CN103487889A - Mach-Zehnder optical switch structure based on coupling of double resonant cavities - Google Patents

Mach-Zehnder optical switch structure based on coupling of double resonant cavities Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103487889A
CN103487889A CN201310347974.2A CN201310347974A CN103487889A CN 103487889 A CN103487889 A CN 103487889A CN 201310347974 A CN201310347974 A CN 201310347974A CN 103487889 A CN103487889 A CN 103487889A
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China
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mach
light
arm
pair
interference
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CN201310347974.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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陆梁军
周林杰
李新碗
陈建平
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上海交通大学
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Priority to CN201310347974.2A priority Critical patent/CN103487889A/en
Publication of CN103487889A publication Critical patent/CN103487889A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/3564Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details
    • G02B6/3568Mechanical details of the actuation mechanism associated with the moving element or mounting mechanism details characterised by the actuating force
    • G02B6/3576Temperature or heat actuation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/354Switching arrangements, i.e. number of input/output ports and interconnection types
    • G02B6/35442D constellations, i.e. with switching elements and switched beams located in a plane
    • G02B6/3546NxM switch, i.e. a regular array of switches elements of matrix type constellation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/35Optical coupling means having switching means
    • G02B6/3596With planar waveguide arrangement, i.e. in a substrate, regardless if actuating mechanism is outside the substrate
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4295Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements coupling with semiconductor devices activated by light through the light guide, e.g. thyristors, phototransistors

Abstract

A Mach-Zehnder optical switch structure based on coupling of double resonant cavities comprises a pair of input waveguides, a front coupler, a rear coupler, a pair of output waveguides and a pair of optical resonant cavities, wherein the input end of the front coupler is connected with the input waveguides and is used for dividing a path of light into two paths of light, and the two paths of light enter an upper interference arm and a lower interference arm respectively; the rear coupler combines the two paths of light into one path of light to be coupled into a certain optical waveguide of the input waveguides; one end of each output waveguide is connected with the output end of the rear coupler; the two ends of the upper interference arm and the two ends of the lower interference arm are connected with the front coupler and the rear coupler respectively; the optical resonant cavities are coupled with the upper interference arm and the lower interference arm respectively. According to the Mach-Zehnder optical switch structure, the advantage of drastic phase changes of wave lengths near resonance points is utilized, the two-arm interference characteristic of the Mach-Zehnder interference structure is combined, the refractive index of one resonant cavity only needs to be changed, and light signals are output from different ports.

Description

Based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind ofly based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, belong to the integrated optoelectronics field.

Background technology

The integrated opto-electronic technology, due to its volume advantage little, low in energy consumption, became study hotspot in recent years.The discrete element development such as modulator, wave filter, laser instrument rapidly; By the integrated development that also obtained of a plurality of function element monolithics, monolithic integrated level and data traffic are also at rapid growth.Integrated opto-electronic device becomes basis and the power of optical interconnection development on following all-optical network and sheet.The device that photoswitch is important as one of them is widely used in light bifurcated multiplex system and light crossbar contact in optical-fiber network; Be used to the data communication between polycaryon processor in optical interconnection on sheet.The function of photoswitch is that light signal advances from N input port, can be with route combination arbitrarily from N delivery outlet output, i.e. N * N photoswitch.Being greater than 2 photoswitch for N, is all to have 1 * 2 or 2 * 2 optical switch elements to form by different topological structures.The switch performance of 1 * 2 or 2 * 2 optical switch element, affected the performance of N * N photoswitch, so it is most important to develop 1 * 2 and 2 * 2 optical switch element.

The research in recent years both at home and abroad team of research photoswitch is a lot, and they have also used different structures as optical switch element wherein, wherein more typical have following several.Chinese Academy of Sciences's semiconducter research the people such as Ruiqiang Ji at OPTICS EXPRESS(Vol.19, No.21) in the paper of delivering on " Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip ", utilize micro-ring resonant cavity and two parallel waveguides or two vertical waveguide couplings to form 1 * 2 switch element, topology realizes the photoswitch of 5 ports, device one has 16 micro-rings, and overall dimensions only has 50 * 400 μ m 2, the spectral bandwidth of 3-dB is 38GHz.The people such as the Joris Van Campenhout of IBM Corporation are at OPTICS EXPRESS(Vol.17, No.26) in the paper of delivering on " Low-power; 2 * 2silicon electro-optic switch with110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks ", propose to realize 2 * 2 photoswitches by the Mach Zehnder interference structure, by the design coupling mechanism, make the spectrum width of photoswitch cover 110nm, Switch-crosstalk is lower than-17dB, but device size only has 50 * 400 μ m 2.The people such as the Hugo L.R.Lira of Cornell Univ USA are at OPTICS EXPRESS(Vol.17, No.25) in the paper of delivering on " Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks ", utilize the dicyclo intercoupled to realize switch element, experimental results show that spectral bandwidth is 60GHz, unit size is 20 * 40 μ m 2.The people such as the Michael R.Watts of masschusetts, u.s.a science and engineering are at OPTICS EXPRESS(Vol.19, No.22) in the paper of delivering on " Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches ", propose to realize switch element with micro-dish resonator cavity, the diameter of micro-dish only has 3.5 μ m.

