CN103352459A - Method for governing deserts by utilizing modified sand - Google Patents

Method for governing deserts by utilizing modified sand Download PDF

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CN103352459A
CN103352459A CN2013102233887A CN201310223388A CN103352459A CN 103352459 A CN103352459 A CN 103352459A CN 2013102233887 A CN2013102233887 A CN 2013102233887A CN 201310223388 A CN201310223388 A CN 201310223388A CN 103352459 A CN103352459 A CN 103352459A
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husky
modification
sand
water
solution
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CN103352459B (en
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易志坚
谷建义
赵朝华
何小兵
黄锋
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易志坚
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for governing deserts by utilizing modified sand. The modified sand is paved on the surface of a desert to be governed, and is formed by dissolving a water-soluble solid organic matter in water to form a cohesive and adhesive solution, and mixing the cohesive and adhesive solution with sand; after moisture evaporates, the water-soluble solid organic matter can bond sand, and can be dissolved in water again after meeting water to form the cohesive and adhesive solution to bond sand. According to the invention, common sand can serve as soil; the interaction among sand grains is changed fundamentally; a particle pore structure with binding force (sticking force) is formed; after repeated evaporation and wetting, materials cannot run off easily due to the cohesive and adhesive properties, and the modified sand can be as stable as soil, and can store water and nutrients as soil. Therefore, the method provides a solid condition for tree growth, and is an ideal desert governing measure.

Description

Utilize the method for the husky body Desert Control of modification
Technical field
The present invention relates to the husky utilization of resources and desert, desert treatment field, particularly a kind of utilization has the method for the husky body Desert Control of modification of earth characteristic.
Background technology
(1) desert, desertification and harm thereof
Desert and desertification are the severeest great environmental problem of face of mankind nowadays.
Whole world land surface is 1.62 hundred million square kilometres, takes up an area 30.3% of the ball gross area, and wherein about 1/3 (4,800 ten thousand square kilometres) are arid, semiarid Desert Area, and annual speed with 4~60,000 square kilometres is enlarging.And desert area has accounted for 10% of the land gross area, and 43% soil is being faced with the threat of desertification in addition.
China is one of maximum country of desert, world distribution, also is one of country that is subjected in the world dust storm and desertification serious harm.The numeral that China national forestry bureau announced in 2011,1,730,000 square kilometres of national sandy land areas account for 18% of territory total area, and wherein desert area has 80.89 ten thousand square kilometres, accounts for 8.4% of area.
Harm in the Desertification Process comprises that the reach of stream and sand dune causes the farmland is covered that river, reservoir, water channel stop up, and highway is buried etc., also make whole environmental degradation, loss of land resource, and the related regional economy that causes is slow, the society of social unstable grade, economic problems.
Desertification directly causes the land resources of the preciousness that can directly utilize sharply to reduce.Desertification directly causes land deterioration, and soil texture destroys, the nutrient loss of soil, and these recoveries need many decades, centuries, even thousands of year.The deterioration of grasslands that desertification causes reduces gradually the advantage grass seeds that is suitable for livestock edible, even completely loses, and it is short, sparse that herbage becomes, and output obviously reduces, and the grassland capacity for raising livestock on the grasslands greatly descends.Desertification causes river, reservoir, water channel to stop up, such as, 1,600,000,000 tons of the average annual sediment transports in the Yellow River wherein just have 1,200,000,000 tons from Desertification.Desertification causes railway bed, bridge, culvert to damage in some areas, make highway subgrade, road surface sand, forces highway communication to be interrupted, even makes highway discarded.Because dust storm is pressed hard, thousands of herdsman is forced to move to alien land, becomes " eco-refugee ".The data that China national forestry bureau provides shows, 20 end of the centurys, the annual speed expanded with 3436 square kilometres that desertifies just had an area that is equivalent to Beijing's administrative division size to lose value because of desertification in per 5 years, and the population that the whole nation is affected by desertification reaches 1.7 hundred million.Desertification of land, desertification not only worsen ecological environment, and the fertility that fails threatens rivers safety, and aggravation sand is distinguished poverty.
Desertification causes the ecosystem and natural environment deterioration, and natural calamity takes place frequently, and is one of the most serious disaster of facing mankind.Natural, ecological is an integral framework that various factors restricts mutually, the equilibrium state that will keep relative stability according to certain rule.Desertification has changed the physical features on earth's surface, land greatly, destroyed the Radiation budget balance, bring out weather and environmental change, cause the soil erosion of Desertification more serious, green vegetation sharply reduces, ecological environment sharply worsens, and rare animals and plants disappear or extinction, and diversity of organism suffers serious destruction.After unusual weather conditions and the ecosystem are destroyed, cause the speed aggravation of desertification, both form vicious circle, have further worsened natural environment, make the people of Desertification lose the basis of depending on for existence, and cause other regional natural calamity.According to monitoring, if China urban air pollution owner finely ground particles, this and desertification are closely related.Dust pollution the wide geographic area people's productive life environment, and sandstorm is frequent, has affected people ' s health.
The seriousness of Deserts in China is that also the population statistics who involves is huge, it directly or indirectly affect nearly 400,000,000 people life (account for the whole world be subjected to desert and desertification puzzlement population 40%).About 64,200,000,000 yuan of every year of direct economic loss of China's desertification harm, about 2,889 hundred million yuan of every year of indirect economic loss that desertification and the harm of deriving thereof cause.If without the effectively preventing countermeasure, be in the metropolis such as Urumchi, Lanzhou, Xi'an, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Huhehaote, Beijing, Tianjin of desert band, eventually can become one by one city, desert, large quantities of common people will become the eco-refugee.
(2) measure of desert and desert treatment and achievement
The fundamental way of Desertification Control is the character according to hazards of sand storms, takes various technical measures, weakens the wind speed of near surface formation, reduces the sedimentary loading in the air-flow, delays or stops the sand dune reach, to reach weakening or to avoid the purpose of hazards of sand storms.For a long time, the measure of prevent and control sandy storm harm (sand control), Chinese scholars is summarized as engineering sand control (machinery) measure, controlling sediment by plant measure and chemical sand control measure three major types to it.Controlling sediment by plant measure and engineering sand control measure belong to reducing wind speed, weaken stream intensity, and chemical sand-fixing then is fixed Shamian Island, the development of control Shamian Island wind erosion process.
Vegetative sand control is called again sand consolidation with biologic, is to educate and the means such as serike by envelope, reaches the control desert, stablize the oasis, improves husky a kind of technical measures of distinguishing environmental quality and productive potentialities.Vegetative sand control why can tackling quicksand, the one because psammophytes has flourishing root system, can be fixed grains of sand around it, the in addition accumulation of dry branches and fallen leaves is conducive to organic gathering after rotting, and impels husky pedogenesis, change sand ground character, make the drift sand trend stable; The 2nd, owing on the sand dune behind the serike, increased the roughness on earth's surface, thereby also just increased the resistance to wind, reducing wind speed weakens and to have suppressed stream movable.
The main method of vegetative sand control comprises: (1) envelope sand-base cultivation grass, protection natural vegetation; (2) afforestation is fixed the sand; (3) build desert edge wind prevention and sand resistance forest belt; (4) build the inner shelter belts to protect farmland net in oasis.
Vegetative sand control can be improved the ecological condition that vegetation covers husky territory, promotes that sandy plant community develops to good direction, forms the stable ecosystem, is conducive to increase bio-diversity.
But, the desert area drought, cold and hot drastic change, wind Da Sha is many, natural environment is very harsh, be not suitable for generally the growth of plant, therefore, the effect of vegetative sand control is subject to the restriction of desert characteristic and natural environment, particularly under the condition without irrigation, such as the arid especially time, because water deficient can make plant undergrowth or the mortality of plantation.
