CN103667758A - Preparation method of particle-reinforced aluminum base composite - Google Patents

Preparation method of particle-reinforced aluminum base composite Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103667758A
CN103667758A CN201310729927.4A CN201310729927A CN103667758A CN 103667758 A CN103667758 A CN 103667758A CN 201310729927 A CN201310729927 A CN 201310729927A CN 103667758 A CN103667758 A CN 103667758A
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semi
composite
particle
solid
enhanced aluminum
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CN201310729927.4A
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左孝青
罗晓旭
陆建生
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN201310729927.4A priority Critical patent/CN103667758A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a preparation method of a particle-reinforced aluminum base composite and belongs to the field of metal matrix composites. The method comprises the steps of taking aluminum alloy powder and a reinforced ceramic particle as raw materials, after mixing the powder, pressing into a blank, heating the pressed blank to a semisolid temperature area of an aluminum alloy for semisolid forming, realizing metallurgical bonding of the aluminum alloy powder during the semisolid forming, and after solidifying, cooling and thermally treating the semisolid processing blank, obtaining the particle-reinforced aluminum base composite with the tensile strength of 250-800 MPa and the elongation of 2-15%.

Description

A kind of preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, belong to metal-base composites field.
Background technology
Particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material has high than the advantage such as strong, wear-resisting, high-temperature behavior is good, structure property designability is strong, in fields such as automobile, space flight and aviation, sports equipment, high-abrasive material, high-temperature structural materials, has wide application market.
The main flow preparation method of current known particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material mainly contains the compound and compound two kinds of methods of powder metallurgy of melt.
Melt composite algorithm, from melt approach, after aluminum alloy melting, by methods such as mechanical stirring, is distributed to ceramic particle in aluminium alloy melt.There is the Problem of Wettability between ceramic particle and aluminium alloy melt in the method, causes ceramic particle, and particularly high-content ceramic particle adds difficulty, often need ceramic particle to carry out pre-treatment, or adopt the supplementary meanss such as ultrasonic wave, vacuum, and make complex technical process, improved cost.
Powder metallurgy composite algorithm, is from powder approach, and after Al alloy powder is mixed, suppressed with ceramic particle, the certain temperature that is heated to aluminium alloy is carried out sintering.Because the activity of aluminium alloy is larger, easily oxidation, therefore need strict atmosphere protection or high vacuum condition during sintering.
Summary of the invention
For overcoming the deficiency of above-mentioned known particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material technology of preparing, the invention provides a kind of preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, the method has that material composition is controlled, technique is simple, be only shaped, feature cheaply, can realize the feature of suitability for industrialized production.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: adopting Al alloy powder and strengthening ceramic particle is raw material, powder is pressed into base after mixing, the semi-solid temperature district that pressed compact is heated to aluminium alloy carries out semi-solid processing shaping, in semi-solid-state shaping, realize the metallurgical binding between Al alloy powder, that semi-solid processing base solidifies is cooling, obtain particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material after thermal treatment.Concrete steps comprise as follows:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: by the Al alloy powder of granularity 1~75 μ m and granularity be the ceramic particle of 1~50 μ m respectively according to the ratio mix of 60~90wt% and 10~40wt%, be then pressed into blank;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: by blank heating to pushing behind semi-solid temperature interval, the semi-solid processing of mold pressing or rolling, obtain semi-solid processing base;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: semi-solid processing base is carried out to T4, T5 or T6 heat-treats, obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 200~600MPa, tensile strength 250~800MPa, unit elongation 2~15%.
Described Al alloy powder is 2 * * * be, 6 * * * be, 7 * * * be, any one in Al-Si system or Al-Cu line aluminium alloy.
Described ceramic particle is any one in SiC, Al2O3, TiB2, TiC, Si3N4, BC or AlN.
Described mix is that Al alloy powder and ceramic particle are mixed 1~5 hour in mixer.
The pressure of described compacting blank is 100~500MPa.
The extrusion ratio of described extruding is 3~100, and the pressure of mold pressing is 5~300MPa, and the draft of rolling is 0.1~0.7.
Described semi-solid temperature interval refers to the liquidus line of metal or alloy and the temperature range of solidus curve.
Described thermal treatment is that T4, T5 or T6 process, and wherein T4 is solid solution+natural aging treatment, and T5 is that solid solution+not exclusively artificial aging is processed, and T6 is that solid solution+artificial aging is processed, and selecting of T4, T5 or T6 heat treating method is identical with the heat treating method of conventional aluminium alloy.
Principle of the present invention is:
(1) composition of mixed powder and mixing uniformity control principle: conventional melt complex method; be subject to the impact of enhanced granule and aluminium alloy melt wettability; the quantity of adding particle is generally no more than 20%; the present invention is aluminum mixture powdered alloy and enhanced granule at normal temperatures; the highest 40% the composite particles that adds; and there is designability, and by mixing procedure, control, Al alloy powder is mixed with enhanced granule.
(2) the semi-solid processing principle of mixed powder pressed compact: conventional powder metallurgy complex method, need to carry out the metallurgical binding that atmosphere or vacuum sintering realize Al alloy powder to compacting base, but the activity height of Al alloy powder is oxidizable, Gu require very strict to sintering atmosphere or vacuum.The present invention carries out semi-solid processing to compacting blank, and semi-solid aluminium alloy powder is realized the metallurgical binding between Al alloy powder when being shaped under certain pressure, has overcome the problem of the sintering difficulty of Al alloy powder.
(3) Principles of Heating Processing of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material: the heat treating method of alloy matrix aluminum in employing of the present invention and particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material is heat-treated to (as the thermal treatment of 6061/SiC matrix material, employing be the heat treating method of 6061 alloys).
