automatically uploaded to a central controller to realize water management.

Description

Temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system and assay method
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural facility cultivation and field crop and produce upper soil (or matrix) flow of water automatic monitoring technical field, relate to a kind of with pot clay end flow of water sensor (soil moisture tension meter), by installing temperature sensors of high precision therein additional, pass through again the computational analysis of software, a whole set of system that in soil to measurement gained or cultivation matrix, the flow of water is carried out temperature correction, thereby effectively improve the precision degree of the measurement of the field soil flow of water, can improve the efficiency of crop irrigation and improve the upgrowth situation of crop.
Background technology
21 century, the main restricting factor of China's agricultural sustainable development was water resource deficiency and water and soil resources skewness, account for 73.1% agricultural water rich and influential family for water, the in the situation that of water resource deficiency, because the irrigation technique level of China is comparatively backward, there is serious irrigation not in time and the phenomenons such as irrigation that exceed the quata, affect the output of crop, irrigation efficiency is lower, simultaneously due to drought and water shortage, also cause excessive surface water and its excessive exploitation of groundwater quoted, cause serious ecological environment problem, threaten environment for human survival and agriculture sustainable development.
Along with the continuous progress of agricultural irrigation technology, automatic control technology is applied gradually.The modern high technologies such as computing machine, artificial intelligence, infotech, Geographic Information System, satellite remote sensing, GPS are combined with the basic theories such as traditional arable farming, meteorology, irrigation, systems engineering, economics, the dirigibility, accuracy, the practicality that improve real-time irrigation operation are intelligent irrigation development trends from now on.
Precision agriculture fertigation administrative skill refers to and needs water, regulation of fertilizer requirement according to crop, control, allocate irrigation water, use fertilizer, to meet to greatest extent the demand of crop to moisture, nutrient, the Farmland Water of feasible region benefit the best, fertilizers regulation management.It comprises the formulation of the fertile high efficiency irrigation schedule of soil moisture content monitoring and prediction technology, soil fertility monitoring, water saving, joint, be the Irrigation Forecast technology of object to the maximum with region total benefit, several aspects such as the adjusting control technology of the measurement of transmission & distribution water and irrigation quantity and applying fertilizer amount.Growth and development process to crop and the present situation of environmental element realize digitizing, networking, intelligent control.(Xu Lei, Tang Yubang, Yu Lijun etc. are for the Precision Irrigation Design of intelligent controller and application Agriculture in Jiangxi journal 2012 of rain shelter cultivation, 24(6): 170~172), along with the development of modern agriculture, industrialized agriculture, the Precision Irrigation of crop water is more and more subject to people's attention.Computing machine, artificial intelligence, infotech, sensor technology are introduced into and in agricultural production, have realized soil moisture content monitoring and prediction, and complete on this basis the automatic Precision Irrigation of crop.The moisture information that accurately obtains soil (or cultivation matrix) in whole process becomes key.