The sand-prevention engineering measure is to utilize weeds, crotch, and cob wall or other structure etc. are established air partition or are covered Shamian Island at drift sand, prevent Sand Movement.The engineering sand control measure has the fast characteristics of producing effects, but the protection phase is short, therefore often is applicable to the area of the traffic lines of drift sand serious harm, important industrial and mineral base, farmland and settlement, and is to adopt when protecting the sand-fixation plant growth.Main method has: hinder husky fence (high vertical sand barrier), mechanical sand barrier (establishing the straw checkerboard barrier sand-protecting barrier), clay fix the sand, the husky engineering of transporting (types such as lower wind-guiding, feather row and sediment transport section).
The mechanical function principle of engineering control measure all is by increasing the resistance of motion of stream, the retardance energy dissipating, make its deceleration and impel the deposition of sandy soil particle, be a kind of provisional measures for sand prevention, for the harm of drift sand, only play the effect of " controlling table " of fixing the sand.
Chemical sand-fixing be moving dunes () spray the chemical bonding material, form covering layer on the drift sand surface, or infiltrate in the sand of top layer, the loose sand material formation bonding course (duricrust) that bonds, thereby prevent that wind-force from raising and carrying blowing of sand material, reach tackling quicksand, prevent and treat the purpose of sand damage.The general multiplex area of causing heavy economic losses in hazards of sand storms of chemical sand-fixing, (such as airport, traffic lines (railway, highway), military installations and important industrial and mining area), and normal and vegetative sand control matches, as the complementary and transitional arrangement of vegetative sand control.
The effect of chemical sand-fixing effect, not only relevant with the character (such as chemical composition, mechanical composition) of drift sand surface particles, and also relevant with physicochemical properties (such as molecular structure, molecular size, viscosity, absorption affinity) of chemical sand fixing material itself etc.Chemical sand fixing material commonly used such as asphalt emulsion, oily Ye Yan ore deposit liquid, synthetic resin, synthetic rubber etc., also can use some natural organic matters, such as brown coal, peat, municipal refuse refuse, resin etc.
Asphalt emulsion is that the our times various countries are applied in the chemical sand-fixing engineering the most widely material.But mulseal in use yet exists because the asphalitine in the pitch and resin are easy to by destructions such as the oxygen in the atmosphere, light, heat, moisture and microorganisms, and oil content descends.The gradually aggravation of this variation causes asphalt performance to degenerate, and raises such as softening point, and needle penetration descends, and ductility reduces, and causes to unite layer and slowly become fragile, harden, and forfeiture plasticity occurs agingly, so that last cracking and being destroyed by the wind sapping loses sand fixation.
(3) the basic difficulty of desert and desert treatment and the problem of existence
The dreamboat of control of desert is, can either make the desert stable, again can growing plant, namely make " change oasis, desert ".But the husky body in the desert is discrete particle, and the basic difficulty of control of desert is that the husky body in the desert moves easily, is difficult to water conservation and stores nutrient.Comprehensive present sand control measure, people are not difficult to find, and existing desert control method fundamentally solves far away the desert and moves easily, is difficult to the water conservation retaining and stores this two hang-up of nutrient.
Existing desert control method is that to fix the sand be main, no matter adopt engineering (machinery) measure, plant measures and chemical measure, it is not from improving the attribute of Desert Sand body itself, the harm of only avoiding the movement of husky body to cause, therefore on its method and mode, still belong to passive sand control, can be to a certain extent or within short-term, overcome the flowability problem in desert, but be difficult to fundamentally solve the difficult problem that the desert is difficult to the water conservation retaining and is difficult to store nutrient, " the change oasis, desert " of wishing apart from people still has larger distance.
1. engineering (machinery) measure can temporarily change the physical aspect (natural existing way) that the desert exists, it is a kind of provisional measures for sand prevention, harm for drift sand, only play the effect of " controlling table " of fixing the sand, the desert is tamed by of short duration, can't reach the effect of " effecting a permanent cure ", long-time after, its true colours still can be recovered in the desert.
2. chemical sand-fixing is to adopt sand-consolidating agent to be sprayed on the surface of husky body, and to reach the purpose of fixing the sand, the constraint of the sand-consolidating agent effects on surface grains of sand forms a kind of stable containment vessel on grains of sand surface, and then makes husky body stable, does not flow.But, chemical sand-fixing materials often adopts spray method to form, only can in the very thin scope in husky surface, form constraint, the constraint that the surface forms is in a single day destroyed, to be difficult to recover, and the chemical substance weatherability has determined flowing of the husky body of temporarily shutoff of its sand control, can not reach the purpose of long-term stability, and its cost drops into high.
The earliest, the sand-consolidating agent that spray to adopt is mulseal often, after the sprinkling, sand dune surface skining average thickness little (common 2~3cm), use the several years (common 3~5 years) after, bonding course begins fragmentation; Simultaneously, the emulsified bituminous materials of sprinkling is unfavorable to environment, and itself is not the nutritional labeling of plant growth, so its effect is only fixed the sand; The bituminous material aging is poor in addition, will not have sand fixation behind the break inactivation.
At present, people have developed many macromolecular sand-fixation agents, and after the sprinkling, (be generally 0.2~0.5cm), the surface retains few sand dune surface skining thin thickness, and cracking often appears in dry rear surface; Simultaneously, after sand-consolidating agent sprays, generally need certain hour fixed, be difficult to meet aqueous dispersion or dissolving after fixed again, its water retention mainly is the part hole by the sealing top layer, the evaporation of part blocking groundwater and realize that its material itself there is no water retention; And cortex itself does not have water retention, thereby can not protect and contain nutrient, can not adapt to the generally growth of plant.So, the characteristics of sand-consolidating agent and fix the sand the layer structures shape its long-term behaviour of fixing the sand be difficult to obtain basic assurance.
3. the applicable elements of vegetative sand control usually is subject to weather and environmental limit
Vegetative sand control utilizes plant top resistance sediment barrier husky, utilize the root of plant to fix the sand, can change to a certain extent microclimate and little soil environment, yet, the basic difficulty of vegetative sand control is that desert itself is unfavorable for plant growth, unstable and wind-driven sediment is frequent, the desert is barren such as the desert, water deficient and be difficult to water conservation, temperature adjustment etc. and all plant had a negative impact.
Wind-driven sediment can make the harm that plant is subject to deflation, sand buries and sand cuts, wind-driven sediment can solve with engineering protection measure and chemical sand-fixing, yet, desert water deficient and a basic difficult problem that is difficult to the water conservation retaining, the applicability that traditional plant is fixed the sand has been subject to very big restriction.
In sum, a kind of control of desert measure is obtained in expectation, make husky body have the same stability of soil, water retention, gas permeability and have the storage nutrient function, namely, make husky body " soil ", fundamentally solve the difficult problem that husky body moved, was difficult to water conservation retaining and storage nutrient easily, make its plant growth preferably, and then fundamentally improve the form of husky body and carry out control of desert.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification, utilize the husky body of modification to pave in desert surface, the husky body of this modification has the same stability of soil, water retention, gas permeability and has the function of storage nutrient, namely, make husky body " soil ", fundamentally solve the difficult problem that husky body moved, was difficult to water conservation retaining and storage nutrient easily, make its plant growth preferably, and then fundamentally improve the form of husky body and carry out control of desert.
