CN103485796B - Tunnel supporting structure across active fault - Google Patents

Tunnel supporting structure across active fault Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103485796B
CN103485796B CN201310491821.5A CN201310491821A CN103485796B CN 103485796 B CN103485796 B CN 103485796B CN 201310491821 A CN201310491821 A CN 201310491821A CN 103485796 B CN103485796 B CN 103485796B
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lining
tunnel
fault
tomography
once
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CN103485796A (en
Inventor
王联
林国进
李玉文
郑金龙
郑建国
田尚志
李晓洪
高世军
朱长安
向龙
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Sichuan Highway Planning Survey and Design Institute Ltd
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SICHUAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HIGHWAY PLANNING PROSPECTING AND DESIGN RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Abstract

The invention relates to a tunnel supporting structure, and in particular to a tunnel supporting structure across an active fault. The tunnel supporting structure comprises a fault across section and common supporting sections connected with the two ends of the tunnel supporting structure, wherein the common supporting sections adopt combined lining structures; the fault across section is orderly provided with a secondary lining, a foam concrete layer, a primary lining, a first waterproof layer and a preliminary support from inside to outside along the radial direction of the tunnel; the primary support, the first waterproof layer and the primary lining form the combined lining structure. The tunnel supporting structure is capable of overcoming the problem of application time selection, and is safe and convenient to construct. The primary lining is capable of partially bearing stress generated by the fault due to creep; in the meantime, the foam concrete is capable of providing a displacement space and absorbing energy; finally, the secondary lining is used for forming safety stock of the structure and ensuring that the clearance is not affected by fault movement; the tunnel supporting structure is high in safety storage, and has excellent shock resistance and excellent ability of resisting damage caused by fault creep and fault movement.

Description

Cross over the tunnel support structure of active fault
Technical field
The present invention relates to tunnel support structure, especially a kind of tunnel support structure crossing over active fault.
Background technology
Tunnel is a kind of engineering structure built in underground, is widely used in the fields such as traffic, mine, water conservancy and national defence.Current tunnel, usual employing New Austrian Tunneling Method construction, supporting and protection structure is composite lining structure, comprises vault, inverted arch and both sides abutment wall along tunnel hoop, the preliminary bracing outside comprising along tunnel radial direction, the secondary lining of inner side and the waterproofing course between preliminary bracing and secondary lining.
Along with the fast development of China's transportation industry, the geographic coverage of building tunnel is more and more wider.According to prior art specification, in construction of tunnel, if meet tomography, first should take to dodge the measure of detouring; If because of route plan restriction must pass through active fault time, keep orthogonal with tomography, to reduce the affected scope in tunnel as far as possible.Active fault, namely still once had activity in movable or geologic(al) period in modern age now, tomography that in the future also may be again movable, and as a kind of geological structure, its movable main manifestations is the upper lower burrs changing of the relative positions relatively in time.The motion mode of active fault has stick-slip and creep two kinds, the rapid disruption of tomography when wherein the stick-slip changing of the relative positions is earthquake, and the creep changing of the relative positions is that tomography is not with the slow changing of the relative positions of earthquake.Cross over the tunnel of active fault, in the upper dish longitudinally laying respectively at active fault plane of fracture both sides and lower wall, therefore in active fault, dish, with in the relative changing of the relative positions process of lower wall, has a strong impact on the safety formation of tunnel support structure.