The comprehensive method of more having reported, the photoswitch spectral bandwidth based on the Mach Zehnder interference structure is the widest, but device size is larger, and need to regulate the phase differential of π when switching manipulation, power consumption is larger.Photoswitch based on single micro-ring or micro-dish structure, device size is little, but because the spectral bandwidth of single resonance structure is narrow, the spectral response unevenness, increase bandwidth and will make power consumption become large.Photoswitch based on twin nuclei, can realize the flat-top switching response of larger bandwidth, but, because needs are accurately controlled the coupling coefficient between two rings, process allowance is smaller.Therefore, propose a kind of device size less, spectral response is wide and smooth, and power consumption is lower, and the photoswitch that process allowance is larger is very important.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to for above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, in conjunction with Mach Zehnder interference device resonant cavity advantage separately, propose that a kind of size is little, bandwidth of operation is large, it is low in energy consumption based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction to regulate.

For achieving the above object, technical solution of the present invention is as follows:

A kind of based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, comprising:

A pair of input waveguide, in order to be inducted into light wave in the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

One preposition coupling mechanism, the input end of this preposition coupling mechanism is connected with a pair of input waveguide, in order to a road light is divided into to two-way light, and enters into respectively interference arm and lower interference arm;

One rearmounted coupling mechanism, merge into a road light by two-way light, and be coupled in a certain optical waveguide of a pair of output waveguide;

A pair of output waveguide, an end of this pair of output waveguide is connected with the output terminal of rearmounted coupling mechanism, in order to light is exported from the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

Upper interference arm, interfere the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively on this, provide and form the needed light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

Lower interference arm, this time interferes the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively, provides and forms needed another light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

Its characteristics are,

A pair of optical cavity, this pair of optical cavity is coupled with upper interference arm and lower interference arm respectively.

Described preposition coupling mechanism and rearmounted coupling mechanism are multi-mode interference coupler, Y branch beam splitter or directional coupler, realize that any input port enters, evenly light splitting output.

Described upper and lower interference arm is fully equal, and length does not affect switching characteristic, reduces brachium asymmetric with the arm that reduces device size and fabrication error and bring as far as possible.

Described a pair of optical cavity, be micro-ring resonant cavity, micro-dish resonator cavity, racetrack resonator cavity or photonic crystal resonant cavity, and resonator cavity, strengthens with the coupling of interfering arm and can increase the spectral bandwidth that closes switch in the overcoupling state with the interference arm.

Light signal enters photoswitch from any input waveguide, by changing the refractive index of one of them optical cavity, can realize that light signal is from different output waveguide output; Utilize an input waveguide to realize 1 * 2 photoswitch, utilize two input waveguides to realize 2 * 2 photoswitches.

Photoswitch is silica-based integrated photonic device, and the change of its refractive index can be passed through thermo-optic effect, charge carrier effect of dispersion and nonlinear effect and realize.

Photoswitch is silica based or nitride silicon based integrated photonic device, and the change of its refractive index can realize by thermo-optic effect.

As switch element, by different switch topology, can realize that multiport advances, the photoswitch router that multiport goes out, for fields such as optical-fiber networks on optical communication, sheet.

Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:

Change upper and lower two phase place phase differential of interfering arms from 0 to π, thereby realize that light signal exports from different output ports.

Two resonator cavitys are coupled with interfering arm respectively, and (the straight-through coefficient τ of amplitude is less than loss factor a), and near light signal phase place resonance wavelength changes violent in the overcoupling state.

By changing the refractive index of one of them resonator cavity, can realize by less refringence the change of π phase place, thereby realize light switch function.

With respect to 1 * 2 or 2 * 2 traditional optical switch elements, photoswitch power consumption of the present invention is lower, device size is less, spectral response is wider and smooth.

The accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is for the present invention is based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.

Fig. 2 is that embodiment 1 is based on two micro-ring resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.

Fig. 3 is that embodiment 2 is based on two micro-dish resonator cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.

Fig. 4 is that embodiment 3 is based on double course type resonance coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.

Fig. 5 is that embodiment 4 is based on two-photon crystal oscillator cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.