Closely the research of decades shows, understand soil water movement and the soil water supply capacity to plant, the idea of only having soil moisture quantity is inadequate.For example, be 21% to the soil moisture content of clay, the soil moisture content of sand is 16%, two soil sample contact, if how the holard should move the idea of only considering soil moisture quantity, seems soil moisture should flow to sand from clay soil sample, but true on the contrary.Just because of now the soil moisture potential of sand is high, the soil water potential ambassador moisture of sand flows to clay by sand.This absolutely proves to only have the idea of soil moisture quantity, still can not fine research soil water movement and the water supply to plant, must set up the idea of soil moisture potential, i.e. the concept of soil water potential.The measurement of soil water potential has tensiometer method, negative pressure method, centrifuge method, pressure membrane method etc., the most convenient with suction type Soil Tension method.(Zhu Jianchu, etc. Soil Tension Meter with Negative-pressure Mercury improvement and application northwest agricultural journal 2002,11 (2): 29~33) for Liu Sichun, Wang Guodong
Soil moisture tension meter is the basic device that obtains soil moisture information.As everyone knows, soil moisture is subject to the effect of the hollow billet gravitation in soil aperture and the molecular attraction of grogs, makes moisture in soil aperture in negative pressure (suction) state, and soil suction is larger, and the moisture in soil aperture is fewer, and soil moisture content is also just low; Otherwise soil suction is less, the more, soil moisture content is higher for the moisture in soil aperture.So the data of Soil Tension instruction just can roughly reflect the water cut situation of soil.Measure the method for holard tension force applies for many years in field with tensiometer.Tensiometer is a water-filled pipe, and one end is the ceramic head of hollow, and the other end is vacuum instrumentation and sealing-plug.Tensiometer is arranged in the appropriate depth of soil, ceramic head and soil close contact.Make the water in water and the soil in tensiometer finally reach pressure equilibrium by ceramic head.Water in tensiometer closed conduct enters soil by ceramic head, produces tension force.After soil moisture absorption, tension gradient declines, and moisture flows back to ceramic head.Soil is through drying and watering cycle, just can obtain tension readings, (Mu Xianyou, monitoring technology Agricultural University of the Inner Mongol journal the 24th the 4th phase of volume of Dec in 2003 of soil moisture content in the blue agriculture water quantity management of Ji letter) reacts the water cut situation of soil thus, for scientific application of irrigation provides foundation.
Present stage, soil moisture tension meter design feature was: the parts compositions such as pot clay end, cavity, collection chamber, measuring index device.Pot clay end is the inductive means of instrument, has many small holes, and pot clay end is flooded after profit, forms water membrane in hole.Therefore, when actual use, the air in pot clay end fully must be discharged, operate in strict accordance with the use code of tensiometer:
1, boiling tap water, after 20 minutes, is placed cooling for subsequent use.
2, open the lid of discharge, and instrument is tilted, blow slowly and inject air free water cooling after boiling with plastic bottle, until fill it up with, upright 10-20 minutes (not adding lid) of instrument, make water that vitrified-clay pipe is moistening, and water breakthrough oozes from pot clay end surface.
3, again instrument is filled to air free water, (or fill in a rubber device that is inserted with injection needle in water filling from pot clay end water absorbent surface with dry cloth or the good paper of water absorbing properties, bleed with syringe, while bleeding, notice that needle point must and stretch into instrument internal through rubber stopper.Withstand rubber stopper with left hand simultaneously, do not allow it become flexible gas leakage).Now, can see the pointer of vacuum meter, point to 40Kpa left and right, and have bubble to overflow in vacuum meter, be gathered in gradually in discharge.Slowly uncork, allow vacuum meter pointer slowly return zero-bit.Continue instrument to fill air free water, still bleed with said method.Repeat 3-4 time like this, the air in vacuum meter can be removed major part.
4, instrument is filled to air free water, add stopper, sealed, and instrument is upright, allow vitrified-clay pipe at air evaporation, after approximately two hours, i.e. the pointed 40Kpa of visible vacuum meter or higher.Now from vitrified-clay pipe vacuum meter plastic tube and discharge, have the bubble burying and overflow, meanwhile, gently by instrument turned upside down, bubble is focused in discharge.
5, vitrified-clay pipe is immersed in air free water, now, visible vacuum meter pointer back to zero, uncap, refills air free water, adds upper cover, then allows vitrified-clay pipe at air evaporation.Now, the pointer of vacuum meter can rise to 50Kpa or higher.Gently by instrument turned upside down, collect the air of overflowing simultaneously.
6, undertaken 2-3 time by above step, after often carrying out once, the pointer of vacuum meter can rise get Geng Gao, until pointer immerses vitrified-clay pipe in air free water while reaching 80Kpa, vacuum pointer rotates back to zero.Uncap, fills water, and lid covers tightly, and vitrified-clay pipe is immersed in air free water for subsequent use.