For normal fault, upper dish, under gravity along the downward slippage of the plane of fracture, acts in tunnel lining and shows as Paraclase place by shear stress, and be subject to answering much larger than the axial push-pull of normal condition at Paraclase two side position.During earthquake, the fault viscosity-sliding changing of the relative positions, changing of the relative positions amount enlarges markedly, and causes shear stress suffered in lining cutting to increase rapidly, and lining cutting occurs directly to cut off destruction.And under non-earthquake conditions, the fault creep changing of the relative positions, changing of the relative positions amount is slowly accumulated in time, be the trend of cumulative year after year on the impact of tunnel generation, its destructive process can regard the progressive destruction of liner structure under the Static behavior increased gradually as, and compared with the mode of failure of the stick-slip changing of the relative positions, the more common mode of failure of the creep changing of the relative positions is that La Zhang – extrudes and shears the mode of failure combined.Concretely, La Zhang – extrudes and shears the mode of failure combined, at the distortion initial stage, fault movement amount is less, the top of lining cutting and bottom produce in the axial direction draw, compressive stress, when the intensity of drawing, compressive stress exceedes lining cutting, lining cutting just produces La Zhang – compression fissure; Increase gradually apart from amount along with wrong, La Zhang – compression fissure gradually to whole Lining Ring to expansion, when shear stress exceed do not destroy strength of lining time, lining cutting will cut off destruction.
Current, Chinese scholars is less to the tunnel structure research of passing through active fault, and the Shear mainly concentrating on tunnel structure destroys, as the patent No. be ZL200910058875.6, denomination of invention is the patent of invention of shock resisting and reducing structure spanning movable fault tunnel.The liner structure of foregoing invention patent tunnel shock resisting structure comprises liner and outer lining, be provided with the vibration absorber longitudinally extended to active fault both sides along tunnel at rock mass active fault position, this vibration absorber is made up of the bubble concrete layer be filled between liner, outer lining; Respectively be provided with the stabilization zone along tunnel longitudinal extension outside the two ends of vibration absorber, stabilization zone is coagulated soil layer by the reinforcing bar be filled between liner, outer lining and is formed.When earthquake occurs, vibration absorber can absorb seismic energy effectively, and allows active fault to have certain displacement, thus reduces active fault to the impact in tunnel, effectively improves the shock resisting performance in tunnel.But, there is the problem of following two aspects in the tunnel shock resisting structure of foregoing invention patent:
The first, it only considers there is earthquake situations condition, and the Shear of tunnel structure destroys.Under non-earthquake conditions, the fault creep changing of the relative positions, drawing, under action of compressive stress, only put up a resistance by secondary lining, safety stock is low; And the existence of its stabilization zone, the active position of power may be changed, reduce to increase while shear stress axial to draw, compressive stress, worsen drawing, the opposing of compressive stress.And the creep changing of the relative positions is to the destruction of tunnel structure, its Shear ability when there being shake being weakened, even making it to lose efficacy.
The second, New Austrian Tunneling Method is constructed, and also namely adopt composite lining structure, namely its core gives full play to the self-bearing ability of country rock.Further say, the preliminary bracing of composite lining structure adopts spray anchor structure, carry out in time after cavern excavation, preliminary bracing itself has certain flexibility and deformation characteristic, thus can after excavation the distribution again of controlling and adjustment surrouding rock stress timely and effectively, protect rock mass structure and mechanical characteristic to greatest extent, make country rock and preliminary bracing obtain homeostasis in the process of common eigenvector, make full use of the self-bearing ability of country rock; The secondary lining of composite lining structure adopts reinforced concrete structure, and bear later stage pressure from surrounding rock, apply secondary lining too early, the self-bearing ability of country rock does not reach optimum state, and then makes secondary lining bear larger pressure from surrounding rock; Delay and apply secondary lining, then can affect the stability of preliminary bracing, there is strict requirement the time that applies therefore for the secondary lining of composite lining structure, usually requires that supporting in the early stage applies after stable in time.And foregoing invention patent, in the early stage between supporting and secondary lining, bubble concrete layer is set, its after supporting construction completes in the early stage, secondary lining needs before applying to carry out applying of bubble concrete layer, therefore its cannot supporting in the early stage stable after apply secondary lining in time, the self-bearing ability of country rock cannot be given full play to, and then the safety of construction, the strength and stability of lining cutting are impacted.Meanwhile, if arrange waterproofing course between secondary lining and bubble concrete layer, then can hinder applying of secondary lining further; If do not arrange waterproofing course between secondary lining and bubble concrete layer, because foam concrete water permeability is better, when secondary lining can be caused to build, the loss of moisture in concrete, causes secondary lining to occur plastic shrinkage cracks or pitted skin, affects the strength and stability of lining cutting.