(a) phase response that Fig. 6 is resonator cavity under different refractivity changes and (b) spectral response figure.

Fig. 7 holds and (b) intersects the spectral response figure of end under different refractivity changes based on double course coupling Mach-Zehnder photoswitch (a) is straight-through.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further elaborated, but should limit the scope of the invention with this.

Please first consult Fig. 1, Fig. 1 is the structural representation that the present invention is based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder photoswitch, as shown in Figure 1, a kind of based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, comprising:

A pair of input waveguide 1,2, in order to be inducted into light wave in the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

One preposition coupling mechanism 3, the input end of this preposition coupling mechanism is connected with a pair of input waveguide, in order to a road light is divided into to two-way light, and enters into respectively interference arm and lower interference arm;

One rearmounted coupling mechanism 6, merge into a road light by two-way light, and be coupled in a certain optical waveguide of a pair of output waveguide;

A pair of output waveguide 7,8, an end of this pair of output waveguide is connected with the output terminal of rearmounted coupling mechanism, in order to light is exported from the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

Upper interference arm 4, interfere the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively on this, provide and form the needed light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

Lower interference arm 5, this time interferes the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively, provides and forms needed another light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;

A pair of optical cavity 41,51, this pair of optical cavity is coupled with upper interference arm and lower interference arm respectively.

Preposition coupling mechanism 3 is multi-mode interference coupler, Y branch beam splitter or directional coupler, realizes that any input port enters, evenly light splitting output; Upper interference arm 4 is the same with the length of lower interference arm 5, and length does not affect switching characteristic, reduces brachium to reduce device size and fabrication error as far as possible, generally can design 10 μ m magnitudes;

A pair of optical cavity 41,51, optical cavity 41 and upper interference arm 4 couplings on this, lower optical cavity 51 and lower interference arm coupling, optical cavity 41 and 51 is micro-ring resonant cavity, micro-dish resonator cavity, racetrack resonator cavity or photonic crystal resonant cavity, and the size of two resonator cavitys is in full accord;

Fig. 2 is that embodiment 1 is based on two micro-ring resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram, Fig. 3 is that embodiment 2 is based on two micro-dish resonator cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram, Fig. 4 is embodiment 3 based on double course type resonance coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram, and Fig. 5 is that embodiment 4 is based on two-photon crystal oscillator cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction schematic diagram.Photoswitch of the present invention can be realized by silica-based, silica based or silicon nitride-based material, by thermo-optic effect or silica-based in charge carrier effect of dispersion, the refractive index that nonlinear effect is regulated one of them resonator cavity, or the refractive index of simultaneously towards different directions, regulating two resonator cavitys.In the switch closed condition, the phase differential of upper and lower two interference arms is 0, and light signal is held output from intersecting after entering photoswitch, and straight-through light intensity of holding is 0.When the refractive index that changes a resonator cavity, the phase response of its spectrum is moved, as shown in Fig. 6 (a), near the light phase place 1551.34nm wavelength changes violent, by less refraction index changing, can realize the variation of phase differential π, two arms interference are subtracted each other, realized the switch reversion, light signal is just from straight-through end output.Fig. 6 (b) is the spectral response of resonator cavity under different refractivity changes, and when the switch reversion occurs, light signal equates in the amplitude of upper and lower two resonator cavitys.Fig. 7 (a) and (b) be the straight-through end of photoswitch and intersect end in the spectral response changed under different refractivity, when signal loading, to the 1551.34nm wavelength, photoswitch of the present invention is in closed condition, and variations in refractive index is 0, the response of straight-through end is 0, and the response of holding that intersects approaches 1; After switch open, the output of straight-through end approaches 1, and the response of intersection end is 0

