CN103306236A - Method for constructing underground reservoir in ancient gully of ancient underground river channel - Google Patents

Method for constructing underground reservoir in ancient gully of ancient underground river channel Download PDF

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CN103306236A
CN103306236A CN 201310268231 CN201310268231A CN103306236A CN 103306236 A CN103306236 A CN 103306236A CN 201310268231 CN201310268231 CN 201310268231 CN 201310268231 A CN201310268231 A CN 201310268231A CN 103306236 A CN103306236 A CN 103306236A
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underground
water
reservoir
pile
dam
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CN 201310268231
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CN103306236B (en )
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梁新
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梁新
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/40Water resources protection or enhancement
    • Y02A20/406Aquifer recharge

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for constructing an underground reservoir in an ancient gully of an ancient underground river channel. The method comprises the following steps: investigating the ancient gully of the ancient underground river channel, designing an underground reservoir dam body, designing an anti-seepage dam body in the reservoir area of the underground reservoir, carrying out stability assessment on the underground reservoir dam body, constructing the underground reservoir dam body, constructing the anti-seepage dam body in the reservoir area of the underground reservoir, surveying and mapping a longitudinal profile of the underground reservoir and calculating the volume of a water-bearing rock-soil layer of the underground reservoir, the water storage capacity of the underground reservoir and the average water separation quantity of an underground water-bearing layer; scientifically utilizing the water storage capacity of the underground reservoir and carrying out recharge and water replenishment on the underground reservoir. The method has the beneficial effect that aiming at the riverbed geology and the landform of the ancient gully of the ancient underground river channel, the characteristics of the water-bearing layer of the ancient gully of the ancient underground river channel as well as the supply conditions of a water source, the anti-seepage problem of various different water-bearing rock-soil layers and problems about the type selection of an underground water dam, the design of dam height and dam crest overflow section elevation, the recharge and the water replenishment of the underground reservoir and the improvement of water supply continuity of the reservoir can be systematically solved.

Description

在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法 Build underground reservoirs in the underground ancient river gullies ancient method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明是利用地下古河道古冲沟河床中的特殊地层、地形与地下水条件,构筑地下水坝,拦截与围堵地下含水层中的潜水,而建成地下水库的方法,属于水利工程建设领域。 [0001] The present invention is the use of underground PALEOCHANNEL old gully bed of special strata, groundwater conditions and terrain, constructing underground dams, diving interception containment of underground aquifers, and a method to build underground reservoir, water conservancy construction belonging to field.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002]自上世纪八十年代以来,国内外媒体对我国发生的沙尘暴与旱灾等极端自然灾害进行了大量的报道与评论,其中有报道指出我国被沙漠化的面积已占国土总面积的三分之一。 [0002] Since the 1980's, the domestic and foreign media to extreme natural disasters such as droughts and dust storms occurred in China have done a lot of reporting and commentary, which is the area of ​​desertification has been reported that accounted for one-third of the total land area one. 在我国,许多省市因旱灾缺水,大量吸取地下水源,致使地下水位急速下降,从而引起地面开裂下陷,给国家造成极大经济损失和人员伤亡。 In China, water shortage due to drought in many provinces and cities, drew heavily on groundwater sources, resulting in rapid decline in groundwater levels, causing cracking ground subsidence, causing great casualties and economic losses to the state. 由于需水量与供水能力的矛盾逐年加大,越来越多的人投入到地下水库的研究中。 Because water demand and water supply capacity of the contradictions increase year after year, more and more people into the underground reservoir in the study.