Data acquisition: after apparatus installation 24 hours, just can carry out data acquisition.Soil water suction is affected by temperature, unit weight etc., should note not treading instrument soil around, gathers (being preferably in early morning) to avoid measuring point and the error that cause different with instrument Yin Wendu in the little time of temperature variation as far as possible.
When after the whole water-fillings of the hole in pot clay end, in hole, water just has tension force, and this tension force can ensure that water passes through pot clay end under certain pressure, but stops air to pass through.In the time being full of the undersaturated soil of tensiometer insertion moisture of water and sealing, moisture film just couples together with the holard, produces the contact in waterpower.When the flow of water of soil system is unequal, water is just flowed to flow of water lower by pot clay end by flow of water eminence, until the flow of water balance of two systems (this process generally needs more than 24 hours equilibration time).Because instrument seals, in instrument, just produce vacuum tightness or suction (being butted on the pressure of atmosphere with reference to pressure), the suction of Here it is soil.The water yield in the water accumulation pipe of tensiometer middle part is except being subject to the impact of soil dry humidity, and environment temperature also can change the volume of Guan Zhongshui.Water can expand or shrink along with the increase and decrease of environment temperature, and the negative pressure producing due to the variation of water volume in the tensiometer water accumulation pipe of sealing or malleation just change the reading (seeing experiment 1) of vacuum meter or pressure transducer, has caused the systematic error of equipment.
Experiment 1: tensiometer vitrified-clay pipe water body causes overpressure changing trend diagram because of temperature variation
Experiment 1 is to change the pot clay end of tensionmeter system into sealing plug, makes the water-stop of whole system in instrument internal, records the temperature variation in tensiometer body, records corresponding pressure (tension force) value simultaneously.Draw the variation tendency of Fig. 2 with this.But the tensionmeter system of practical application, with pot clay end, can outwards transmit until balance by pot clay end according to system pressure differential in the time that the variation of overpressure Yin Wendu raises or reduces.
But inventor finds in application, in the time that the soil moisture content in experiment basin alms bowl is relatively constant, force value in depressimeter still can be along with variation day and night there will be the variation of regular periodicity height, and changing value reaches 10-30% sometimes, in application, also occur that night, automatic irrigation system soil entered extremely dry and emergency start phenomenon, reached the degree that can not ignore, through further research discovery, the negative pressure value in depressimeter is really relevant with temperature.(as what carry in tensiometer operating specification: soil water suction is affected by temperature, unit weight etc., should note not treading instrument soil around, gather (being preferably in early morning) to avoid measuring point and the error that cause different with instrument Yin Wendu in the little time of temperature variation as far as possible.) and its change curve and the volume variation with temperature rule rate of water in physics similar completely, according to the experiment in physics and theory, volume minimum when water is spent at degree of taking the photograph 4, when temperature rise and decline, volume all can become large, there is a U-shaped curve, the depressimeter that freezes in pipe is inoperable, therefore it is operated on upcurve more than four degrees celsius, experimental result, within the scope of 2 to 12 degree, the volume change of water is very little, the pressure of water is almost constant, can ignore, more than 12 degree, negative pressure declines along with the rising of temperature, and its changing value reaches 30% in measurement range, it is the amount of can not ignore, just need to compensate.Average field, Jiangsu Province temperature difference diel, more than 10 degree, in order accurately to measure soil water potential, also should carry out the temperature compensation of flow of water measurement.Although this negative pressure value can slightly change in the time of practical application, that is: in the time that in tensiometer pipe, water body Yin Wendu rising expands, pressure can transmit to the external world by pot clay end, but this process is slowly, rule of thumb, just can reach in a basic balance through a few days, the circadian short time far can not make whole system reach balance.Unless the pot clay end of tensionmeter system, in the middle of water body, just tensiometer overpressure can fast transport, completes draining or water absorption course.