Embodiment

The Fig. 2 of take is embodiment based on two micro-loop coupling Mach-Zehnder photoswitches, and silica-based is device material, and preposition coupling mechanism 3 and rearmounted coupling mechanism 6 are multi-mode interference coupler.In Fig. 2, micro-ring resonant cavity 41 and 51 radius are all 10 μ m, make metal fever resistance on 41, and the refractive index of utilizing thermo-optic effect to change this ring realizes on-off action.Consider that actual process can bring loss, suppose that total losses are 3dB/cm, the dissipation factor a that is converted into micro-ring 41,51 is 0.9978.The straight-through coefficient τ of the amplitude of micro-ring 41,51 and interference arm is 0.94, and respective amplitude coupling coefficient κ is 0.3412.Micro-ring 41 is carried out to heat temperature raising, change refractive index.Fig. 5 (a) and (b) be depicted as phase response figure and the spectral response figure of micro-ring 41 under different refractivity changes.Putative signal is carried in 1551.34nm, when variations in refractive index is 4.85 * 10 -4the time, phase change π, amplitude is the same with original state.For the Mach Zehnder interference structure, be to interfere and subtract each other, just realized the switch reversion.Fig. 7 (a) and (b) be respectively and the present invention is based on the straight-through end of two micro-loop coupling Mach-Zehnder photoswitches and intersect the spectral response of end under micro-ring 41 different refractivities change.The original state light signal is from intersecting end output, and straight-through end is output as 0, and straight-through end output is not 1 to be because micro-ring loss causes.Change the refractive index of micro-ring 41, the output intensity of straight-through end increases gradually, and the output intensity of holding that intersects reduces.When variations in refractive index is 4.85 * 10 -4the time, the end that intersects is output as 0, and light signal all, from straight-through end output, has been realized the switch reversion.As we can see from the figure, the 3-dB bandwidth of switch is~53GHz (0.425nm) that spectral response is also comparatively smooth.Realize larger 3-dB bandwidth, only need to increase resonator cavity 41 and 51 with the stiffness of coupling of interference arm.

The above; be only embodiment and embodiment in the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to this, anyly is familiar with the people of this technology in the disclosed technical scope of the present invention; the conversion that can expect easily or replacement, all should be encompassed in of the present invention comprise scope within.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claims.

Claims (4)

1. one kind based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, comprising:
A pair of input waveguide (1,2), in order to be inducted into light wave in the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;
One preposition coupling mechanism (3), the input end of this preposition coupling mechanism is connected with a pair of input waveguide, in order to a road light is divided into to two-way light, and enters into respectively interference arm and lower interference arm;
One rearmounted coupling mechanism (6), merge into a road light by two-way light, and be coupled in a certain optical waveguide of a pair of output waveguide;
A pair of output waveguide (7,8), an end of this pair of output waveguide is connected with the output terminal of rearmounted coupling mechanism, in order to light is exported from the Mach Zehnder interference instrument;
Upper interference arm (4), interfere the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively on this, provide and form the needed light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;
Lower interference arm (5), this time interferes the two ends of arm to be connected with rearmounted coupling mechanism with preposition coupling mechanism respectively, provides and forms needed another light path of Mach Zehnder interference instrument;
It is characterized in that,
A pair of optical cavity (41,51), this pair of optical cavity is coupled with upper interference arm and lower interference arm respectively.
2. according to claim 1 based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, it is characterized in that, described a pair of optical cavity is micro-ring resonant cavity, micro-dish resonator cavity, racetrack resonator cavity or photonic crystal resonant cavity, and resonator cavity and interference arm are in the overcoupling state.
3. according to claim 1ly based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, it is characterized in that, described preposition coupling mechanism and rearmounted coupling mechanism are multi-mode interference coupler, Y branch beam splitter or directional coupler.
4. according to claim 1ly based on dual resonant cavity coupling Mach-Zehnder optical switch construction, it is characterized in that, described upper interference arm is identical with the structure of lower interference arm.
CN201310347974.2A 2013-08-12 2013-08-12 Mach-Zehnder optical switch structure based on coupling of double resonant cavities CN103487889A (en)

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CN105241844A (en) * 2015-10-22 2016-01-13 浙江大学 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical biosensor based on polycyclic assistance
CN105242479A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-01-13 北方工业大学 All-optical comparator based on stimulated Raman scattering loss effect
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CN108627919A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-09 浙江大学 A kind of silicon substrate photoswitch of polarization insensitive
CN109324373A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-02-12 东北林业大学 All-optical, dual control dimming switch based on ring resonator

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CN104360445A (en) * 2014-10-23 2015-02-18 大连民族学院 High sensitivity interferometer based on fiber optic ring resonator structure
WO2016202149A1 (en) * 2015-06-19 2016-12-22 中兴通讯股份有限公司 Silicon-based modulator bias-point control device and method
CN106483686A (en) * 2015-08-26 2017-03-08 意法半导体(克洛尔2)公司 With electric light(E/O)Electro-optical device of modulator and associated method
CN105241844A (en) * 2015-10-22 2016-01-13 浙江大学 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical biosensor based on polycyclic assistance
CN105241844B (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-12-15 浙江大学 Mach-Zender interferometer optical biosensor based on polycyclic auxiliary
CN105242479A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-01-13 北方工业大学 All-optical comparator based on stimulated Raman scattering loss effect
CN108627919A (en) * 2018-05-11 2018-10-09 浙江大学 A kind of silicon substrate photoswitch of polarization insensitive
CN109324373A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-02-12 东北林业大学 All-optical, dual control dimming switch based on ring resonator

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