The method of utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification of the present invention comprises the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 gets the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy and it is dissolved in the water, and forms to have caking property and adhering solution;
A2 namely forms the husky body of modification with the solution of step a1 gained and husky mix after evenly;
Described have behind caking property and adhering solution and the husky mix can the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
The invention also discloses a kind of method of utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification, comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1. get sand, water and the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy;
A2. with the sand among the step a1, water with can water-soluble solid-state organic substance mix in any order and mix namely forms the husky body of modification after evenly;
The water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is dissolved in the water and forms and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
Further, among the step b, paving thickness is greater than 5cm;
Further, have the water evaporation in caking property and the adhesiveness solution between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification after, the water-soluble solid-state organic matter mass-energy of energy wherein is bonded together the grains of sand; After the described water evaporation that has in caking property and the adhesiveness solution, solid-state organic substance and the weight ratio between the husky body that energy wherein is water-soluble are 1:30-8000;
Further, have interconnected pore and dead-end pore between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification;
Further, among the step a1, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy comprises one or both and the above mixture in natural polymer and modified material and the synthetic high polymer material;
Further, among the step a1, also add the natural polymer to be scattered in the described solution and one or both and above mixture in modified material and the synthetic high polymer material.
Further, among the step a2, also add one or both and above mixture in organic pluronic polymer, little molecule auxiliary agent, surfactant inorganic active powder or powder material, inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, solid substance and the pH value Auto-regulator;
Further, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is one or both and above mixing or the copolymer in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and the cellulose ether.
Beneficial effect of the present invention: the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification of the present invention, the husky body of modification has the characteristic that is similar to soil, such as on stability, both had certain adhesion between soil particle when wet, the variation that particle is arranged can occur again, so the soil when wet presents viscoelastroplasticity character to a certain extent; And the node between the soil particle when doing is restrained, and the restrained power of the arrangement between the particle is fixed, so the soil when doing presents certain solid property, therefore, and the soil when no matter being wet or the soil when dried, the husky body of modification namely has this mechanical stability; Nourish one's nature and to go up from water retention, storage, can store moisture, nutrient and air between the soil particle, and can also absorb again moisture after the moisture evaporation, and the husky body of the application's modification namely has the characteristic of water conservation retaining and storage nutrient; This characteristic not only has sand-fixing effect, and all right planting plants reaches preferably effect.
The husky body of modification is so that general husky body " soil ", fundamentally changed the interaction relationship between the husky body particle, consist of the particle pore structure with adhesion (cohesion), make husky body possess the stable and storage moisture as soil, the performance of nutrient; Husky structural reform being obtained can absorb moisture, store moisture, nutrient and air and have the husky body of modification of certain mechanical stability, the solid condition of growth can be provided for plant, pave in desert surface, is the measure of desirable Desert Control; Simultaneously, the husky body of modification also can be used as the means of the husky resource of utilizing sandy beach, sand ground, owing to have above-mentioned characteristic, can also carry out planting.
Compare with other control of desert measure of prior art, the present patent application has the following advantages:
1. fix the sand to compare with engineering
The engineering Sand-fixing Measures has changed the roughness on drift sand formation surface, and the structure of not improving husky body self forms peace treaty bundle mode, only plays the effect that physics improves.The present invention has improved the particle composition rule of husky body by bonding material, in the way of restraint that has improved husky body particle, make its structure have the function of water conservation, retaining, maintenance nutrient, namely, make husky body " soil ", the husky body of this modification is more suitable for plant growth.
2. compare with the chemical sand-fixing method
The different many aspects that are embodied in of the present invention and chemical sand-fixing.
At first, the present invention has realized " soil " of husky body, and the method and the effect that realize with chemical sand-fixing have fundamental difference.
The present invention's employing will have water conservation, bonding and store the constraint material of the effects such as nutrient function and the method for husky body mix, its effect can realize husky body " soil ", and can plant each Plants, and chemical sand-fixing only passes through the method for surface spraying chemical sand-fixing materials, its effect only can realize the fixed of surperficial husky body, prevents the movement of husky body.The constraint material that the present invention adopts and husky body under certain condition mix form the husky body of modification, the husky body of the modification that forms has water retention, function is supported in storage, and the husky body of the modification that the constraint material that the present invention adopts forms all has good stability at two states of doing, wet, and the constraint meeting of formation reconfigures, changes according to the variation of dry and wet state.The present invention is the whole constraint system that changes husky body, and the constraint system that only strengthens husky surface is essentially different.The present invention is used for desert, the husky system of husky surface 3~50cm can be made the husky body of modification, and then makes the husky body in desert be difficult for flowing, and possesses simultaneously moisture and the nutrient of plant growth indispensability, reaches the purpose of basic sand control.The chemical sand-fixing measure is by spraying chemical sand-fixing materials in husky surface, the constraint of the husky body of infiltration (length of penetration the is generally less than 3cm) effects on surface by sand-consolidating agent strengthens, only change the way of restraint of husky surface, its degree of depth is generally more shallow, its constraint has irrecoverability, impact on natural environment is larger, and ordinary disbursements is high.The effect of cured layer itself is single, and consolidation can only be provided, and does not have water conservation, water storage, and the function of nutrient.
The intensity mechanism fundamental difference of the present invention and chemical sand-fixing.
Chemical sand-fixing is to realize the fixed of surperficial husky body by spraying the chemical consolidation material in husky surface, in order to play the effect of the husky body of fixed integral body, the husky body requirement of strength in surface is higher, compressive strength even will surpass destruction and the movement that 1MPa could really prevent husky body, the present invention then is in the certain thickness scope, Sha Tiyu had bonding, the constraint material of water retaining function mixes, realize the constraint each other of whole husky body, prevent the movement of husky body, how strong the constraint of husky body reality do not need, this point can be come analogy from soil, from test, after adopting the present invention, husky body in a way, realized " soil ", although by regulating constraint material type and consumption, the surperficial consolidation strength of husky body can be accomplished enough height fully, but the test and the analysis showed that, the surperficial compressive strength of husky body can play the effect of stabilized sand body in very little scope, can reach the chemical sand-fixing effect, realized again " soil " of husky body in the certain thickness scope, planting plants is realized fixing the sand and eucyclic purpose simultaneously.
Compare with chemical sand-fixing, the present invention also has the restorability of destruction.
The performance of the constraint material that the present invention adopts has determined the characteristics of restorability of the destruction of modification sand, the constraint material that the present invention adopts is dissolvable in water in the water, after liquid object after the dissolving and husky body mix form the husky body of modification, moisture wherein is difficult to forfeiture, even after the loss of water, if meet again water, the constraint material can be dissolved in the water again, again the modification that forms same purpose is husky, and this process can be infinitely repeatedly, therefore the husky body of the modification of the present invention's formation has the restorability of destruction, but chemical sand-fixing is then fully different, the material behavior that chemical sand-fixing adopts has determined the irrecoverability that destroys, chemical sand-fixing is in order to guarantee surperficial husky body consolidation, often adopt the sand fixation material that intensity is higher and have reverse character, but surface strength is in case destroy, can't recover again on the original basis, only have again sprayed on material to recur and arrive consolidation, otherwise after surperficial husky body destroys, husky body below it is exposed to the surface again, along with time integral, original effect of fixing the sand will progressively be lost, and fix the sand purpose and effect just can't guarantee.
This shows that the method that the present invention makes the husky body of modification by mix is different from the method for fixing the sand by the infiltration of chemical sand-fixing materials in itself.
3. compare with the vegetative sand control method
The fundamental difference of the present invention and vegetative sand control is, vegetative sand control can only " be taken stopgap measures ", and the present invention fundamentally changes husky volume property, realizes husky body " soil ", thereby realize vegetative sand control truly, so the present invention is only the arranging of " effecting a permanent cure " of control of desert.
The mode that vegetative sand control utilizes the vegetation rhizome that husky body is retrained plays the effect of fixing the sand, but husky body self property also is not suitable for plant growth, moisture runs off easily, husky body also can't be stablized, husky body moves frequently under the wind effect, plant is difficult to growth, even short-term plant growth, under adverse circumstances, if moisture can not effectively be preserved, plant also is difficult to continued growth, even withered, therefore the effect of vegetative sand control not only is subject to the restriction of local climate condition, also is difficult to the effect that realizes that for a long time it fixes the sand.The present invention then has fundamental difference with vegetative sand control.The present invention is the basic point from vegetative sand control, the performance improvement that is husky body is started with, realize " soil " of husky body, the effect that not only has the stabilized sand body also makes husky body have the function of water conservation, retaining, storage nutrient, makes husky body possess the condition of plant growth, realized the condition of the stable and plant growth of husky body, planting could realize really that also therefore from certain angle, the present invention is only the vegetative sand control of real meaning.