This can verify from testing 2:
Experiment 2: tensiometer pipe internal tension variation with temperature trend with pot clay end experiment 2 is the soil environments that tensionmeter system are placed in to soil moisture and can carry out manual control, measures the impact of temperature on tension force in the situation that soil moisture is relatively constant.Determination data is as shown in Figure 3: the Output pressure that the existence of pot clay end also cannot produce tensionmeter system internal cause temperature variation reach balance, and the variable being produced by temperature is far longer than the error range of tensiometer pressure transducer.In actual production, very easily cause the maloperation of water management.
Summary of the invention
Computing is carried out in the pressure variation the object of the invention is to by tensiometer Yin Wendu is produced, and temperature effect is compensated, and can cause these weak points of variation of tensiometer pressure to overcome the variation of the existing temperature of above-mentioned prior art.Realize the object that modern agriculture is precisely managed automatically to crop water, improve Crops production and quality.
The object of the invention is to complete by following technical proposals:
A kind of temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system, is characterized in that, is made up of tensiometer end and control center's end, and tensiometer end and control center's end pass through transmission of wireless signals;
Described tensiometer end comprises tensiometer, data sampling and processing transmitter; In tensiometer, be provided with pressure transducer and temperature sensor; Each sensor is connected with data acquisition process transmitter;
Described control center end comprises computing machine and receiver, and the data acquisition process transmitter of receiver and tensiometer end is by wirelessly transmitting data or instruction.
Described temperature sensor is arranged in the collector pipe of tensiometer.
In described computing machine, be preset with model of temperature compensation, data setting initial temperature and the pressure of actual measurement while startup according to system, according to some start-up time selection model of temperature compensation automatically.
The invention also discloses a kind of temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension assay method, comprise the following steps:
(1) tensiometer of tensiometer end is embedded in soil to startup system;
(2) transfer to control center by the data of temperature sensor and pressure transducer collection via data acquisition process transmitter, control center sets initial temperature and tension value accordingly;
(3) model of temperature compensation, according to putting residing temperature changing trend start-up time, is selected automatically by control center, then compensates computing according to the data that receive, and obtains temperature compensation backward pull value.
Described model of temperature compensation is taking local soil as object, records the temperature variant curve of tensiometer pipe internal tension and obtains after imbedding tensiometer, and this model of temperature compensation is pre-stored in control center's computing machine.
Described model of temperature compensation is divided into the compensation of temperature rise section and the compensation of temperature descending branch.The section that heats up temperature compensation formula is shown in Fig. 4, and temperature descending section temperature compensation formula is shown in Fig. 5.
The present invention is in the embedded electronic temperature sensor of tensiometer collector pipe, temperature variation in real-time monitoring tubular.Tensionmeter system is installed, stable rear open temp compensate function is set initial temperature and tension value.Key is, the transferring and activating of compensation operation formula, and the water characteristic curve of a Soils In The Region is generally determined by the characteristic of this area's soil, must carry out with local soil.The temperature variant curve of tensiometer pipe internal tension completing taking local soil as object and the compensation formula completing taking local soil as object.(in computer, can store the temperature compensation formula of Different Soil: as sandy soil, loam, clay etc.) do not use the compensation formula of other Soils In The Regions.Because the quality difference of soil, the tension force Trendline that tensiometer records is different.The individual character compensation formula that (seeing Fig. 8, Fig. 9) sets up different regions or soil is necessary.As: this instrument uses at In Nanjing soil, just should transfer the compensation formula of In Nanjing class soil, instead of transfer the compensation formula of Beijing or Soils of Shanghai Region.
The most handy local soil of individual character compensation operation formula in said process is object, records the temperature variant curve of tensiometer pipe internal tension after imbedding tensiometer.Can find: water temperature heating curve and temperature lowering curve have difference, cooling later stage curve tends towards stability, corresponding tension variation is also mild, considers this difference in the time of design temperature compensation formula, the compensation when compensation of accounting temperature ascent stage and temperature decline respectively.
