CN103823468B - Submersible AGV navigation and positioning system and localization method - Google Patents

Submersible AGV navigation and positioning system and localization method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103823468B
CN103823468B CN201410072790.4A CN201410072790A CN103823468B CN 103823468 B CN103823468 B CN 103823468B CN 201410072790 A CN201410072790 A CN 201410072790A CN 103823468 B CN103823468 B CN 103823468B
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agv
shelf
positioning
navigation
sensor
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CN103823468A (en
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黄玉美
穆卫谊
张广鹏
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Xian University of Technology
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Xian University of Technology
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Abstract

Submersible AGV navigation and positioning system, including the digital control servo system, ultrasonic sensor and automatic hoisting mechanism being arranged on AGV, the driving wheel of AGV is equipped with servo motor and encoder, and automatic hoisting mechanism makes AGV engage and disengage with shelf;Ultrasonic sensor carries out navigation and avoidance, and digital control servo system controls AGV traveling.Submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention is navigated using ultrasonic wave, it is not required to setting track, and traveling area does not need that object of reference is arranged outside the AGV yet on the way, the numerical control programming and motor speed and encoder information for fully relying on AGV itself carry out automatic navigation control, therefore route change is very convenient, and positioning accuracy is high.

Description

Submersible AGV navigation and positioning system and localization method
Technical field
The invention belongs to automatic navigation vehicle navigation positioning system, be related to it is a kind of can along free path automatic running, automatically into The submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of line position appearance positioning;Further relate to the localization method of this positioning system.
Background technique
Automated navigation system is equipped on AGV (AGV, Automated Guided Vehicle, automatic navigation vehicle), it can be with Safeguards system, along scheduled route automatic running, cargo is transported to from starting point automatically in the case where not needing artificial pilotage Destination.
The setting of projected route can be divided into two classes, and one kind is rail type route, as utilized the electromagnetism being pasted on floor Track is arranged travel route, and AGV then navigates according to the information of detection electromagnetic path;One kind is non-rail type route, such as It is navigated using laser(Laser sensor and reflecting plate)Travel route is set, does not have track on road surface, AGV is then according to swashing The information of optical sensor detection reflecting plate is navigated.
The driving path of AGV can change according to goods yard requirement, technological process of production etc. and flexibly change.When needing to modify When the path of AGV, non-rail type route need not change ground rail, and modification path is flexible;And the path modification of rail type route Flexibility is relatively poor.
Existing AGV navigation positioning system is using laser navigation or magnetic navigation.It is navigated using electromagnetic path Rail type route guidance mode needs to re-lay electromagnetic path when modifying path, bothersome time-consuming, and it is poor that flexibility is modified in path; In the way of the non-rail type route guidance that laser navigates, laser reflection plate need to be kept clean, it is higher to environmental requirement.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of submersible AGV navigation and positioning systems, have automatic running navigation and avoidance function Energy, the automatic pose positioning function of operation website and the function of accurately slipping into below shelf and draw or lift shelf.
It is another object of the present invention to provide the localization methods of above-mentioned positioning system.
The technical scheme is that submersible AGV navigation and positioning system, including the numerical control servo system being arranged on AGV System, ultrasonic sensor and automatic hoisting mechanism, the driving wheel of AGV are equipped with servo motor and encoder, automatic hoisting mechanism AGV is set to engage and disengage with shelf;Ultrasonic sensor carries out navigation and avoidance, and digital control servo system controls AGV traveling.
The features of the present invention also characterized in that:
It further include that the absolute object of reference being arranged on the object of without motion relative to the earth and shelf outboard end is set The object of reference B of two inside object of reference A and shelf lower section.
Driving wheel is 2.
Automatic hoisting mechanism is one or more, and the lifting column of automatic hoisting mechanism can automatic lifting.
Ultrasonic sensor includes analog sensor and Boolean value output sensor.
Second technical solution of the invention, the localization method of above-mentioned submersible AGV navigation and positioning system, according to ultrasonic wave Sensor detects the information of absolute object of reference, determines the absolute pose benchmark of AGV, travels area in the way between operation website, Differential driving and steering are carried out according to the servo motor that preset travel route on the way controls driving wheel by digital control servo system, led to Cross servo motor speed and encoder information judge the position and direction of AGV, control AGV according to preset travel route on the way from Main traveling, and avoidance is carried out by ultrasonic sensor.