In order to contrast the effect of the present invention and vegetative sand control, the present invention has also carried out contrast test.Take sodium carboxymethylcellulose as having bonding in the modification sand by method of the present invention, the material of water retention, form thus modification sand, the common husky body while making that modification is husky and moistening is on outdoor crushed stone, making thickness is 15cm, and the surface difference multiple vegetable seed of spreading and grass-seed, after 1 day, common husky body becomes dry, modification still keeps wetting state after husky some days, and under the prerequisite of not watering, grass-seed and the vegetable seed on modification sand surface germinate, and thirst but wither again after the grass-seed of common husky surface and the vegetable seed germination, and the plant of planting on the modification sand was once watered later in interval 10-30 days can satisfy the water demand of plant, sapling on the modification sand grew up through 2 years, reached about two meters, the tomato of planting on the modification sand and dish seedling can normally eat, and be suitable with planting plants growing way in the soil.Plant after 1 year, root system of plant is netted with husky sports association, with the outward appearance of soil, character all without difference, and the plant that rot former years can be described as again nutrient, husky body is further stable, the plantation effect of modification sand forms benign cycle, and sand fixation is also really feasible, economical, and also making the desert become fertile soil becomes possibility.
4. compare with other method: such as water-absorbing resins
Super absorbent resin is to contain the strongly hydrophilic group, the macromolecular material that usually has certain degree of cross linking.Water insoluble and the organic solvent of super absorbent resin, water absorbing capacity are generally the hundreds of of own wt to several thousand times.Swelling is hydrogel after this material suction, and water also is difficult for extruding behind the pressurized; Behind the resin drying, can repeated multiple timesly absorb water, the moisture overwhelming majority of its absorption can slowly discharge, for the plant absorbing utilization.
The constraint material that super absorbent resin and the present invention adopt has essential distinction.Constraint material of the present invention has caking property and adhesiveness, has water-solublely, relies on the caking property of constraint material and adhesiveness and the husky bodily form into about bundle.This constraint meeting presents different character along with the change of doing, wetting, and constraint also can reconfigure.
5. the present invention has significant economy, exploitativeness and the feature of environmental protection.
At first, the husky body of the modification that the present invention forms is compared with existing sand fixing technology, and its disposable investment construction cost has certain economic benefit.The constraint material that the present invention adopts can form the husky body of the modification that meets the demands under the minimum condition of volume, as takes some can water-soluble solid-state organic substance to comprise one or both and above mixture in natural polymer and modification solid matter and the synthetic high polymer solid matter; As: one or both in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and the cellulose ether and above mixing or copolymer, the constraint material only accounts for several one thousandths of husky body weight ratio, and material is chemical materials commonly used, material cost is also lower, therefore material cost is also lower in principle, and job practices is also comparatively simple, only adopt stirring to wait common process, machinery, labour cost is also lower, so comprehensive method of investment cost will have considerable economy.Take sodium carboxymethylcellulose as example, add 20kg sodium carboxymethylcellulose material in 1 cubic metre of water, the market unit price is 10 yuan/kg; About 4 cubic metres of the husky body of correctability is considered 100 yuan of artificial, machine costs, and then the husky body of modification is 1 cubic metre, cost is 75 yuan, be layed in husky surface by 10cm, 1 cubic metre of husky body of modification can be laid 10 square metres, and then the disposable input cost of the husky body Desert Control of modification is 7.5 yuan/square metre.
Secondly, different from conventional sand-fixation method, the husky body of the modification that the present invention forms has recyclability, behind the investment construction, the husky body of modification can be planted each Plants, the husky physical efficiency of modification stablize root system of plant, and the root system of plant stabilized sand body conversely, and rotten rhizome, leaf etc. can be used as again nutrient, for husky structural reform appearance becomes benign cycle, the desert will really become available class land resources, have the advantages that once invest long-term gain, thus its indirectly economy with inestimable.
Exploitativeness of the present invention is stronger.It is existing chemical industry common used material that the present invention adopts material, be chemical industry thickening material commonly used such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and cellulose ether, production method is simple, feasible, cost is lower, the job practices of the present invention's employing is simple in addition, master operation is the preparation that minute is spread on husky liquid solution and the mix of the husky body of modification, so the present invention is easy to grasp, and implementation is stronger.
The present invention also has the feature of environmental protection, and constraint material of the present invention can adopt the material that is rich in nutrition, and the growth that itself can be plant provides necessary nutrient, also can add therein the necessary nutrient of plant growth.The present invention can reconfigure, change according to doing of husky body is wet the constraint of husky body, has restorability.Constraint material of the present invention adopts material commonly used, such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, itself also is food additives, environmentally safe, and expense is low, and is easy to implement.
In summary it can be seen that the technical measures of present patent application have realized husky body soil from principle, can fundamentally play the effect of sand control.
The specific embodiment
The husky body of modification of the present invention, the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification of the present invention comprises the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 gets the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy and it is dissolved in the water, and forms to have caking property and adhering solution;
A2 namely forms the husky body of modification with the solution of step a1 gained and husky mix after evenly;
Described have behind caking property and adhering solution and the husky mix can the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
The present invention also can adopt another kind to utilize the method for the husky body Desert Control of modification, only is the hybrid mode that the water-soluble solid-state organic substance selection of sand, water and energy is different from the difference of said method; Specifically comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1. get sand, water and the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy;
A2. with the sand among the step a1, water with can water-soluble solid-state organic substance mix in any order and mix namely forms the husky body of modification after evenly;
The water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is dissolved in the water and forms and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
The husky body of modification in two kinds of methods does not have essential distinction, and regardless of order by merging, the final material that has in caking property and the adhering solution that forms has thickening property and water-soluble, could obtain caking property and adhering solution, the realization goal of the invention; General Requirements have the husky body of the modification that forms behind caking property and adhering solution and sand (the order by merging is not limit) mix have the characteristics of plastically deformable or form rarer state and the moisture evaporation after have plasticity.
In the present embodiment, among the step b, paving thickness is greater than 5cm; Has enough intensity to be applicable to control of desert.
In the present embodiment, have the water evaporation in caking property and the adhesiveness solution between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification after, the water-soluble solid-state organic matter mass-energy of energy wherein is bonded together the grains of sand; After the described water evaporation that has in caking property and the adhesiveness solution, solid-state organic substance and the weight ratio between the husky body that energy wherein is water-soluble are 1:30-8000; The husky body soil of formed modification can be realized the modification of husky body better in this proportion, and its characteristic more can press close to be fit to the soil of plant growth.
In the present embodiment, have interconnected pore and dead-end pore between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification; The husky body porosity of modification of the present invention can be greater than the porosity of discrete husky body, also greater than the interconnected pore rate of normal soil, greater than soil particle, and makes husky body have soil behaviour with the compensation grains of sand; This hole can be stored moisture, nutrient and air, makes it have more soil behaviour, can adapt to arboreal growth.
In the present embodiment, among the step a1, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy comprises one or both and the above mixture in natural polymer and modification solid matter and the synthetic high polymer solid matter; As: one or both in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and the cellulose ether and above mixing or copolymer; Take the low-cost and solid matter that plays expectation function as main; Can be not limited to above-mentioned listed solid matter by water-soluble solid-state organic substance, have the solid matter identical or close with listed solid matter character and all can realize purpose, prerequisite be final form have caking property and adhering solution, and this solid matter has thickening property and water-soluble in water, could realize goal of the invention, not repeat them here.