[0003]目前,尚没有一套较完善的系统方法,能够针对地下古河道古冲沟河床地质、地形及其含水层的特点与水源的补给条件,解决对地下各种不同含水岩土层的防渗问题,以及地下水坝的类型选择,坝高与坝顶溢流断面标高的设计,对地下水库的回灌补水,提高水库供水的持续性等问题。 [0003] Currently, there is no set of relatively complete system approach, able for underground ancient river gullies ancient riverbed geology, topography, and aquifer characteristics and conditions of supply water to solve the various underground layers of rock and soil moisture seepage problem, and choose the type of underground dams, dam crest overflow section and elevation of design, supply water to recharge underground reservoirs, increase sustainability issues such as water supply reservoir.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明的目的在于针对现有技术的不足,提供一种在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法,针对地下古河道古冲沟河床地质、地形及其含水层的特点与水源的补给条件,系统地解决各种不同含水岩土层的防渗问题,以及地下水坝的类型选择,坝高与坝顶溢流断面标高的设计,对地下水库的回灌补水和提高水库供水持续性的问题。 [0004] The object of the present invention is for the deficiencies of the prior art, there is provided a method for constructing underground reservoirs in subterranean ancient river old gully, the characteristics of subsurface geological bed PALEOCHANNEL old gully, terrain and water and the aqueous layer the supply conditions, systematically address a variety of different water seepage problem of rock layers, and choose the type of underground dams, dam crest overflow section and elevation of design, supply water to recharge underground reservoirs and water supply continued to improve reservoir issues.

[0005] 本发明实现上述目的所采取的技术方案是:在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法,包括如下步骤: [0005] The object of the present invention to achieve the above technical solution is adopted: a method in subterranean underground reservoir ancient river old gully construction, comprising the steps of:

[0006] ( I)对地下古河道、古冲沟的勘察,具体勘察步骤如下: [0006] (I) prospecting underground ancient river, old gully, in particular investigation the following steps:

[0007] (A)勘察地下古河道古冲沟的地名、地层、成因、走向、长度、地下含水层厚度以及地下标闻与地面标闻; [0007] (A) prospecting underground Paleochannel old gully names, formation, genesis, direction, length, thickness, and underground aquifers marked smell and smell the ground mark;

[0008] (B)评估地下水源条件,在步骤(A)的基础上,进一步查明上游补给水源的类型,了解当地年降雨量、大气蒸发量以及库内地下水位的变化情况,包括丰水期最高洪水位标高、枯水期最低水位标高及历时和正常水位标高及历时;测出地下水库水力坡降,估算补给潜水流量,计算地下水库最高洪水位的过水最大流量、地下水库正常水位的过水流量和最低水位的过水流量; [0008] (B) Evaluation groundwater conditions, on the basis of the step (A) on the upstream supply of water to further identify the type of knowledge of local rainfall, evaporation and changes in atmospheric compartment groundwater, comprising wet of the highest flood level elevation, water level elevation and the lowest dry season lasted and lasted and the normal water level elevation; measured hydraulic gradient of groundwater reservoirs, estimated supply diving flow, calculated the highest flood level underground reservoirs of water over the maximum flow rate, the normal water level underground reservoir through water flow and water flow over the minimum water level;

[0009] (C)根据地下水库坝址基础的地质地形条件,选择较狭窄的壶口河段,地下河床底部为不透水岩土层,两侧为对称的形状呈“U”字型;坝体基础岩土层为完整坚硬,不透水性的岩土层; [0009] (C) The topographic features at the site based on the geological reservoir, selected narrower spout river, underground riverbed impermeable geotechnical bottom layer, the shape is symmetrical on both sides of "U" shaped; dam Basics geotechnical hard layer is complete, the water-impermeable layer of rock and soil;

[0010] (D)根据地下水库库区地质地形条件,选择地下河道较宽阔且较长的,较平缓的,有较厚的含水层的地层,以保证地下水库有较大的蓄水容量;库区内地下河床两侧分水岭标高高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证水库建成蓄水后,库内水不能往库外泄漏;在喀斯特较发育地区,地下水库库区选择在喀斯特发育较弱,基岩较完整的河段,以防库水渗漏; [0010] (D) according to the geological subsurface terrain Reservoir, select underground river are wider and longer, more gradual, with a thicker layer of aqueous formation, underground reservoir to ensure greater storage capacity; after the lower mainland Reservoir watershed on both sides of the river bed elevation above the underground water level in the reservoir control design elevation, in order to ensure the completion of water storage reservoirs, water can not leak into the library outside the library; the more developed areas of karst, underground karst reservoir area select development in a more weak, more complete bedrock of the river to prevent the reservoir water leakage;