In the time that reality is used, turn-on data gathers, processes transmitter, set initial temperature and tension force, rely on electronic temperature sensor, press temperature variation image data in sampling request real-time monitoring tubular, collection tube internal tension data compensate computing simultaneously, and the numerical value after compensation is uploaded control center through dispensing device and carried out data storage.
In the present invention, selecting of temperature sensor is very crucial, and the inventor is through carefully choosing, adopted the temperature measurement device of DS18B20 digital thermometer as native system, it is simple that it has circuit, and volume is little, can be seated in inner and the change that need not be large of depressimeter that tradition uses, working range within required ranging, digitizing, need not demarcate, multi-measuring point high conformity, the resolution of measurement, at 0.025 degree, meets the requirement of high-acruracy survey, price is low in addition, is convenient to large-scale popularization application.Waterproofing design can long-term work in the water of submergence, meet our requirement completely
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, adopt temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system, have following some benefit compared with the described tensionmeter system of technical background:
(1) reduced the error that tensionmeter system causes due to variation of ambient temperature.
(2) temperature to soil environment and water cut situation are implemented round-the-clock Real-Time Monitoring simultaneously.
(3) data acquisition amount is large, and can automatically be uploaded to central controller and realize water management.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is schematic diagram of the present invention.1 wireless signal transmitting antenna.2 data sampling and processing transmitters, 3 sensor cables.4 pressure transducers.5 water injection holes.6 mechanical type vacuum tables.7 cable seal caps.8 soil faces.9 plastic tube bodies, 10 temperature sensors.11 potter's clay negative pressure transducers (pot clay end).
Fig. 2 tensiometer vitrified-clay pipe water body causes overpressure changing trend diagram because of temperature variation.
The tensiometer pipe internal tension variation with temperature trend of Fig. 3 band pot clay end.
Fig. 4 section of intensification temperature compensation formula.
Fig. 5 temperature descending section temperature compensation formula.
Fig. 6 is the heating curve figure of 425-459 timing node data segment.
Fig. 7 is the tendency of the tension force (being soil water suction) through temperature compensation.
Fig. 8 is Jin Hai farm soil tension variation curve.
Fig. 9 is Ancient Channel of Huanghe River soil tension variation curve.
Embodiment
Embodiment mono-
The heating curve figure (Fig. 6) that quotes " 425-459 " timing node data segment carries out the calculation of temperature compensation
The temperature at invocation point 425 places is that 3.7 DEG C of tension force are 21.4Kpa
The temperature at invocation point 445 places is that 21.8 DEG C of tension force are 14.9Kpa
The concrete sampling time point of 2 is respectively: 425 point sampling times were 2014.1.6 7:33:17 in morning
445 point sampling times were 2014.1.6 11:06:28 at noon
Carry out the calculation of temperature compensation with the heating curve figure of Fig. 6 " 425-459 " timing node data segment
Y 3.7tension force (Kpa) calculated value while being 3.7 DEG C, Y 21.8tension force (Kpa) calculated value while being 21.8 DEG C
Y 3.7=0.0121×X 2-0.6523X+23.552
=0.0121×3.7 2-0.6523×3.7+23.552
=21.304(Kpa)
Y 21.8=0.0121×X 2-0.6523X+23.552
=0.0121×21.8 2-0.6523×21.8+23.552
=15.082(Kpa)
The difference of 2 is 6.222(Kpa)
445 compensation backward pull value=445 measured value+two difference=14.9+(21.304-15.082)=21.122Kpa
Relatively 425 with 445 compensation after tension value can find out: differ only 0.278Kpa through 4 hours tension force of 2, and be that to do the difference of 2 compensating be 6.5Kpa.This after compensation difference may be that actual soil moisture changes generation, may be also that the precision of pressure transducer own produces, and is exactly likely also the impact of this section of correlation curve fitting coefficient.