In the present embodiment, among the step a1, also add the natural polymer to be scattered in the described solution and one or both and above mixture in modified material and the synthetic high polymer material.
In the present embodiment, among the step a2, also add one or both and above mixture in organic pluronic polymer, little molecule auxiliary agent, surfactant, inorganic active powder or powder material, inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, solid substance and the pH value Auto-regulator; The organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant can be selected such as glycerine, pentaerythrite, triethanolamine, the alkyl carboxylate, alkyl sulfate, alkylphosphonic, alkylsulfonate, alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, alkyl uncle ammonium salt, the secondary ammonium salt of alkyl, the alkyl tert ammonium salt, alkyl quaternary ammonium salts, beet alkali surface activator, amino acid type surfactant, AEO, APES, polyoxyethylene alkyl amine, polyoxyethylene alkylamide, EPE polyol EPE etc.; Improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability etc.; Such as inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or the powder material is optional selects such as kieselguhr, swell soil, white carbon, flyash, French chalk, calcium powder and other inorganic powder etc., improve or regulate the grating of the husky body of modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Solid substance can be some entity foreign material that Sha Tizhong carries, and perhaps the later stage adds, such as rigidity or flexible fiber, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., stability, crack resistance or the toughness of improving or regulating the husky body of modification; The pH value Auto-regulator, such as adding acid, alkaline Auto-regulator, such as lime, Cosan, ferrous sulfate powder, vinegar liquid, pine soil, the material of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and other improvement or the husky body Acidity of Aikalinity of adjusting modification.
The organic polymer auxiliary agent that adds, little molecule auxiliary agent, surfactant, inorganic active powder or powder material, inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, solid substance and pH value Auto-regulator are not limited to above-mentioned listed material, have the material identical or close with listed physical property and all can realize purpose, prerequisite is that the soil characteristic to the husky body of modification has facilitation, does not repeat them here.
Certainly, also can add water-absorbing resins, modified starch, modified cellulose, polyacrylate and copolymer analog thereof, polyacrylamide and copolymer analog thereof, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethenoxy ether class, soybean protein class, silk-fibroin class, pectin, alginic acid, shitosan and modifier thereof, the compound of the blend of super absorbent resin, super absorbent resin and inorganic matter gel etc., suction and the storage capacity of the husky body of raising modification; Perhaps add fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and composite organic-inorganic fertilizer, such as the binary compound fertilizer of organic composite fertilizer, nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer or two-nutrient compound fertilizer nitrogen phosphorus, nitrogen potassium and phosphorus potassium and nitrogen phosphorus potassium NPK etc., increase character, the level etc. of increasing soil fertility of the husky body of modification, all can improve the combination property of the husky body of modification, be suitable for plant growth.
Experiment shows, can repeatedly be dissolved in the water and in water, have thickening property and water-soluble, then can form the material with caking property and adhesiveness solution has multiple, do not repeat them here, such as: one or both in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and the cellulose ether and above mixing or copolymer; After being dissolved in the water, not only can be in larger volume (moisture evaporation after solid content) situation (be 5~10% even 10~20% or 20% or more such as mass percent) make and have caking property and adhering solution, and can be in the situation of less volume, such as below 5%, even below 1%, make and have caking property and adhering solution.Also can add some auxiliary agent during use, further improve or improve caking property and the adhesiveness of solution; Inorganic substances and organic substance also can be composite, and we are desired to have caking property and adhering solution to obtain.
With husky body with described have that caking property and adhering solution (containing nutrient) mix and mix after, just can form and have the husky body of modification soil property, particle+constraint+hole (also can be husky, water and solid-state organic substance that can be water-soluble mixes also mix and form by different order); When wet, moisture and nutrient are stored in the solution and solution sticks in the hole between the husky body particle, so the husky body of modification not only has the character that the water conservation storage is supported, and have viscoelastroplasticity character the soil that picture wets; When dried, particle between the husky body of the fixed rear bonding modification of the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of the energy that originally was dissolved in the water, so, the husky body of modification has the character of the porous solid as the soil of doing, and, described material after fixed can absorb moisture and again be dissolved in the water, so the husky body of modification also has the absorption moisture ability of (containing nutrient).
In the husky body structure of the modification of particle+constraint+hole, because the constraint that makes the grains of sand produce adhesion (cohesion) (is solution when moisture is large as the material that adds originally, moisture hour changes solid gradually into), behind the material filling pore, the hole of the husky body of modification can be less than the hole of the discrete husky body before unmodified, yet, because behind husky body and the formed solution mix of material, no longer be directly to contact completely between the grains of sand, described material is arranged between the contact point, so that the increase of the spacing between the husky body (and after the evaporation of the moisture in the formed solution of material, the solid content of material itself is less, its ratio that occupies hole is little), therefore, variation along with " pine " " tightly " that contacts between the particle, the hole of the husky body of modification also can greater than in addition be far longer than the hole of the discrete husky body before the modification, to sum up, the hole of the husky body of modification both can less than, also can be greater than the hole of the discrete husky body before the modification, experiment shows, the porosity of the husky body of modification can change between 10~80%, this porosity ranges is not only greater than discrete husky body, and greater than the soil of nearly all type, this just shows, we can regulate by different proportionings and structure the porosity of modification sand body, make husky body contain the moisture of our expectation, nutrient and air.Moreover, in the particle pore structure of the husky body of modification, both had the interconnected pore, and also had the dead-end pore, wherein the interconnected pore rate is 5-70%, and the husky body of modification can be by interconnected pore and the outside exchange that water and air occurs.
In the structure owing to particle+constraint+hole in the husky body of modification, the porosity of the husky body of the restraint forces of constraint material (material) and modification can be regulated, so, after the moisture evaporation in the husky body of modification, the intensity of the porous solid as dried earth that forms can be regulated in a very large scope, intensity is when 10Kpa is following, the husky body of modification is the solid that relatively loosens, intensity is between 10~50Kpa the time, and the husky body of modification is preferably loose solid of moulding, after intensity surpasses 50Kpa, the husky body of modification toughens gradually, the harder husky body of modification in order to obtain doing can by regulating constraint and porosity, reach more than the 200Kpa its intensity.
The husky body of the modification that is become by sand, be exactly a kind of " soil " at mechanical state, have rheology (when wetting) and solid (when doing) two states, and, " soil " of the solid state of doing can be converted into " soil " of wet rheology after absorbing moisture, and " soil " of wet rheology can be converted into " soil " of dried solid state after the moisture evaporation, by regulating constraint and the space between the particle, we can regulate rheology (such as viscoelastroplasticity) or the solid property of the husky body of modification this " soil ", obtain from " sandy soil " to " loam " to various " clay ", " soil " of suitable variety classes plant growth; Therefore, sand is become " soil " by the husky body of modification of the present invention, for utilizing the mode of husky body, desert.
Difference according to modification purpose, construction requirement or economy, can prepare low viscous solution (viscosity 100mpas is following), also can prepare moderately viscous solution (viscosity is between 100mpas~5000mpas), also configurable full-bodied solution (viscosity is greater than 5000mpas) forms the husky body of modification with husky body mix.
After preparation forms the husky body of modification, because the husky body of modification and the extraneous exchange that moisture can occur, so, the water content of solution can change in the husky body of modification, and then, the viscosity of the solution in the husky body of modification except relevant with the material behavior of the material that adds and, also the variation with water content is relevant, but after the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhesiveness solution, the solid content of material is geostationary, so we can with the weight ratio of the material that added and husky body as controlled quentity controlled variable, determine the volume of described material.Difference according to material property, the kind with the material in caking property and the adhering solution and the volume that add in the husky body of modification can be selected in a larger scope, after the moisture evaporation, the weight ratio of the husky body of the material that adds and modification is in the 1:30-8000 scope time, and we all can obtain requiring and the husky body of modification that expectation obtains based on different modification purposes.
