CN103501033B - Based on battery balanced control method and the system of maximum average isostatic electric current - Google Patents

Based on battery balanced control method and the system of maximum average isostatic electric current Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103501033B
CN103501033B CN201310475414.5A CN201310475414A CN103501033B CN 103501033 B CN103501033 B CN 103501033B CN 201310475414 A CN201310475414 A CN 201310475414A CN 103501033 B CN103501033 B CN 103501033B
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cell
voltage
battery pack
battery
circuit
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CN103501033A (en
Inventor
朱国荣
马燕
徐小薇
何少佳
张东华
陈伟
邱实
刘芙蓉
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Polytechnic High Tech Institute (Gaoyou) Co., Ltd.
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of battery balanced control method based on maximum average isostatic electric current and system, wherein system comprises: battery pack; Testing circuit, detects the magnitude of voltage of each cell in real time; Equalizing circuit, is connected with battery pack, comprises the power switch pipe corresponding with cell and inductance, and the inductance value of each inductance is not identical; Balancing control circuit, for comparing the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceeding pre-set threshold value, regulating the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, controlling the euqalizing current of each cell; When the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.The present invention passes through theory deduction in advance, optimized circuit parameter, makes the cell being in diverse location have the ability to reach identical maximum average isostatic electric current, regulates euqalizing current size by frequency modulation, make all cells almost be tending towards balanced simultaneously, improve equalization efficiency.

Description

Based on battery balanced control method and the system of maximum average isostatic electric current
Technical field
The present invention relates to battery balanced control, particularly relate to a kind of battery balanced control method based on maximum average isostatic electric current and system.
Background technology
The advantages such as lithium battery has large, the non-memory property of capacity, operating voltage is high, energy density is high, self-discharge rate is low, pollution-free, in electric automobile field, application is more and more extensive.Because single battery operating voltage is low, in order to meet voltage requirements, usually multiple batteries series connection is used.Owing to there is inconsistency between battery cell, and along with the increase of discharge and recharge number of times, the inconsistency of battery pack increases gradually.By directly causing, battery life shortens the inconsistency of battery pack, insecurity increases.Therefore, Balance route must be carried out to series battery.
At present, electric automobile lithium battery equalization methods has two kinds: active equalization and passive equilibrium.The energy of battery cell high for energy, by parallel resistance, consumes with form of heat by passive equilibrium; And active equalization is by energy trasfer mode, energy is transferred to more low-energy monomer from the monomer of higher-energy.Passive Balance route strategy is simple, and cost is low, and subject matter is thermal management and energy dissipation, and therefore, the active equalization that capacity usage ratio is high becomes the developing direction of battery management system equilibrium.Active equalization is divided into: centralized control type and diffusion controlling.Have in prior art and adopt centralized control type, all battery cells share an equalizer, and a certain moment can only to a battery transfer energy, and balancing speed is slow, and required switch is many, wayward.The corresponding DC/DC converter of each battery in diffusion controlling, all cells can open equilibrium simultaneously, and Relatively centralized control type balancing speed is fast.But in current equalizing circuit, the parameter of DC/DC converter is identical, and the different maximum average isostatic size of current difference that will cause each joint cell of battery location, therefore the balancing speed of whole battery pack is not optimum.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is that the maximum average isostatic electric current for battery pack in prior art is not identical and causes the defect that balancing speed is slow, capacity usage ratio is not high, provides a kind of balancing speed is fast, capacity usage ratio the is high battery balanced control method based on maximum average isostatic electric current and system.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:
A kind of battery balanced control system based on maximum average isostatic electric current is provided, comprises:
Battery pack, comprises the cell of multiple series connection;
Testing circuit, is connected with battery pack, detects the magnitude of voltage of each cell in real time;
Equalizing circuit, be connected with battery pack, for the energy trasfer between cell, comprise the power switch pipe corresponding with cell and inductance, the inductance value of each inductance is not identical, the cell being in diverse location is made to have the ability to reach identical maximum average isostatic electric current, to improve balancing speed;
Balancing control circuit, be connected with testing circuit and equalizing circuit, for comparing the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, control the euqalizing current of each cell, all monomer battery voltages are reached unanimity; When the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
In system of the present invention, described balancing control circuit comprises microprocessor and drive circuit, microprocessor is connected with testing circuit, drive circuit is connected with the power switch pipe of equalizing circuit, the drive pulse signal that microcontroller circuit sends by drive circuit, after isolation, amplification and filtering, sends to equalizing circuit to control opening and disconnecting of power switch pipe.