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: Al alloy powder mixes at normal temperatures with enhanced granule, realize the even mixing of high granule content, composition has designability; Meanwhile, the semi-solid processing of mixed powder pressed compact, has both clean shaping and realizes the effect of Al alloy powder metallurgical binding.Overcome the enhanced granule of conventional melt complex method and aluminium alloy is nonwetting, addition is limited, add difficult deficiency, also overcome the deficiency of conventional powder metallurgy process to compacting base sintering difficulty.Provide that a kind of material composition is controlled, technique is simple, be only shaped, particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material preparation method cheaply.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is process flow diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the invention will be further described.
Embodiment 1
The preparation method of the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of the present embodiment is:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: adopting granularity is that 2014 Al alloy powders of 10~25 μ m and SiC particle that granularity is 10~20 μ m are raw material, ratio according to Al alloy powder quality percentage composition 80% wt, ceramic particle quality percentage composition 20% wt is prepared burden, Al alloy powder and ceramic particle mix after 2 hours and obtain uniform mixed powder in mixer, this mixed powder is suppressed under the pressure of 300MPa and obtained mixed powder base;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: (extrusion ratio 10) pushed in 570~600 ℃, the semi-solid temperature district that the mixed powder base that step (1) is made is heated to 2014 aluminium alloys, obtains semi-solid state extrusion billet after cooling in air after semi-solid state extruding;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: the semi-solid state extrusion billet that step (2) is made carries out T6 thermal treatment, can obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 460MPa, tensile strength 580MPa, unit elongation 12%.
Embodiment 2
The preparation method of the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of the present embodiment is:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: adopting granularity is that 6061 Al alloy powders of 25~37 μ m and Al2O3 ceramic particle that granularity is 20~25 μ m are raw material, ratio according to Al alloy powder quality percentage composition 70% wt, ceramic particle quality percentage composition 30% wt is prepared burden, Al alloy powder and ceramic particle mix after 3 hours and obtain uniform mixed powder in mixer, this mixed powder is suppressed under the pressure of 400MPa and obtained mixed powder base;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: 635~645 ℃, the semi-solid temperature district that the mixed powder base that step (1) is made is heated to aluminium alloy carries out mold pressing (pressure 100MPa) processing, obtains semi-solid state mold pressing base after cooling in air after semi-solid state mold pressing;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: the semi-solid state mold pressing base that step (2) is made carries out T6 thermal treatment, can obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 560MPa, tensile strength 760MPa, unit elongation 3%.
Embodiment 3
The preparation method of the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of the present embodiment is:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: adopting granularity is that the ZL 101 alloy powder of 37~53 μ m and TiB2 ceramic particle that granularity is 33~37 μ m are raw material, ratio according to Al alloy powder quality percentage composition 60% wt, ceramic particle quality percentage composition 40% wt is prepared burden, Al alloy powder and ceramic particle mix after 4 hours and obtain uniform mixed powder in mixer, this mixed powder is suppressed under the pressure of 450MPa and obtained mixed powder base;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: 635~645 ℃, the semi-solid temperature district that the mixed powder base that step (1) is made is heated to aluminium alloy is rolled that (extrusion ratio is 100, draft 0.5) processing, obtains semi-solid processing base after cooling in air after semi-solid rolling;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: the semi-solid processing base that step (2) is made carries out T5 thermal treatment, can obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 330MPa, tensile strength 370MPa, unit elongation 2%.
Embodiment 4
The preparation method of the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of the present embodiment is:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: adopting granularity is that the ZL 101 alloy powder of 37~75 μ m and TiC ceramic particle that granularity is 33~50 μ m are raw material, ratio according to Al alloy powder quality percentage composition 65% wt, ceramic particle quality percentage composition 35% wt is prepared burden, Al alloy powder and ceramic particle mix after 5 hours and obtain uniform mixed powder in mixer, this mixed powder is suppressed under the pressure of 450MPa and obtained mixed powder base;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: 635~645 ℃, the semi-solid temperature district that the mixed powder base that step (1) is made is heated to aluminium alloy is rolled that (extrusion ratio is 3, draft 0.1) processing, obtains semi-solid processing base after cooling in air after semi-solid rolling;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: the semi-solid processing base that step (2) is made carries out T5 thermal treatment, can obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 330MPa, tensile strength 370MPa, unit elongation 2%.
Embodiment 5
The preparation method of the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of the present embodiment is:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: adopting granularity is that the ZL 101 alloy powder of 1~53 μ m and Si3N4 ceramic particle that granularity is 1~37 μ m are raw material, ratio according to Al alloy powder quality percentage composition 60% wt, ceramic particle quality percentage composition 40% wt is prepared burden, Al alloy powder and ceramic particle mix after 1 hour and obtain uniform mixed powder in mixer, this mixed powder is suppressed under the pressure of 100MPa and obtained mixed powder base;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: 635~645 ℃, the semi-solid temperature district that the mixed powder base that step (1) is made is heated to aluminium alloy is rolled that (extrusion ratio is 60, draft 0.7) processing, obtains semi-solid processing base after cooling in air after semi-solid rolling;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: the semi-solid processing base that step (2) is made carries out T5 thermal treatment, can obtain the particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material of yield strength 320MPa, tensile strength 360MPa, unit elongation 2%.
Below by reference to the accompanying drawings the specific embodiment of the present invention is explained in detail, but the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned embodiment, in the ken possessing those of ordinary skills, can also under the prerequisite that does not depart from aim of the present invention, make various variations.