The husky body of the modification that obtains based on the particle constraint principles, its constraint not only can produce adhesion between sand grain, and can between husky body and other material, produce adhesion, when so Sha Tizhong is doped with an amount of gravel, plant roots, stem, skin, animal wastes, corpse residue etc., can not change the character that has soil behaviour on its main body, so, method based on the particle constraint, we not only can transform simple sand or sandy soil, and can transform the wasteland that husky and other material are contained in Gobi desert etc.; Utilize this character, we in addition can add rigidity or flexible fiber, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., stability, crack resistance or the toughness of improving or regulating the husky body of modification; Except can adding the various fertilizer that can be dissolved in the water, nutrient, other fertilizer also can be constrained in the husky body of modification, for plant growth provides nutrition; We can also add water-absorbing resins, acid-base accommodation material etc., improve the soda acid performance of the husky body of suction, water retention property or modification of the husky body of modification.
Specific embodiments of the invention:
Embodiment one: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 can select polyvinyl alcohol by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
With polyvinyl alcohol and water according to the weight ratio of the 10:100 formation solution that stirs;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, gets the solution 155kg that polyvinyl alcohol is dissolved in the water and forms again, and adds solution toward husky body in, then mixes and stirs, and forms modification sand body; Polyvinyl alcohol in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of husky body are 1:71.0;
B paves the husky body of modification at the simulation desert surface, the about 10cm of paving thickness, the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, under Chongqing region weather conditions in spring, evaporation capacity is less, and the husky external sight of modification and soil are similar, get partially modified husky body, take the measures such as oven dry, make its surperficial dehydration after, harden and be integral body in the husky surface of modification; Water is sprinkled upon the husky surface of modification after the dehydration, the material in the husky body of modification is with moisture absorption again, and husky body is again plastic wetting state;
Corn seed is planted in the husky body of modification, after 1 week, under field conditions (factors) corn seed germination, and gradually growth, this plant and the indifference of growth final result and soil plantation; Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, polyacrylamide etc.) etc. and organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected pentaerythrite, triethanolamine and alkyl carboxylate, improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected kieselguhr, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
Embodiment two: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 can select hydroxypropyl methylcellulose by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and water stirred according to the weight ratio of 0.35:100 form solution;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, gets Gonak 130kg again, sand is mixed with solution and stirs, and forms the husky body of modification, and the material hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of husky body are 1:2205;
B paves the husky body of modification outdoor, the about 10cm of paving thickness, and the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, and under Chongqing region weather conditions in spring, evaporation capacity is less, meets water after the husky body water evaporates of modification again, and the grains of sand are bonded in again together, and husky body is plastic wetting state;
The husky surface of modification spreading grass-seed, after 1 week, in the husky body of modification, under the condition of moisture grass-seed is germinateed, and gradually growth, this plant and the indifference of growth final result and soil plantation; Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, polyacrylamide etc.) etc. and organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected alkyl tert ammonium salt, alkyl quaternary ammonium salts, beet alkali surface activator, improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected flyash and French chalk, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour; Also add some flexible fibers, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., improved or regulated stability, crack resistance or the toughness of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
Embodiment three: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 can select sodium carboxymethylcellulose by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
With sodium carboxymethylcellulose and water according to the weight ratio of the 2:100 formation solution that stirs;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, gets carboxymethylcellulose sodium solution 187kg again, sand and carboxymethylcellulose sodium solution are mixed and stirs, and forms the husky body of modification, and the material sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of husky body are: 1:272.7;
B. the husky body of modification is paved outdoor, the about 10cm of paving thickness, the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, under the weather conditions in spring of Chongqing, evaporation capacity is less, and the husky external sight of modification and soil are similar, get partially modified husky body, take the measures such as oven dry, make its surperficial dehydration after, the husky surface of modification is hardened into whole, has some strength, if water is sprinkled upon the husky surface of modification after the dehydration, the material in the husky body of modification is with moisture absorption again, and husky body is again plastic wetting state;
At the husky surface of modification spreading Chinese cabbage seed, after 1 week, in the husky body of modification, under the condition of moisture vegetable seed is germinateed, and gradually growth, this plant and the indifference of growth final result and soil plantation; Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, and the organic polymer auxiliary agent polyacrylamide etc.) etc., little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected alkyl quaternary ammonium salts, beet alkali surface activator, amino acid type surfactant improves or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersed, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming is or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected swell soil and white carbon, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour; Also add some flexible fibers, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., improved or regulated stability, crack resistance or the toughness of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
Embodiment four: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 can select sodium carboxymethylcellulose by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose and water stirred according to the weight ratio of 5:100 form solution after the dissolving;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, again with carboxymethyl cellulose sodium solution 135kg, sand and sodium polyacrylate solution are mixed and stirs, and forms the husky body of modification, and the sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of husky body are: 1:155.6;
B. the husky body of modification is paved outdoor, the about 10cm of paving thickness, the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, and the water conservation effect is better under the weather conditions in spring of Chongqing; The husky external sight of modification and soil are similar, get partially modified husky body, take the measures such as oven dry, after making its surperficial dehydration, the husky surface of modification is hardened into whole, if water is sprinkled upon the husky surface of modification after the dehydration again, material in the husky body of modification is with moisture absorption, and husky body is again plastic wetting state;
At the husky surface plantation of modification peanut seed, after 1 week, in the husky body of modification, under the condition of moisture peanut seed is germinateed, and gradually growth, peanut and the indifference of growth final result and soil plantation; Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, polyacrylamide etc.) etc. and organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected alkyl uncle ammonium salt, the secondary ammonium salt of alkyl, alkyl tert ammonium salt, improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected kieselguhr and swell soil, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour; Also add some flexible fibers, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., improved or regulated stability, crack resistance or the toughness of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
Embodiment five: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 can select methylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
To form methylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose composite solution after the weight ratio dissolving according to 1:1:100 of methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and water;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, gets the solution 156kg that methylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose are compounded to form again, and sand and solution are mixed and stirs, and the material methylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and husky body are: 1:326.9;
B. the husky body of modification is paved outdoor, the about 10cm of paving thickness, the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, good water-retaining property under the weather conditions in spring of Chongqing; The husky external sight of modification and soil are similar, get partially modified husky body, take the measures such as oven dry, after making its surperficial dehydration, the husky surface of modification is hardened into whole, if water is sprinkled upon the husky surface of modification after the dehydration again, material in the husky body of modification is with moisture absorption, and husky body is again plastic wetting state;
At the husky surface plantation of modification eggplant rice shoot, after 1 week, the eggplant growing way is better under the condition of moisture in the husky body of modification, this plant and the indifference of growth final result and soil plantation.Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, polyacrylamide etc.) etc. and organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected alkylsulfonate, alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, alkyl uncle ammonium salt, improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected kieselguhr and swell soil, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour; Also add some flexible fibers, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., improved or regulated stability, crack resistance or the toughness of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
Embodiment six: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
But a1 can select hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and dispersed substance cationic starch by solid-state organic substance soluble in water;
But hydroxypropyl methylcellulose dispersed substance cationic starch and the water weight ratio according to 0.3:5:100 is stirred, and heat that to form composite solution after the gelatinization for subsequent use;
A2 gets 1000kg sand, get again composite solution 171kg, sand and solution are mixed and stir, form the husky body of modification, alkaline soluble materials hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of husky body are: 1:2052, and the total material hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the husky body of modification and the weight ratio of cationic starch and husky body are: 1:116;
B. the husky body of modification is paved outdoor, the about 10cm of paving thickness, the husky body moisture of modification is preserved good, and the husky external sight of modification and soil are similar, get partially modified husky body, take the measures such as oven dry, after making its surperficial dehydration, the husky surface of modification can be bonded to piece, if water is sprinkled upon the husky surface of modification after the dehydration again, material in the husky body of modification is with moisture absorption, and husky body is again plastic wetting state;
In the husky body of modification the plantation wheat seed and between plant corn, piecemeal plantation soybean and peanut, above-mentioned seed germinates gradually after 1 week, and gradually growth, growth is better; Certainly, need to add necessary nutriment in the husky body of modification, such as various fertilizer.