Before operation website, the letter of the opposite object of reference A of shelf outboard end is set according to ultrasonic sensor detection Breath carries out the adjustment of AGV pose.
In operation website, AGV enters below shelf, and the opposite ginseng on the inside of shelf is arranged according to ultrasonic sensor detection The adjustment of AGV pose is carried out according to the information of object B and traveling stops positioning, and is controlled automatic hoisting mechanism and drawn or held in the palm with shelf Lift engagement.
When racks store, AGV drags shelf to drive to racks store area from operation website, by digital control servo system according to default Way in the servo motor of travel route control driving wheel carry out differential driving and steering, pass through servo motor speed and encoder Information judges the position and direction of AGV, and control AGV is independently travelled according to preset travel route on the way, and is passed by ultrasonic wave Sensor carries out avoidance, and after reaching the traveling stopping of racks store position, control automatic hoisting mechanism and shelf are disengaged.
The present invention has the advantages that:
1, submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention is navigated using ultrasonic wave, is not required to setting track, and on the way Traveling area does not need that object of reference is arranged outside the AGV yet, fully relies on the numerical control programming and motor speed and encoder of AGV itself Information carries out automatic navigation control, therefore route change is very convenient.
2, opposite reference is arranged in submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention inside below trailing shelf Object reduces the influence of shelf position and attitude error, and required ultrasonic sensor range is small, therefore, AGV final positioning accuracy It is high.
3, the settable different elevating mechanism of submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention, can be suitably used for slipping into and lead Draw formula AGV and slips into lifting type AGV.
4 submersible AGV self-navigation positioning systems of the present invention have a wide range of application, and can be adapted for differential steering and steering turns To various 2DOFs AGV, be readily applicable to the AGV of comprehensive 3DOF, while can use in the presence of a harsh environment.
5, the localization method of submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention is simple, easy.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the relationship solid signal for slipping into towed AGV and shelf of submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention Figure;
Fig. 2 slips into the towed end face AGV schematic elevation view for submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structure schematic top plan view for slipping into towed AGV of submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is slips into towed AGV arrival shelf in the localization method of submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention before Pose adjusts schematic top plan view;
Fig. 5 is that position signal is arranged in the analog sensor of the front end AGV in submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention Figure;
Fig. 6 is that position view is arranged in the shelf outboard end object of reference in submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is slipped under shelf to slip into towed AGV in the localization method of submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention Pose positions schematic diagram;
Fig. 8 is the E-E cross-sectional view of Fig. 7.
In figure, 1. freewheels, 2. ultrasonic sensors, 3. automatic hoisting mechanisms, 4. driving wheels, 5. control servo-systems, 6. cargo, 7. shelf, 8.AGV, A. shelf outboard end object of reference, B. shelf lower section inside object of reference, the first freewheel of 1-1., The second freewheel of 1-2., 1-3. third freewheel, the 4th freewheel of 1-4., the first analog sensor of 2-1., the second mould of 2-3. Analog quantity sensor, 2-4. third analog sensor, the 4th analog sensor of 2-6., the 5th analog sensor of 2-7., 2- 9. the 6th analog sensor, the 7th analog sensor of 2-10., the 8th analog sensor of 2-12., 2-2. first switch amount Sensor, 2-5. second switch quantity sensor, 2-8. third Boolean value output sensor, the 4th Boolean value output sensor of 2-11., 3-1. One automatic hoisting mechanism, the second automatic hoisting mechanism of 3-2..
Specific embodiment
The following describes the present invention in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
The control object of submersible AGV navigation and positioning system of the present invention is:It is drawn(Or it lifts)The submersible of shelf AGV8, AGV8 are driven by 24 differentials of driving wheel for being equipped with encoder and servo motor and are travelled, and 4(Or 1,2)Freely Take turns 1 Auxiliary support, 2(Or 4,6)Automatic hoisting mechanism 3 carries out the engagement and disengagement of AGV and shelf, ultrasonic sensor 2 carry out navigation and avoidance, digital control servo system 5 carry out traveling control.