[0011] (2)设计地下水库坝体,具体步骤如下: [0011] (2) Design of underground reservoir of the dam, the following steps:

[0012] (A)坝型的选择,采用地下溢流坝的坝体类型; [0012] (A) dam type selection, using underground dam weir type;

[0013] (B)设计地下坝高与坝顶溢流断面,具体方法如下: [0013] (B) the design of underground dam crest overflow section, as follows:

[0014] ①、首先对拟建地下水库库区内地面现有的工、农、林、牧以及房屋和道路各种行业的活动总荷载对地面以下土层持力层承载力的要求进行评估,初步确定从地面至地下水库坝顶过水溢流断面顶部之间的土层厚度,即预留满足地面荷载的土层厚度;然后测出地下水库库区内丰水期最闻地下水位标闻与正常水位标闻,地下水位标闻变化较小保持历时最长时间,以月数计; [0014] ①, first of all the existing industry, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry as well as houses and roads in various industries activities proposed reservoir area floor underground reservoir below the surface of the total load bearing layer of soil bearing capacity requirements assessment preliminarily determined from the ground to the underground reservoir through the soil thickness between the crest of water overflowing the top section, i.e. the reserved soil thickness to meet the load floor; underground Reservoir then measured wet area of ​​the most marked smell groundwater Wen normal water mark smell, smell the water table marked change remain relatively small lasted the longest time, count the number of months;

[0015] ②、预留地面荷载持力层土层厚度的设计,用最高地下水位标高作预留地面荷载持力层土层底板标高,以确保在地下水库建成后,地下水库水位对库区地面及周边原有的环境生态,以及各种设施不受影响; [0015] ②, design reserved ground load bearing layer of soil thickness of the support, with the highest groundwater level as the floor level ground load bearing layer of soil holds reservation to ensure the completion of the underground reservoirs, underground reservoir water level RESERVOIR ground and surrounding the original ecological environment, as well as various facilities will not be affected;

[0016] ③、坝顶标高设计,以正常水位标高为地下水库坝顶设计标高,确保地下水库蓄水量的正常性与效益的持续性; [0016] ③, crest elevation designed to normal water level elevation crest elevation of underground reservoir designed to ensure continuity and efficiency of the normal volume of water underground reservoir;

[0017] ④、坝顶溢流断面设计,以地下水库最高水位标高与正常水位标高之间的断面高为坝顶过水溢流断面,确保丰水期最大过水流量能顺利地从坝顶溢流面通过,不会因洪水期水位上升,影响上部土层产生软化或下陷等现象; Section between the [0017] ④, crest overflow section design, the highest water level underground reservoir normal water level elevation and high elevation to crest over the water overflow section to ensure maximum water flow through the wet period from the crest smoothly by overflow surface, not because of the flood water rises, the upper impact soil subsidence phenomenon is generated to soften or the like;