In system of the present invention, this balancing control circuit also comprises FPGA module, is connected between microprocessor and drive circuit, and microprocessor sends drive pulse signal by this FPGA module to drive circuit.
In system of the present invention, this system comprises multiple described battery pack, connect between battery pack, if there is multiple battery pack, then respectively well-balanced adjustment is carried out to the cell in each battery pack, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity, and carries out well-balanced adjustment to multiple battery pack simultaneously.
In system of the present invention, the corresponding cell of each inductance in described equalizing circuit, the pass between the inductance value of each inductance is preset, and the average isostatic electric current that specifically can reach according to each cell is identical to be derived.
The present invention solves another technical scheme that its technical problem adopts:
A kind of balance control method based on average isostatic electric current fast uniform is provided, comprises the following steps:
In S1, in real time detection battery pack, the magnitude of voltage of cell, is connected in series between cell;
S2, compare the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity;
S3, when the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
In method of the present invention, in step S2, if the difference of voltage minimum is larger in a monomer battery voltage value and battery pack, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is lower; If the difference of a monomer battery voltage value and voltage minimum is less, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is higher, all monomer battery voltages is almost reached unanimity simultaneously, to improve equalization efficiency.
In method of the present invention, if there is multiple battery pack, then carry out well-balanced adjustment to the cell in each battery pack respectively, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity, and carries out well-balanced adjustment to multiple battery pack simultaneously.
The beneficial effect that the present invention produces is: the present invention is by comparing the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, control the euqalizing current of each cell, all monomer battery voltages are almost reached unanimity simultaneously.The present invention can pass through theory deduction, optimized circuit parameter in advance, makes the cell being in diverse location have the ability to reach identical maximum average isostatic electric current, to improve balancing speed.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described, in accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention based on the battery balanced control system of maximum average isostatic electric current;
Fig. 2 is embodiment of the present invention equalizing circuit structural representation;
Fig. 3 A is that embodiment of the present invention euqalizing current flows to schematic diagram one;
Fig. 3 B is that embodiment of the present invention euqalizing current flows to schematic diagram two;
Fig. 4 is the balance control method flow chart of the embodiment of the present invention based on average isostatic electric current fast uniform;
Fig. 5 is the control block diagram of embodiment of the present invention balancing control circuit.
Embodiment
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearly understand, below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.
As shown in Figure 1, the embodiment of the present invention comprises battery pack 10, testing circuit 20, equalizing circuit 30 and balancing control circuit 40 based on the battery balanced control system of maximum average isostatic electric current.The battery pack 10 of the embodiment of the present invention is to comprise the lithium battery of four series connection.The design of the embodiment of the present invention is: using four joint serial lithium batteries as a battery pack, diffusion controlling DC/DC converter as the equalizing circuit of lithium battery group, by theory deduction, optimized circuit parameter.The voltage of each joint cell is detected by testing circuit, detection signal is passed to balancing control circuit, and balancing control circuit, by certain control algolithm, sends corresponding driving pulse, the opening or turning off of control switch pipe, thus realize the equilibrium between lithium battery.
In the embodiment of the present invention:
Battery pack 10, comprises the cell of multiple series connection; As shown in Figure 2, battery pack 10 comprises cell B1, B2, B3 and B4 of multiple series connection;
Testing circuit 20, is connected with battery pack 10, detects the magnitude of voltage of each cell during high-precision real;
Equalizing circuit 30, be connected with battery pack 10, for the energy trasfer between cell, comprise the power switch pipe corresponding with cell and inductance, the inductance value of each inductance is not identical, makes the cell being in diverse location have the ability to reach identical maximum average isostatic electric current; As shown in Figure 2, power switch pipe Q1, Q2, Q3, the Q4 corresponding with cell is comprised, inductance L 1, L2, L3, L4; The ratio of batteries monomer cell number and power demand switching tube, energy storage inductor quantity is 1:1:1.In order to prevent inductance hysteresis & saturation, under DC/DC converter (i.e. equalizing circuit 30) works in discontinuous current mode.