Claims (8)

1. a preparation method for particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, is characterized in that concrete steps comprise:
(1) preparation of mixed powder base: by the Al alloy powder of granularity 1~75 μ m and granularity be the ceramic particle of 1~50 μ m respectively according to the ratio mix of 60~90wt% and 10~40wt%, be then pressed into blank;
(2) semi-solid processing of mixed powder base: by blank heating to pushing behind semi-solid temperature interval, the semi-solid processing of mold pressing or rolling, obtain semi-solid processing base;
(3) thermal treatment of semi-solid processing base: semi-solid processing base is heat-treated, obtain aluminum matrix composite.
2. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described Al alloy powder is 2 * * * be, 6 * * * be, 7 * * * be, any one in Al-Si system or Al-Cu line aluminium alloy.
3. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described ceramic particle is any one in SiC, Al2O3, TiB2, TiC, Si3N4, BC or AlN.
4. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described mix is that Al alloy powder and ceramic particle are mixed 1~5 hour in mixer.
5. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the pressure of described compacting blank is 100~500MPa.
6. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the extrusion ratio of described extruding is 3~100, and the pressure of mold pressing is 5~300MPa, and the draft of rolling is 0.1~0.7.
7. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described semi-solid temperature interval refers to the liquidus line of metal or alloy and the temperature range of solidus curve.
8. the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described thermal treatment is that T4, T5 or T6 process, wherein T4 is solid solution+natural aging treatment, T5 is that solid solution+not exclusively artificial aging is processed, T6 is that solid solution+artificial aging is processed, and selecting of T4, T5 or T6 heat treating method is identical with the heat treating method of conventional aluminium alloy.
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Cited By (13)