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of tunnel support structure crossing over active fault, its construction safety, convenience, and has the ability of good shock resistance and opposing fault creep changing of the relative positions destruction.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: the tunnel support structure crossing over active fault, vault, inverted arch and both sides abutment wall is comprised, the common supporting section longitudinally comprising tomography Crossover phase along tunnel and connect with tomography Crossover phase axis two ends respectively along tunnel hoop; Described common supporting section adopts composite lining structure, comprises the preliminary bracing of radial outside, the secondary lining of radially inner side and the waterproofing course between preliminary bracing and secondary lining; Radial along tunnel, described tomography Crossover phase is respectively arranged with secondary lining, bubble concrete layer, preliminary bracing from inside to outside; Loopful is provided with to the once lining closed between the secondary lining and preliminary bracing of described tomography Crossover phase, the first waterproofing course is provided with in the early stage between supporting and once lining, described once lining adopts reinforced concrete structure, forms composite lining structure by preliminary bracing, the first waterproofing course and once lining; Described bubble concrete layer is between secondary lining and once lining.
Further, the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section.Concrete, be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint between the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase and corresponding common supporting section.
Further, described bubble concrete layer is between secondary lining and once lining and cross section is c-shaped, the bubble concrete layer of described C shape is at vault and between secondary lining corresponding to both sides abutment wall and once lining, and the opening of the bubble concrete layer of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch.
Further, the two ends of described bubble concrete layer are wedge shape and insert between secondary lining corresponding to inverted arch two ends and once lining.
Further, between bubble concrete layer and secondary lining, loopful is provided with to the second waterproofing course closed.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: form composite lining structure by preliminary bracing, the first waterproofing course and once lining, therefore, it is possible to overcome the problem applying selection of time, construction safety, convenience.Once lining partly can bear the stress coming from fault creep and produce; Simultaneously, the displacement space providing the changing of the relative positions to produce by bubble concrete layer also effectively absorbs energy, form the safety stock of tunnel support structure eventually through secondary lining and ensure that the headroom in tunnel is not by the impact of fault movement, safety stock is large, there is good Shear damage capability and tension Zhang – squeeze and destroy ability, namely also there is the ability of good shock resistance and opposing fault creep changing of the relative positions destruction.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the horizontal sectional schematic diagram that the present invention crosses over active fault tunnel support structure;
Fig. 2 is longitudinal sectional schematic diagram that the present invention crosses over active fault tunnel support structure.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, vault 11, inverted arch 12 and both sides abutment wall 13 is comprised, the common supporting section 15 longitudinally comprising tomography Crossover phase 14 along tunnel and connect with the axial two ends of tomography Crossover phase 14 respectively along tunnel hoop; Described common supporting section 15 adopts composite lining structure, comprises the preliminary bracing 21 of radial outside, the secondary lining 23 of radially inner side and the waterproofing course 22 between preliminary bracing 21 and secondary lining 23; Radial along tunnel, described tomography Crossover phase 14 is respectively arranged with secondary lining 23, bubble concrete layer 24, preliminary bracing 21 from inside to outside; Loopful is provided with to the once lining 25 closed between the secondary lining 23 and preliminary bracing 21 of described tomography Crossover phase 14, the first waterproofing course 26 is provided with between supporting in the early stage 21 and once lining 25, described once lining 25 adopts reinforced concrete structure, forms composite lining structure by preliminary bracing 21, first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25; Described bubble concrete layer 24 is between secondary lining 23 and once lining 25.
The tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, at described tomography Crossover phase 14, composite lining structure is formed by preliminary bracing 21, first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25, its construction technology is identical with the construction technology of existing composite lining structure, preliminary bracing 21 can be applied in time after cavern excavation, after supporting in the early stage 21 is stable, apply once lining 25 in time.Therefore, prior art can be overcome and applying the problem in selection of time, the self-bearing ability of country rock can be made full use of, at guarantee construction safety, simultaneously easily, bear by being made up of composite lining structure division preliminary bracing 21, first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25 stress coming from fault creep and produce.