As shown in figs.3 a and 3b, when switching tube Q1 opens, B1, Q1, L1 form closed-loop path, and the portion of energy in battery B1 is stored in inductance L 1; When switching tube turns off, L1, B2, B3, B4, D1 form closed-loop path, and the energy trasfer in inductance L 1 is in battery B2, B3, B4.In like manner, the energy of battery B2 also can be transferred in battery B1, and the energy of battery B3 also can be transferred in B1, B2, and the energy of battery B4 also can be transferred in B1, B2, B3.Thus realize the transfer of energy between lithium battery, finally realize equilibrium.
In embodiments of the invention, the corresponding cell of each inductance in described equalizing circuit 30, the pass between the inductance value of each inductance is preset, and the average isostatic electric current that specifically can reach according to each cell is identical to be derived.In equalizing circuit 30, the inductance value of inductance is by theory deduction in advance, to comprise n inductance L in equalizing circuit 30 nfor example, inductive current expression formula is as follows:
i L n = V B n L n t , 0 &le; t < DT n V B n L n DT n - V off L n ( t - DT n ) , DT n &le; t < T er 0 , T er &le; t &le; T n
Wherein, when representing that switching tube is opened, inductance L nthe voltage at two ends; V offwhen representing that switching tube disconnects, inductance L nthe voltage at two ends; T crrepresent when one-period internal inductance electric current reduces to zero.When switching tube is opened, inductance average current is designated as I n, on; When switching tube turns off, inductance average current is designated as I n, off; The mean value of one-period internal inductance electric current is designated as I n, avg.
I n , on = 1 T n &Integral; 0 DT n V B n L n tdt = 1 T n * V B n 2 Ln * [ ( DT n ) 2 - 0 ] = V B n D 2 T n 2 Ln
I n , off = 1 T n &Integral; DT n T &prime; n &lsqb; V B n L N DT n - V off L n ( t - DT n &rsqb; ) dt = V B n D 2 T n 2 L n ( V B n V off ) = V B n D 2 T n 2 L n * ( N - 1 ) , n = 1 V B n D 2 T n 2 L n * ( n - 1 ) , n &NotEqual; 1
I n , avg = I n , on + I n , off = V B n D 2 T n 2 Ln * ( 1 + 1 N + 1 ) , n = 1 V B n D 2 T n 2 Ln * ( 1 + 1 n - 1 ) , n &NotEqual; 1
Assumed average euqalizing current I n, arg=3A, duty ratio D=0.37, f n=10kHz, N=4, then the numerical computations of four inductance is as follows:
L 1 = 11.1 uH L 2 = 16.7 uH L 3 = 12.5 uH L 4 = 11.1 uH
Balancing control circuit 40, be connected with testing circuit 20 and equalizing circuit 30, for comparing the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, control the euqalizing current of each cell, all monomer battery voltages are almost reached unanimity simultaneously; When the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
Described balancing control circuit comprises microprocessor 41(MCU) and drive circuit 42, microprocessor 41 is connected with testing circuit 20, drive circuit 42 is connected with the power switch pipe of equalizing circuit, the drive pulse signal that microcontroller circuit sends by drive circuit is after isolation, amplification and filtering, send to equalizing circuit 30 to control opening and disconnecting of power switch pipe, realize balanced.