It includes the digital control servo system 5 being arranged on AGV that the present invention, which slips into AGV self-navigation positioning system, driving wheel 4 Servo motor and encoder, lifting column can automatic lifting automatic hoisting mechanism 3, carry out navigation and avoidance supersonic sensing Device 2;The absolute object of reference being arranged on the object of without motion relative to the earth and the opposite object of reference A that shelf outboard end is set And the opposite object of reference B of two inside of shelf lower section.
The relationship for slipping into towed AGV8 and shelf 7 of the invention is as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, and AGV8 slips into shelf 7 in the following, logical The lifting for crossing the lifting column of the first automatic hoisting mechanism 3-1, the second automatic hoisting mechanism 3-2 makes AGV8 engage or take off with shelf 7 It opens, the supersonic sensing on object of reference B-1, B-2 and AGV8 of two inside object of reference A and 7 lower section of shelf of 7 outboard end of shelf The cooperation of device 2 carries out the pose adjustment and positioning of AGV8.
The present invention slips into the structure of towed AGV as shown in figure 3, the servo motor progress of 2 driving wheels 4 is poor using object The fast position and direction for driving and turning to, judge AGV8 by servo motor speed and encoder information, 4 freewheels 1 are auxiliary Support, 2 automatic hoisting mechanisms 3 carry out the engagement and disengagement of traction mechanism, 12 ultrasonic sensors 2(8 analog quantity sensings Device and 4 Boolean value output sensors)It carries out navigation and avoidance, digital control servo system 5 carries out traveling control.
The localization method for slipping into towed AGV self-navigation positioning system of the invention,(1)It is sensed first according to analog quantity The information that device detects absolute object of reference carries out pose adjustment, determines the absolute pose benchmark of AGV8;(2)Between operation website Area is travelled on the way, programs, controls the servo motor of 2 driving wheels 4 according to preset travel route on the way by digital control servo system 5 It carries out differential driving and steering, judge the position and direction of AGV8 by servo motor speed and encoder information, control AGV8 and press Independent navigation traveling is carried out according to preset travel route on the way, and is kept away by Boolean value output sensor 2-2,2-5,2-8 and 2-11 Barrier;(3)Before operation website, as shown in figure 4, shelf outboard end is arranged according to analog sensor 2-4,2-6 detection The information of opposite object of reference A carries out the adjustment of AGV8 pose, and analog sensor 2-4,2-6 need to tilt a low-angle upwards, such as Shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6, so that the opposite object of reference A of shelf outboard end is arranged in detection before operation website;(4)In operation post Point, as shown in Figure 7, Figure 8, AGV8 enter 7 lower section of shelf, are existed according to analog sensor 2-1,2-3,2-7,2-9 detection setting The information of the opposite object of reference B-1 and B-2 of 7 liang of shelf inside carries out the adjustment of AGV8 pose and traveling stops positioning, and control the The rise of the lifting column of one automatic hoisting mechanism 3-1 and the second automatic hoisting mechanism 3-2 engages AGV8 with shelf 7;(5)Shelf are deposited Storage area, AGV8 draw shelf 7 and exercise from operation website to shelf memory block, gone on the way by digital control servo system 5 according to preset Route programming, the servo motor progress differential driving of control driving wheel 4 and steering are sailed, passes through servo motor speed and encoder is believed Breath judges the position and direction of AGV8, and control AGV8 is independently travelled according to preset travel route on the way, and is passed by ultrasonic wave Sensor 2-2,2-5,2-8 and 2-11 carry out avoidance, after reaching the traveling stopping of racks store position, control two automatic hoisting mechanisms The lifting column decline of 3-1 and 3-2 disengages AGV8 and shelf 7.
Different automatic hoisting mechanisms 3 is arranged in the present invention, can be applicable in and slip into lifting type AGV8.
The various 2DOFs turned to present invention may apply to differential steering and steering slip into towed AGV and slip into Lifting type AGV is readily applicable to slipping into towed AGV and slipping into lifting type AGV for comprehensive 3DOF.
AGV8 of the present invention, which enters below shelf 7, carries out the adjustment of AGV8 pose and traveling stopping positioning, 2 He of ultrasonic sensor The opposite object of reference B distance that 7 liang of shelf inside is arranged in is close, can with range small, ultrasonic sensor 2 with high accuracy, therefore determine Position precision is high.
Since AGV8 will enter 7 lower section of shelf, the ultrasonic sensor 2 in front of AGV8 need to tilt a small angle upwards Degree(Such as AGV starts to adjust at away from shelf 1000mm, and ultrasonic sensor tilts about 5 degree), to be examined before operation website Measure the opposite object of reference A that 7 outboard end of shelf is set.
Different automatic hoisting mechanisms 3 is set, can be adapted for slipping into towed AGV and slips into lifting type AGV, and can be double To(From the front end or rear end of shelf)It is drawn or is lifted.
Submersible AGV self-navigation positioning system of the present invention has a wide range of application, and can be adapted for differential steering and steering turns To various 2DOFs AGV, be readily applicable to the AGV of comprehensive 3DOF.