Secondly, bubble concrete layer 24 is between once lining 25 and secondary lining 23, because foam concrete has high compression ratio, make to form between the composite lining structure that is made up of preliminary bracing 21, first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25 and secondary lining 23 to flexibly connect.After the composite lining be made up of preliminary bracing 21, first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25 is destructurized, no matter cut off destruction or La Zhang – squeeze and destroy, the displacement space all providing the changing of the relative positions to produce by bubble concrete layer 24 also effectively absorbs energy, reducing effect is in the deformation pressure of secondary lining 23, and deformation pressure is spread uniformly to secondary lining 23, form the safety stock of tunnel support structure eventually through secondary lining 23 and ensure that the headroom in tunnel is not by the impact of fault movement.
Therefore, in sum, the tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, construction safety, convenience, safety stock is large, has good Shear damage capability and tension Zhang – squeeze and destroy ability, also namely has the ability of good shock resistance and opposing fault creep changing of the relative positions destruction.
The radial thickness of above-mentioned bubble concrete layer 24 is determined according to deformation of fault creep total displacement amount in tunnel service life and the compressible space of self.Foam concrete parameter can set according to existing standard, in example is as shown in the figure: dry apparent density 400kg/m 3~ 800kg/m 3, compressive strength 2.0 ~ 5.0MPa, porosity is not less than 50%, modulus of elasticity 0.3 ~ 1.2GPa.The radial thickness of once lining 25 and secondary lining 23 then needs to determine according to the intensity of reality, and in example as shown in the figure, the radial thickness of once lining 25 is 50 ~ 70cm, and the radial thickness of secondary lining 23 is 30 ~ 50cm.
Because tomography Crossover phase 14 and common supporting section 15 belong to same tunnel, therefore tomography Crossover phase 14 secondary lining 23 is consistent with the headroom of common supporting section 15 secondary lining 23; But at tomography Crossover phase 14, owing to adding once lining 25 and bubble concrete layer 24, therefore, the tunnel cross section of tomography Crossover phase 14 is greater than the tunnel cross section of common supporting section 15.And be greater than the tunnel cross section of common supporting section 15 due to the tunnel cross section of tomography Crossover phase 14, therefore the preliminary bracing 21 of tomography Crossover phase 14 and the preliminary bracing 21 of common supporting section 15 are separate structure, also therefore the connecting of tomography Crossover phase 14 and common supporting section 15, in fact also namely the secondary lining 23 of tomography Crossover phase 14 with the connecting of secondary lining 23 of common supporting section 15.The axial two ends of tomography Crossover phase 14 and connecting of corresponding common supporting section 15, can be that to be rigidly connected also can be flexibly connect, its concrete connected mode form can adopt arbitrary existing connected mode according to actual needs.
But be rigidly connected relative to consolidation etc., flexibly connect the longitudinal direction transmission avoiding seismic energy, the longitudinal direction transmission avoiding tension and compression stress, therefore, best, the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase 14 flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section 15.Concrete, in example as shown in the figure, between the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase 14 and corresponding common supporting section 15, be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint 17.
Because the axial two ends of tomography Crossover phase 14 flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section 15, therefore, if bubble concrete layer 24 adopts loopful to the annular closed, then to conduct oneself with dignity and under action of traffic loading at secondary lining 23, bubble concrete layer 24 pressurized between the secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 of inverted arch 12 position, easily causes the sedimentation of tomography Crossover phase 14 secondary lining 23.Therefore, further, described bubble concrete layer 24 is between secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 and cross section is c-shaped, the bubble concrete layer 24 of described C shape is between the secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 of vault 11 and both sides abutment wall 13 correspondence, the opening of the bubble concrete layer 24 of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch 12, now, the secondary lining 34 of inverted arch 12 correspondence is supported by once lining 32, can avoid the above-mentioned sedimentation that may occur.