In the embodiment of the present invention, when needing to carry out Balance route to a large amount of series batteries, need transmit control signal to roads up to a hundred drive circuit, realizing the Balance route of a large amount of series battery.In another embodiment of the present invention, utilize the advantage that FPGA output interface is many, the speed of service is fast, in balancing control circuit 40, increase FPGA module, be connected between microprocessor 41 and drive circuit 42, microprocessor 41 sends drive pulse signal by this FPGA module to drive circuit.MCU is responsible for AD and transforms, and simple computation, communicates with FPGA; FPGA receives the data from MCU, sends corresponding driving pulse.In the battery pack balancing system be composed in series by a large amount of lithium battery, the driving pulse of identical number can be sent by FPGA module, and the system that MCU controls separately is irrealizable.In the embodiment of the present invention, microprocessor 41 sends PFM(pulse frequency modulated PulseFrequencyModulation by this FPGA module to drive circuit) control signal.The frequency of this PFM control signal changes with input signal amplitude, and its duty ratio is constant.
Control algolithm of the present invention is completed by balancing control circuit 40, for the circuit diagram of such as Fig. 3 A and 3B, as shown in Figure 5, according to the information of voltage obtained from testing circuit 20, compares cell voltage, finds out minimum value.Calculate the voltage difference of each cell voltage and minimum voltage, according to the size of voltage difference, look into frequency meter and (see the following form 1, be understandable that, for different equalizing circuits, its frequency meter pre-set is not identical), obtain corresponding frequency values, send corresponding pulse signal.Microprocessor 41(and single chip part) control strategy can adopt C language to work out, by the burned controller storage of jtag interface or in-chip FLASH; FPGA part control strategy can adopt hardware description language Verilog to work out, by the burned controller storage of jtag interface or in-chip FLASH.
Table 1 frequency meter
△V(v) F(kHz)
0.01~0.20 30
0.20~0.40 25
0.40~0.60 20
0.60~0.80 15
>0.80 10
If the difference of voltage minimum is larger in a monomer battery voltage value and battery pack, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is lower; If the difference of a monomer battery voltage value and voltage minimum is less, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is higher, all monomer battery voltages is almost reached unanimity simultaneously, to improve equalization efficiency.
In one embodiment of the present of invention, if this system comprises multiple described battery pack, connect between battery pack, then equalizing circuit 30 first regulates the monomer battery voltage in each battery pack respectively, carries out electric voltage equalization for multiple battery pack simultaneously.In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the corresponding equalizing circuit of each battery pack, also connects equalizing circuit between multiple battery pack, for the electric voltage equalization between battery pack.Be understandable that, when there being multiple equalizing circuit, these equalizing circuits can be integrated in a module.
The embodiment of the present invention, based on the balance control method of average isostatic electric current fast uniform, is realized by above-mentioned balance control system, as shown in Figure 4, comprises the following steps:
In S401, in real time detection battery pack, the magnitude of voltage of cell, is connected in series between cell;
S402, compare the magnitude of voltage of each cell;
S403, judge whether the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value;
S404, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, control the euqalizing current of each cell, all monomer battery voltages are almost reached unanimity simultaneously; When the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
In step S402, if the difference of voltage minimum is larger in a monomer battery voltage value and battery pack, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is lower; If the difference of a monomer battery voltage value and voltage minimum is less, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is higher, all monomer battery voltages is almost reached unanimity simultaneously, to improve equalization efficiency.
If there is multiple battery pack, then carrying out the cell in each battery pack, in the process of well-balanced adjustment, also carrying out well-balanced adjustment to multiple battery pack simultaneously.
The battery balanced control method based on average isostatic electric current of the embodiment of the present invention detects the magnitude of voltage of cell in battery pack in real time by high-accuracy voltage testing circuit, well-balanced adjustment is opened when the difference of certain batteries magnitude of voltage and monomer battery voltage minimum exceedes threshold values, control circuit is according to the frequency of the size adjustment corresponding power switching tube of described voltage difference, the cell making difference larger obtains larger average isostatic electric current, all battery cells in battery pack can be made almost to reach balanced simultaneously, improve balancing speed and efficiency, the super-charge super-discharge harm preventing the inconsistency of cell to bring, extend the useful life of battery pack.
The present invention can realize a large amount of series battery and be tending towards balanced fast, simultaneously, can be applied to the occasion of battery-operated motor cycle, electric automobile, hybrid vehicle energy-storage battery fast uniform.