[0018] (C)地下溢流坝体的设计,采用冲孔桩构建成地下连续墙防渗坝体,地下溢流坝主体结构为大直径钢筋砼排桩,桩之间互相紧贴,钢筋砼桩入岩为桩长的1/3桩长;在钢筋砼排桩上游侧紧靠每两条钢筋砼桩之间的接触三角处位置增设一排小直径素砼桩,以御防钢筋砼桩之间渗漏水;利用冲孔桩机在施工过程中,冲锤上、上冲击造孔把孔壁周边岩土层挤实,提高岩土层密实度、内摩擦角以及变形模量; [0018] Design (C) subterranean overflow dam body, punched piles constructed using underground continuous wall impermeable dam, underground Spillway a large diameter main structure of reinforced concrete pile row, each close contact between the piles, steel concrete piles into the rock pile length of long pile 1/3; contacting the cam at a location between the reinforced concrete pile abuts the upstream side of the reinforced concrete pile row each additional row of two small diameter plain concrete piles for defense against the reinforced concrete leakage of water between the pile; pile by punching in the construction process, the hammer, the impact on the pore walls of rock and soil around the hole compaction layer, improve the density geotechnical layer, angle of internal friction and deformation modulus;

[0019] (3)地下水库库区防渗坝体设计,地下水库库区河床两岸地下分水岭标高要高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证地下水库建成蓄水后,库区水不能往库外泄漏;对于库区局部河段地下分水岭标高低于地下水库控制水位标高的地段,构筑地下水库库区防渗坝;库区防渗坝体,由钢筋砼排桩和防渗排桩组成;钢筋砼排桩的设计如下步骤(A),防渗排桩的设计如下步骤(B): [0019] (3) underground reservoir dam seepage reservoir design, the two sides reservoir underground reservoir underground river watershed elevation higher than the elevation of groundwater reservoirs designed to control the water level in order to ensure the completion of underground water storage reservoir, the water reservoir can not go Library external leakage; Reservoir for topical underground river watershed elevation below the elevation of the water level control underground reservoir area, impermeable dam constructed underground reservoir area; impermeable dam reservoir area, a row of reinforced concrete piles and pile rows impermeable composition; reinforced concrete pile cluster design steps (a), seepage row pile design steps (B):

[0020] (A)钢筋砼排桩的设计,钢筋砼排桩之间互相紧贴,桩径Φ800-1000πιπι,桩端入岩层或地下不透水粘土层中1/3桩长;桩顶高度大于地下水库有效控制水位设计标高 [0020] (A) the design of reinforced concrete pile row, close contact between each row of piles of reinforced concrete, the pile diameter Φ800-1000πιπι, the pile tip or underground impermeable clay strata 1/3 pile length; height greater than the top of the pile underground reservoir water level to effectively control the design elevation

2.0_3.0m ; 2.0_3.0m;

[0021] (B)防渗排桩的设计,防渗桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧,紧贴钢筋砼桩之间接触的三角处,以防止钢筋砼桩之间空隙漏水; [0021] (B) impermeable pile cluster design, the inner impermeable reservoir piles laid on reinforced concrete piles row, close contact between the triangular reinforced concrete piles, in order to prevent the leakage gap between the reinforced concrete pile;

[0022] (4)地下水库坝体的稳定评估,通过计算坝体的抗剪强度进行验算; [0022] (4) Stability Assessment underground dam reservoir, checking performed by calculating the shear strength of the dam;

[0023] (5)按照步骤(2)的设计,对地下水库坝体进行施工,采用冲孔桩机或旋挖桩机为施工机械,先安排钢筋砼桩的施工,一个星期后安排坝体素砼桩的施工; Design of [0023] (5) according to step (2), for the construction of underground reservoir dam, using rotary drilling or punching pile of pile construction machine, to arrange the construction of reinforced concrete piles, a week after the dam arrangement construction of plain concrete pile;

[0024] (6)按照步骤(3)的设计,对地下水库库区防渗坝进行施工; Design of [0024] (6) according to step (3), the underground construction for Reservoir - impermeable dam;

[0025] (7)测绘地下水库纵剖面图,计算地下水库含水岩土层体积、地下水库蓄水量和地下含水层的平均分离水量; [0025] (7) a longitudinal sectional view mapping underground reservoirs, geotechnical aqueous layer volume calculation, the average storage capacity of underground reservoir of water separate underground reservoirs and underground aquifers;