In the present embodiment, also adding following material does experiment in addition: also interpolation can be scattered in inorganic matter in the water and organic matter (such as the material that can disperse and swell in the water, comprise starch, polyacrylamide etc.) etc. and organic polymer auxiliary agent, little molecule auxiliary agent and surfactant, present embodiment has been selected alkylsulfonate, alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, alkyl uncle ammonium salt, improve or the caking property of regulator solution in the husky body of modification, adhesiveness, toughness, levelability, dispersiveness, water-soluble, water imbibition, foaminess, defoaming or/and construction workability; Inorganic active powder or powder material and inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, present embodiment has been selected kieselguhr and swell soil, improves or the grating of the husky body of adjusting modification or suction, water conservation, the toughness reinforcing performance of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour; Also add some flexible fibers, fabric, rattan, film tape, sheet etc., improved or regulated stability, crack resistance or the toughness of the husky body of modification; Acquired results is compared with not adding these materials, has better soil behaviour.
In above-described embodiment, along with the evaporation of moisture, the husky body porosity of modification and interconnected pore rate are in excursion, and interconnected pore rate scope is 5~70%, and generally speaking, the interconnected pore rate is suitable for the water conservation drought resisting 15~50%, and suitable plant growth.
In above-described embodiment, also plantation has the multiple dish seedlings such as tomato, cucumber, also can plant flowers, trees etc., can plant the rice shoots such as corn, capsicum equally, and growing way is all better, and is the same with the soil planting effect, but the result and edible also such as the tomato of plantation, cucumber.
In above-described embodiment, having enumerated in the husky body of modification with wider scope can solid-state organic substance soluble in water and the weight ratio of husky body, after a large number of experiments show that again, energy solid-state organic substance soluble in water is different from the weight ratio of husky body, form the husky body of modification and also have different, when can solid-state organic substance soluble in water (material is determined) and husky body weight ratio more hour, the water conservation effect suitably reduces, when can solid-state organic substance soluble in water the weight ratio of (material is determined) and husky body when larger, the water conservation effect is better, but, what adapt therewith is, adhesion strength between the grains of sand also increases with the rising of the weight ratio of husky body along with solid-state organic substance (material is determined), along with solid-state organic substance (material is determined) reduces with the reduction of the weight ratio of husky body; When energy solid-state organic substance soluble in water reaches 1:8000 with husky body weight ratio, the husky body of modification still has certain water retention, still has adhesion strength between the grains of sand, but decreases, and can growing plant, but must suitably water to guarantee growth conditions; And when can solid-state organic substance soluble in water and husky body weight increase to 1:30, adhesion strength is larger between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification, the water conservation effect is better, but the husky body of modification itself has the phenomenon of hardening, it is very obvious to be used for sand-fixing effect, certainly, also can be used for plant growth, the husky body of modification that just has the phenomenon that hardens is unfavorable for the growth of root system of plant; That is to say, in according to the present invention to requirement that can solid-state organic substance physical property soluble in water, consumption that can solid-state organic substance soluble in water fixes the sand relatively at most, water conservation, grains of sand adhesion strength are better, otherwise can reduce, and above-mentioned scope not merely is 1:8000 to 1:30, also can suitably reduce or increase, the husky body of the modification of formation all has institute expect or foreseeable effect, but is suitable in the desert and formation is similar to soil and then need adopts OK range for plant growth.
Above-described embodiment can not all alternative materials of limit, also have much such as the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy in can dissolved water, do not repeat them here, and all can realize goal of the invention, certainly, and take the low-cost and material that plays expectation function as main.
Certainly, the order by merging of said components can not limit protection scope of the present invention, can and can water-soluble solid-state organic substance mix in any order and mix and forming husky, water, behind the mix, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is dissolved in the water and forms and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand and form the husky body of the modification with particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, material is wherein met and can again be dissolved in the water behind the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand; And, prove that by experiment the result of gained there is no obvious change.
On the husky body of this modification, during planting plants, whole modes of planting plants in the prior art soil be can adopt, membrance curing, booth growth comprised, to resist outside abominable natural environment; In a word, do not have the internal difference with planting plants in soil, do not repeat them here.
Contrast shows, have after caking property and adhering liquid and sand mix form the husky body of modification described, the deck that paves again and form in common husky surface, the surface course that forms with described liquid is sprayed directly on common husky surface has the difference of essence, is embodied in:
The first, realize fundamental difference on the principle.
From the composition rule of particulate matter, the husky body of modification is to be based upon on the basis of " particle constraint " principle that the inventor proposes, and is a kind of thinking of brand-new sand " soil ".
Constraint type between the common sand is " contact ", its contact point only exists contact and frictional force, and without any the node adhesion with in conjunction with moment (such as node pulling force and moment), therefore, common sand can only be by contact and frictional force balancing gravity and external force, its node can not bearing tension and moment, otherwise husky body sudden change that particle arranges just will occur and unstability.
And after will having caking property and adhering liquid and the husky body of sand mix formation modification, restraint forces between its particle node is " adhesion ", it can either produce the restraining tensile force that separates between the opposing particle, can produce again the restraint moment that the opposing particle rotates, simultaneously, it can also produce node pressure and frictional force, therefore, it can limit all degree of freedom of particle, but this restriction is again limited, the particle node can also extend when producing constraint reaction, rotate and slip, therefore, its constraint type and common sand fundamental difference, that is to say that the husky body of modification both can be resisted external force, again can be under external force limited and stably motion.On the other hand, in the husky body of modification, being constrained to of husky body whole interior " adhering to constraint ", this constraint is to form after having caking property and adhering liquid and sand mix, on microscopical structure, this constraint is after each sand surface uniform covers one deck adhesion layer, contact again between the particle and form, therefore, this constraint has universal property and restorability, that is to say, all can form " adhering to constraint " in the arbitrfary point contact between the particle, and after separating, again contact between the particle, this binding feature can be recovered.Therefore, the husky body of modification has all viscoelastroplasticity character of even isotropic of macroscopic view, and is the same with the mechanical characteristic of the soil that wets.
In case after the moisture evaporation in the husky body of modification, " adhering to constraint " just will become " fixed constraint ", namely, space arrangement between the sand will be fixed, and husky body can bearing load, has some strength, show as the character of porous solid, just as the soil of doing.Simultaneously, as previously mentioned, behind the chance water, " fixed constraint " becomes " adhering to constraint " again, and husky body becomes the viscoelastroplasticity body by solid.(when still wetting when no matter doing) has connection, open space all the time in the husky body of modification, with the exchange of external world's generation moisture, nutrient and air.
But, if only have caking property and adhering spray liquid in husky surface with described, only can form one deck adhesive film in husky surface, the liquid of infiltration under adhesive film is very limited, and after this layer adhesive film do, just become solid film, obviously, this method itself is not based on " particle constraint " principle and draws, with the thinking fundamental difference of sand " soil " yet.Be sprayed on adhesion layer (being thin layer after solidifying) and infiltration liquid in the very thin scope under adhesion layer thereof of husky surface, only formed constraint in husky surface, this constraint does not have all even isotropic nature by strong to weak, comes in and goes out very large with the character of soil; Adhesion layer (thin layer after the curing) resides in the sand grains surface, can be with the hole complete closed between the sand, this with have be communicated with, the husky body fundamental difference of the modification of open space, also with the thinking fundamental difference of soil; Constrain in that the husky body of modification is inner evenly, equivalence is had an effect in the husky body of modification, with the property class of natural soils seemingly, only have an effect near surface and spray layer, do not have the characteristic of natural soils.