Claims (1)

1. submersible AGV navigation and positioning system, it is characterised in that:Including digital control servo system (5) on AGV (8), super is arranged The driving wheel (4) of sonic sensor (2) and automatic hoisting mechanism (3), the AGV (8) is equipped with servo motor and encoder, institute Stating automatic hoisting mechanism (3) makes AGV (8) engage and disengage with shelf (7);The ultrasonic sensor (2) is navigated and is kept away Barrier, digital control servo system (5) control AGV (8) traveling;
It further include the ginseng of the absolute object of reference being arranged on the object of without motion relative to the earth and setting in shelf (7) outboard end According to the object of reference B of two insides below object A and shelf;
The driving wheel is 2;The automatic hoisting mechanism (3) be one or more, the lifting of the automatic hoisting mechanism (3) Column can automatic lifting, the lifting column bottom end of automatic hoisting mechanism (3) is cylindrical body, top is frustum cone structure;
The ultrasonic sensor (2) includes 8 analog sensors and 4 Boolean value output sensors, wherein analog sensor It is all around each 2, Boolean value output sensor is all around each 1;
The localization method of the submersible AGV navigation and positioning system, specially:Absolute object of reference is detected according to analog sensor Information determines the absolute pose benchmark of AGV (8), travels area in the way between operation website, by digital control servo system (5) root Differential driving and steering are carried out according to the servo motor of preset travel route on the way control driving wheel (4), passes through servo motor speed Degree and encoder information judge the position and direction of AGV, and control AGV (8) is independently travelled according to preset travel route on the way, and Avoidance is carried out by Boolean value output sensor;
Before operation website, the information in the opposite object of reference A of shelf (7) outboard end is arranged according to analog sensor detection Carry out the adjustment of AGV (8) pose;
In operation website, AGV (8) enters below shelf (7), is arranged on the inside of shelf (7) according to analog sensor detection The information of opposite object of reference B carries out the adjustment of AGV (8) pose and traveling stops positioning, and controls automatic hoisting mechanism (3) and shelf (7) drawn or lifted engagement;
When racks store, AGV (8) drags shelf to drive to racks store area from operation website, by digital control servo system (5) according to pre- If way in the servo motor of travel route control driving wheel (4) carry out differential driving and steering, by servo motor speed and Encoder information judges the position and direction of AGV (8), and control AGV (8) is independently travelled according to preset travel route on the way, and Avoidance is carried out by Boolean value output sensor, after reaching the traveling stopping of racks store position, controls automatic hoisting mechanism (3) and shelf (7) it disengages.
CN201410072790.4A 2014-02-28 2014-02-28 Submersible AGV navigation and positioning system and localization method Active CN103823468B (en)

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