[0026] (8)对地下水库蓄水量的科学利用,绘制地下水库水位与蓄水量关系曲线图,以该曲线图为用水抽水的指南和依据,实行计划科学用水;在水库坝体上游侧设一口水位观测井,为水库中观测水位的永久观测井;抽水前,先观测水位,了解水库现存水量情况,然后按计划定时定量抽水;抽水后,把抽水时间迄止与抽水前后水位和抽水量记录立档;每次抽水后,要增加测量水位次数,掌握水位恢复的周期与历时时间;当水位尚未恢复之前,严禁超量抽水; [0026] (8) of the storage capacity of the scientific use of underground reservoirs, underground reservoir water level to draw a graph of the amount of water, pumped to the water guide curve graph and based, a planned water SCIENCES; dam upstream of the reservoir side is provided a water level observation wells, permanent observation well observed water level of the reservoir; before pumping, before the observation level, to understand the existing water situation reservoir, then scheduled time quantitative pumping; after pumping, the pumping time until the stop forward and backward pumping water and pumping in the file is recorded; after each pumping, the water level to increase the number of measurements, control the water level recovery cycle and elapsed time; when the water level has not been restored before, non-excessive pumping;

[0027] (9)在枯水期,当地下水库出现最低水位历时较长时间时,进行地下水库回灌补水措施;补水措施如下: [0027] (9) in the dry season, when the local minimum water level at the reservoir which lasted a long time, recharge water compensation measures to carry out underground reservoir; replenishment measures are as follows:

[0028] (A)在地下水库上游或支流建造集水柜、集水圹或集水库,然后将这些储水引入地下水库中; [0028] (A) or upstream branch underground reservoir water tank construction set, collection sump or reservoir tomb, which are then introduced into the underground reservoir storage;

[0029] (B)从库外挖渠引水,把库外水源引给地下水库回灌补水; [0029] (B) dig trenches water from outside the library, the library outer water replenishment lead to recharge underground reservoir;

[0030] (C)在库外打井引水回灌补水; [0030] (C) water recharge wells replenishment outside the vault;

[0031 ] 步骤(3 )所述的防渗排桩包括深层搅拌桩、高压水泥浆旋喷桩或素砼桩, [0031] Impervious Step (3) comprises a row of pile deep mixing pile, high-pressure water jet grouting slurry pile or plain concrete pile,

[0032] ①、当坝体处于沙层或砂砾层,沙和砾石粒径较小,含泥质少,含水量小,地下水没有承压力现象时,防渗排桩宜采用高压水泥浆旋桩;防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面,防渗排桩与钢筋砼排桩互相平行,间距300mm,利用高压水泥浆旋喷桩的扩散,把钢筋砼排桩与水泥浆旋喷桩固结成一幅地下防渗墙坝体; [0032] ①, when the dam is sand or gravel, gravel sand, and small particle size, containing less muddy, small water content, there is no ground bearing pressure phenomenon, the pile should be high-pressure discharge impermeable grout rotating pile ; impermeable inner pile row laid on reinforced concrete piles reservoir discharge side, the row of piles of reinforced concrete seepage pile rows parallel to each other, the pitch 300mm, using a high pressure slurry diffusion rotating pile, the pile of reinforced concrete and grout discharge screw solid form an underground pile discharge cutoff wall dam;

[0033] ②、当坝体在粉土层、粉质粘土层、淤泥层或杂填土层时,防渗排桩采用深层搅拌桩,两排防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面,与钢筋砼排桩互相紧贴,防渗桩之间互相御接100mm,连续施工,桩端入不透水土层0.5-1.0m,桩顶高度大于地下水库控制水位设计标高2-3m ; [0033] ②, when in the silt dam fill soil, silty clay, silt layer or heteroaryl, impermeable pile row deep mixing pile rows two pile rows laid impermeable reservoir in reinforced concrete pile row inner surface, close to the row of piles of reinforced concrete and mutual Yu impermeable connection between 100mm pile, continuous construction, the pile tip 0.5-1.0M impermeable soil, the pile height is greater than the design elevation underground reservoir water level control 2-3m ;