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CN104388725A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-04 成都明日星辰科技有限公司 Preparation method of high-performance SiC/Al composite material used for electronic packaging
CN104745894A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-01 江苏思莱姆智能科技有限公司 Multiphase nano ceramic particle reinforced Al-based composite material and laser 3D printing forming method thereof
CN105728734A (en) * 2016-03-24 2016-07-06 西安工业大学 High-strength superfine (TixBy-TiC)/7075Al composite and preparation method thereof
CN105779800A (en) * 2016-03-07 2016-07-20 吉林大学 Preparation method of SiC plated with Ti5Si3 layer and application of SiC to preparing aluminum-based composite materials through powder metallurgy
CN106513621A (en) * 2016-11-21 2017-03-22 昆明理工大学 Production method of graphene-aluminum composite
CN106825586A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-06-13 临沂市科学技术合作与应用研究院 The method of the addition titanium diboride powder extruding aluminium alloy bits high-strength section bar of production
CN107904453A (en) * 2017-11-22 2018-04-13 宁波华源精特金属制品有限公司 A kind of engine rod piece
CN108842100A (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-20 福州大学 A kind of preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material
EP3268155A4 (en) * 2015-03-12 2018-12-19 Arconic Inc. Aluminum alloy products, and methods of making the same
CN109371290A (en) * 2018-10-17 2019-02-22 湘潭金波新材料科技有限公司 Enhancing aluminum-base composite material by silicon carbide particles and preparation method thereof
FR3075828A1 (en) * 2017-12-26 2019-06-28 Thales ALUMINUM ALLOY POWDER FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, AND PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING A PIECE BY MANUFACTURING THE POWDER
CN110157933A (en) * 2019-06-25 2019-08-23 西安建筑科技大学 A kind of high-strength wearable No yield point graphene/Ti2The preparation method of AlNb composite material
CN110153408A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-23 齐齐哈尔翔科新材料有限公司 A kind of preparation method of ceramic particle enhancing 6XXX aluminum matrix composite

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104388725A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-04 成都明日星辰科技有限公司 Preparation method of high-performance SiC/Al composite material used for electronic packaging
CN104388725B (en) * 2014-12-11 2016-02-17 成都明日星辰科技有限公司 The preparation method of the SiC/Al matrix material used for electronic packaging that a kind of performance is high
EP3268155A4 (en) * 2015-03-12 2018-12-19 Arconic Inc. Aluminum alloy products, and methods of making the same
CN104745894A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-01 江苏思莱姆智能科技有限公司 Multiphase nano ceramic particle reinforced Al-based composite material and laser 3D printing forming method thereof
CN105779800A (en) * 2016-03-07 2016-07-20 吉林大学 Preparation method of SiC plated with Ti5Si3 layer and application of SiC to preparing aluminum-based composite materials through powder metallurgy
CN105728734A (en) * 2016-03-24 2016-07-06 西安工业大学 High-strength superfine (TixBy-TiC)/7075Al composite and preparation method thereof
CN106513621A (en) * 2016-11-21 2017-03-22 昆明理工大学 Production method of graphene-aluminum composite
CN106825586A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-06-13 临沂市科学技术合作与应用研究院 The method of the addition titanium diboride powder extruding aluminium alloy bits high-strength section bar of production
CN107904453A (en) * 2017-11-22 2018-04-13 宁波华源精特金属制品有限公司 A kind of engine rod piece
FR3075828A1 (en) * 2017-12-26 2019-06-28 Thales ALUMINUM ALLOY POWDER FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, AND PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING A PIECE BY MANUFACTURING THE POWDER
CN108842100A (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-20 福州大学 A kind of preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material
CN109371290A (en) * 2018-10-17 2019-02-22 湘潭金波新材料科技有限公司 Enhancing aluminum-base composite material by silicon carbide particles and preparation method thereof
CN110153408A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-23 齐齐哈尔翔科新材料有限公司 A kind of preparation method of ceramic particle enhancing 6XXX aluminum matrix composite
CN110157933A (en) * 2019-06-25 2019-08-23 西安建筑科技大学 A kind of high-strength wearable No yield point graphene/Ti2The preparation method of AlNb composite material
CN110157933B (en) * 2019-06-25 2020-11-06 西安建筑科技大学 Preparation method of high-strength wear-resistant non-oriented graphene/Ti 2AlNb composite material

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