Should be understood that, for those of ordinary skills, can be improved according to the above description or convert, and all these improve and convert the protection range that all should belong to claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1., based on a battery balanced control system for maximum average isostatic electric current, it is characterized in that, comprising:
Battery pack, comprises the cell of multiple series connection;
Testing circuit, is connected with battery pack, detects the magnitude of voltage of each cell in real time;
Equalizing circuit, be connected with battery pack, for the energy trasfer between cell, comprise the power switch pipe corresponding with cell and inductance, the inductance value of each inductance is not identical, makes the maximum average isostatic electric current that the cell being in diverse location can reach identical; The corresponding cell of each inductance in described equalizing circuit, the pass between the inductance value of each inductance is preset, and the average isostatic electric current that specifically can reach according to each cell is identical to be derived, to improve balancing speed;
Balancing control circuit, be connected with testing circuit and equalizing circuit, for comparing the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, control the euqalizing current of each cell; When the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
2. system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described balancing control circuit comprises microprocessor and drive circuit, microprocessor is connected with testing circuit, drive circuit is connected with the power switch pipe of equalizing circuit, the drive pulse signal that microcontroller circuit sends by drive circuit, after isolation, amplification and filtering, sends to equalizing circuit to control opening and disconnecting of power switch pipe.
3. system according to claim 2, is characterized in that, this balancing control circuit also comprises FPGA module, is connected between microprocessor and drive circuit, and microprocessor sends drive pulse signal by this FPGA module to drive circuit.
4. system according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, this system comprises multiple described battery pack, connect between battery pack, if there is multiple battery pack, then carry out well-balanced adjustment to the cell in each battery pack respectively, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity, and carries out well-balanced adjustment to multiple battery pack simultaneously.
5., based on a balance control method for average isostatic electric current fast uniform, realized by the balance control system according to any one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
In S1, in real time detection battery pack, the magnitude of voltage of cell, is connected in series between cell;
S2, compare the magnitude of voltage of each cell, when the voltage difference of different monomers battery exceedes pre-set threshold value, regulate the frequency of the power switch pipe corresponding with cell respectively, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity;
S3, when the voltage of each cell in battery pack reaches unanimity, stop Balance route.
6. method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, in step S2, if the difference of voltage minimum is larger in a monomer battery voltage value and battery pack, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is lower; If the difference of a monomer battery voltage value and voltage minimum is less, then the frequency controlling the power switch pipe of this cell is higher, all monomer battery voltages is almost reached unanimity simultaneously, to improve equalization efficiency.
7. method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, if there is multiple battery pack, then carry out well-balanced adjustment to the cell in each battery pack respectively, the voltage controlling each cell reaches unanimity, and carries out well-balanced adjustment to multiple battery pack simultaneously.
CN201310475414.5A 2013-10-12 2013-10-12 Based on battery balanced control method and the system of maximum average isostatic electric current Expired - Fee Related CN103501033B (en)

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CN104124480B (en) * 2014-07-18 2017-04-05 刘仲尧 A kind of method and system of balance battery core voltage
CN104917224B (en) * 2015-03-31 2018-05-15 华南理工大学 The two-stage balancer and its control method of a kind of battery pack
CN105244554B (en) * 2015-06-30 2019-07-05 惠州市亿能电子有限公司 It is a kind of to determine method with the matched euqalizing current value of electrokinetic cell system
CN106571649B (en) * 2015-10-09 2019-06-28 华为技术有限公司 A kind of euqalizing current adjusting method and relevant apparatus
CN105576769B (en) * 2016-02-26 2018-08-14 苏州碧欧新能源科技有限公司 A kind of device carrying out independent-lifting voltage adjusting to series-connected cell monomer
CN109980306B (en) * 2019-03-14 2021-06-01 浙江南都电源动力股份有限公司 Method for optimizing consistency of battery modules
CN111540965B (en) * 2020-05-18 2021-10-08 上海采日能源科技有限公司 Battery voltage balancing method and device and battery management system

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