Further, the two ends of described bubble concrete layer 24 are wedge shape and insert between secondary lining 23 corresponding to inverted arch 12 two ends and once lining 25.Wedge-shaped design, avoids the suddenly change stress that may cause of shape and concentrates; Simultaneously, between the secondary lining 23 corresponding by Wedge insertion inverted arch 12 two ends and once lining 25, the curvature of the corresponding once lining 25 in inverted arch 12 two ends can be increased, reduce the curvature of the corresponding secondary lining 23 in inverted arch 12 two ends simultaneously, thus increase secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 relative shift in the horizontal direction.
Further, between bubble concrete layer 24 and secondary lining 23, loopful is provided with to the second waterproofing course 27 closed.By the setting of the second waterproofing course 27, when preventing the secondary lining 23 of tomography Crossover phase 14 from building, the loss of moisture in concrete, causes tomography Crossover phase 14 secondary lining 23 to occur plastic shrinkage cracks or pitted skin; Meanwhile, as mentioned above, the secondary lining 23 of tunnel support structure inverted arch part is supported by once lining 25, by the setting of the second waterproofing course 27, make secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 separate, and form buffering.
Above-mentioned waterproofing course 22, first waterproofing course 26, second waterproofing course 27 all adopts synthesis macromolecule coiled material, as polyvinyl chloride sheet, PUR coiled material, high density polyethylene (HDPE) coiled material, low density polyethylene (LDPE) coiled material etc.In example as shown in the figure, waterproofing course 22, first waterproofing course 26, second waterproofing course 27 all adopts high density polyethylene (HDPE) coiled material to form.

Claims (6)

1. cross over the tunnel support structure of active fault, vault (11), inverted arch (12) and both sides abutment wall (13) is comprised, the common supporting section (15) longitudinally comprising tomography Crossover phase (14) along tunnel and connect with tomography Crossover phase (14) axial two ends respectively along tunnel hoop; Described common supporting section (15) adopts composite lining structure, the waterproofing course (22) comprising the preliminary bracing (21) of radial outside, the secondary lining (23) of radially inner side and be positioned between preliminary bracing (21) and secondary lining (23); Radial along tunnel, described tomography Crossover phase (14) is respectively arranged with secondary lining (23), bubble concrete layer (24), preliminary bracing (21) from inside to outside; It is characterized in that: between the secondary lining (23) and preliminary bracing (21) of described tomography Crossover phase (14), be provided with loopful to the once lining (25) closed, the first waterproofing course (26) is provided with between supporting in the early stage (21) and once lining (25), described once lining (25) adopts reinforced concrete structure, forms composite lining structure by preliminary bracing (21), the first waterproofing course (26) and once lining (25); Described bubble concrete layer (24) is positioned between secondary lining (23) and once lining (25).
2. the tunnel support structure crossing over active fault as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase (14) flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section (15).
3. the tunnel support structure crossing over active fault as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that: be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint (17) between the axial two ends of described tomography Crossover phase (14) and corresponding common supporting section (15).
4. the tunnel support structure crossing over active fault as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that: described bubble concrete layer (24) is positioned between secondary lining (23) and once lining (25) and cross section is c-shaped, the bubble concrete layer (24) of described C shape is positioned at vault (11) and between secondary lining (23) corresponding to both sides abutment wall (13) and once lining (25), the opening of the bubble concrete layer (24) of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch (12).
5. the tunnel support structure crossing over active fault as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that: the two ends of described bubble concrete layer (24) are wedge shape and insert between secondary lining (23) corresponding to inverted arch (12) two ends and once lining (25).
6. the tunnel support structure of the leap active fault as described in claim 1,2,3,4 or 5, is characterized in that: between bubble concrete layer (24) and secondary lining (23), be provided with loopful to the second waterproofing course (27) closed.
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