The second, fundamental difference on the architectural characteristic.
On the structure dimension, the husky body of the modification that forms behind the mix, its physical dimension can be regulated as required, and paving thickness is changeable, when structural thickness is large, can plant the tall and big plant of plant, and structural thickness hour can be planted the short and small plant of plant; And the thickness that sprays layer only forms near surface, and its physical dimension is difficult to regulate as required.
On intensity and the wear properties, the husky body of the modification that forms behind the mix, what form is plate body, has the mechanical characteristic of plate, in the relatively little situation of the strength of materials, still possesses higher bearing capacity, reach the purpose of fixing the sand, and, the cracking of plate body or destruction, do not destroy the effect that it fixes the sand, consistent with stability with the intensity performance principle of soil layer; Simultaneously, the husky body of modification in its thickness range, the viscoelastroplasticity body when no matter being wet, or the porous solid when doing, all can either stablize the root system of plant, can adapt to again growth and the development of root system, consistent with the mechanical characteristic of soil curing plant and the development of adaptation root system of plant.But, spray the skin layer that forms, have the mechanical characteristic (very large with the characteristic difference of plate) of film, must guarantee enough intensity, just can reach the purpose of fixing the sand, the top layer is in case destroy, just be difficult to retrain the husky body under the top layer, its effect of fixing the sand just is difficult to performance; Simultaneously, not having additional constraint between the husky body particle under the surperficial top layer, still is the husky body of nature, can not stablize root system of plant, with the characteristic fundamental difference of soil.
On pore characteristic, the even pore distribution of the husky body of modification, have be communicated with and with the open space that the external world contacts, the exchange of moisture, nutrient and air can occur with the external world, and sprays the skin layer that forms, sealed husky body and extraneous contacting.
At water conservation, on water storage and the evaporation characteristic, at first, the water conservation of the husky body of modification, the water storage principle is water directly to be stored in have in caking property and the adhering liquid (as previously mentioned, removing solid matter in the liquid all is water), be difficult to evaporation and loss, water conservation with soil, Water storage characteristics is very similar, its water conservation, storage capacity is very strong, and this ability can be regulated in a larger scope, can adapt to the growth of various plant, the enforcement in Chongqing shows, by regulating the husky body of modification of the high storage capacity that match ratio obtains, can rice cultivation and flourish, until gather in the crops full paddy; Secondly, the evaporation characteristic of the husky body of modification is also similar with soil, and after the moisture evaporation in the surperficial grains of sand, inner moisture does not directly contact with extraneous, and slow evaporation keeps reasonably an evaporation and water storage gradient from top to bottom.Yet, spray the skin layer that forms, its water conservation, the husky body fundamental difference of the characteristic of water storage and evaporation and modification, just sprayed and resided in water in the skin layer, only can be penetrated into scope very little below the top layer, be easy to evaporate and form solid film with external world sealing, at this moment, film itself is without storage capacity, and its water storage principle is: utilize the free moisture in the husky body, Yin Wendu is uneven in temperature and evaporate, cohesion, the complex process that is hampered, finally make it rest near zone, film below, the water storage principle fundamental difference of the husky body of this water storage principle and soil and modification, the moisture of storage is few, only can adapt to the growth of minority plant.
The 3rd, the plantation of plant is different with growth characteristics.
At first, on the plantation characteristic of seed, implement contrast and show, for the husky body of modification, seed can be embedded in the husky body of modification, or is sown in the husky surface of modification, and is different according to the germination characteristic of seed, and various seeds all can germinating growth; And for the method for surface sprinkling adhesion layer, after various seeds are buried or broadcasted sowing, must spray thin layer to adhere to covering layer, still because the following moisture of surface coating is few, the seed that part is imbedded do not germinate or germination poor; Simultaneously because surface coating can seal seed (and moisture evaporates) after solidifying, the seed that broadcasts sowing after covering thin layer, the same situation that appearance is not germinateed or germination is poor.Therefore, the husky body of modification has the character of soil, germination preferably.
On the plantation characteristic of plant, implementing contrast shows, the husky body of modification can be planted each Plants, according to the difference of the husky body thickness of modification, can plant the short and small herbaceous plant of plant, also can plant the tall and big herbaceous plant of plant, also can plant shrub, and, can stablize in the situation of root system of plant at local thickness and the volume of the husky body of modification, also can plant high megaphanerophyte; But, after forming thin layer at spraying liquid and adhering to covering layer, the especially evaporation of the moisture in the thin layer covering layer and after forming solid thin-film layer, serike is that to destroy thin layer be cost, therefore, behind the sprinkling thin layer covering layer, any plant hardly suits to plant again; And serike is sprayed adhesion layer, few of real value afterwards again.
On the growth characteristics of plant, the general well-grown of plant in the husky body of modification is with general soil and indifference, difference according to the husky body thickness of modification, the husky body of modification can the short and small herbaceous plant of growth plant, but the also tall and big herbaceous plant of growth plant, and shrub and arbor also can grow, but, only spray in the situation about covering at thin layer, the general growing state of plant is relatively poor, and, the sand that the thin layer covering layer is following is difficult to the tall and big herbaceous plant of firm plant (such as corn etc.) and trees.
Need to prove, above embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, although with reference to preferred embodiment the present invention is had been described in detail, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that, can make amendment or be equal to replacement technical scheme of the present invention, and not breaking away from aim and the scope of technical solution of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of the claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a method of utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1 gets the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy and it is dissolved in the water, and forms to have caking property and adhering solution;
A2 namely forms the husky body of modification with the solution of step a1 gained and husky mix after evenly;
Described have behind caking property and adhering solution and the husky mix can the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
2. a method of utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
A. prepare the husky body of modification:
A1. get sand, water and the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy;
A2. with the sand among the step a1, water with can water-soluble solid-state organic substance mix in any order and mix namely forms the husky body of modification after evenly;
The water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is dissolved in the water and forms and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand, and the husky body of the modification of formation is the particle pore structure; The described moisture that has in caking property and the adhering solution can stick between the grains of sand with solution; After the described moisture evaporation that has in caking property and the adhering solution, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of energy wherein can bond the grains of sand and meet water after can again be dissolved in the water and form and have caking property and adhering solution and the adhesion grains of sand;
B. the husky body of modification that step a is the prepared selected surface in the desert that paves.
3. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: among the step b, paving thickness is greater than 5cm.
4. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: after having the water evaporation in caking property and the adhesiveness solution between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification, the water-soluble solid-state organic matter mass-energy of energy wherein is bonded together the grains of sand; After the described water evaporation that has in caking property and the adhesiveness solution, solid-state organic substance and the weight ratio between the husky body that energy wherein is water-soluble are 1:30-8000.
5. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: have interconnected pore and dead-end pore between the grains of sand of the husky body of modification.
6. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: among the step a1, the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy comprises one or both and the above mixture in natural polymer and modified material and the synthetic high polymer material.
7. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: among the step a1, also add the natural polymer to be scattered in the described solution and one or both and above mixture in modified material and the synthetic high polymer material.
8. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: among the step a2, also add one or both and above mixture in organic pluronic polymer, little molecule auxiliary agent, surfactant inorganic active powder or powder material, inorganic nonactive powder or powder material, solid substance and the pH value Auto-regulator.
9. the method for utilizing the husky body Desert Control of modification according to claim 6 is characterized in that: the water-soluble solid-state organic substance of described energy is one or both and above mixing or the copolymer in polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol oxide, polyethylene glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and the cellulose ether.
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CN109306692A (en) * 2018-11-13 2019-02-05 张江涛 A kind of desert treatment method
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