In a word, utilize method that this patent provides can reduce the error of the tension detection value producing because of temperature variation, for the accurate management of Agricultural Moisture provides determination data accurately.
Embodiment bis-
The calculation that the heating curve figure (Fig. 6) that quotes " 425-445 " timing node data segment carries out temperature compensation draws:
Compensation formula: Y=0.0121 × X 2-0.6523X+23.552
In table, " temperature " " tension force measured value " is the actual measured value of temperature compensation tensiometer in agricultural greenhouse, the corresponding tension value that " calculated value " is each temperature spot of calculating by compensation formula.Calculated value when tension force difference is initial temperature (3.7 DEG C) and other temperature spot position calculated values poor.
As can be seen from Figure 7, level off to level through the tendency of the tension force (being soil water suction) of temperature compensation in 4 hours, this conforms to field actual conditions.(soil moisture content, in the situation that adding without outer water, is tending towards constant in the short time).

Claims (6)

1. a temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system, is characterized in that, is made up of tensiometer end and control center's end, and tensiometer end and control center's end pass through transmission of wireless signals;
Described tensiometer end comprises tensiometer, data sampling and processing transmitter; In tensiometer, be provided with pressure transducer and temperature sensor; Each sensor is connected with data acquisition process transmitter;
Described control center end comprises computing machine and receiver, and the data acquisition process transmitter of receiver and tensiometer end is by wirelessly transmitting data or instruction.
2. temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system according to claim 1, is characterized in that described temperature sensor is arranged in the collector pipe of tensiometer.
3. temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension meter system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that being preset with model of temperature compensation in described computing machine, data setting initial temperature and the pressure of actual measurement while startup according to system, according to some start-up time selection model of temperature compensation automatically.
4. a temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension assay method, comprises the following steps:
(1) tensiometer of tensiometer end is embedded in soil to startup system;
(2) transfer to control center by the data of temperature sensor and pressure transducer collection via data acquisition process transmitter, control center sets initial temperature and tension value accordingly;
(3) model of temperature compensation, according to putting residing temperature changing trend start-up time, is selected automatically by control center, then compensates computing according to the data that receive, and obtains temperature compensation backward pull value.
5. temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension assay method according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, described model of temperature compensation is taking local soil as object, after imbedding tensiometer, record the temperature variant curve of tensiometer pipe internal tension and obtain, this model of temperature compensation is pre-stored in control center's computing machine.
6. temperature self-compensation type soil moisture tension assay method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described model of temperature compensation is divided into the compensation of temperature rise section and the compensation of temperature descending branch.
CN201410118302.9A 2014-03-26 2014-03-26 Automatic temperature compensation type soil water tension meter system and determination method Pending CN103884830A (en)

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CN105717279A (en) * 2016-04-09 2016-06-29 王本 Flowerpot humidity test tube
CN106290781A (en) * 2015-06-29 2017-01-04 南通中天精密仪器有限公司 A kind of soil moisture tachymeter
CN109325245A (en) * 2017-07-31 2019-02-12 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Root system of plant squeezes force prediction method and device
CN112964857A (en) * 2021-03-05 2021-06-15 南京大学 Soil matrix suction monitoring device and method based on fiber bragg grating

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CN106290781A (en) * 2015-06-29 2017-01-04 南通中天精密仪器有限公司 A kind of soil moisture tachymeter
CN105486838A (en) * 2015-12-25 2016-04-13 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Convenient-to-maintain antifreezing tensiometer measuring soil water potential and test method
CN105717279A (en) * 2016-04-09 2016-06-29 王本 Flowerpot humidity test tube
CN109325245A (en) * 2017-07-31 2019-02-12 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Root system of plant squeezes force prediction method and device
CN112964857A (en) * 2021-03-05 2021-06-15 南京大学 Soil matrix suction monitoring device and method based on fiber bragg grating

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