[0034] ③、当坝体在粉土层或砂砾层,地下水较丰富,但地下水没有承压性时,防渗桩采用素砼桩,素砼桩布设在钢筋砼桩的水库内侧面,紧贴钢筋砼排桩,桩端入地下不透水土层 [0034] ③, when the dam in a powder or gravel soil, groundwater rich, but no groundwater pressure resistance, impermeable Plain Concrete piles using pile, plain concrete pile reinforced concrete laid within the reservoir pile side, tight paste reinforced concrete pile rows, the pile into the ground terminal impermeable soil

0.5-1.0m,桩长与钢筋砼排桩一致; 0.5-1.0m, reinforced concrete pile length and pile same row;

[0035] ④、当坝体在细砂层或砂砾层,砾石层较厚,且粒径较大,地下水很丰富,具有很大的承压力,同时地下水库库内水侧压力较大时,防渗桩采用素砼桩,防渗排桩要紧贴钢筋砼排桩,钢筋砼排桩施工在前,防渗排桩施工在后,防渗排桩桩端入地下不透水土层 [0035] ④, when the dam in a layer of fine sand or gravel, the gravel layer is thick, and a larger particle size, the groundwater is very rich, has a great bearing pressure, underground reservoir compartment while the water side pressure, plain concrete piles using pile impermeable, impermeable to close the discharge reinforced concrete pile row of piles, piles of reinforced concrete front row, row seepage after pile construction, exhaust impermeable impermeable soil pile into the ground terminal

0.5-1.0m,桩长与钢筋5仝排桩长度相等。 0.5-1.0m, steel pile length and pile row 5 with equal length.

[0036] 本发明与现有技术相比,具有的有益效果如下: [0036] Compared with the prior art the present invention has beneficial effects as follows:

[0037] ( I)针对地下古河道古冲沟河床地质、地形及其含水层的特点与水源的补给条件,能够系统地解决各种不同含水岩土层的防渗问题,以及地下水坝的类型选择,坝高与坝顶溢流断面标高的设计,对地下水库的回灌补水和提高水库供水持续性的问题。 [0037] Characteristics of the supply water conditions (I) for underground geological bed PALEOCHANNEL old gully, terrain and the aqueous layer can solve the problem of different impermeable geotechnical aqueous layer, and the type of underground dams systematically Alternatively, dam crest overflow section and elevation of design, supply water to recharge underground reservoirs and improving water supply reservoir persistent problem.

[0038] (2)水库中的水位变化,能够保证在库区的地面及周边原有的工业、农业、畜牧业、林业、以及房屋、道路等环境生态不受影响,并能得到更好的保护和发展。 [0038] water level changes (2) reservoir, to ensure the ground and around the reservoir area of ​​the original industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, as well as houses, roads and other ecological environment is not affected, and can get better protection and development.

[0039] (3)坝体强度和稳定性高。 [0039] (3) High strength and stability of the dam.

[0040] (4)建立水库蓄水量的科学利用模式,使效益合理最大化,地下水库能得到持续性的运作。 [0040] (4) to establish a scientific mode using the storage capacity of the reservoir, to maximize the benefit justifies the underground reservoir can get operational sustainability. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0041] 图1为电测剖面勘探线布置图,其中,1、水井点,2、电测剖面线,3、地下古河道通道。 [0041] FIG. 1 is arranged to measure electrical prospecting sectional diagram, wherein 1, wells point 2, the voltage measuring section line, 3, ancient river underground passage.

[0042] 图2为地下水库库区三个水井不同水位标高剖面图,其中,4、3个水井编号,5、3个水井的水位坡降线,6、3个水井之间距离Lp L2。 [0042] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional elevation views of different three wells Reservoir underground water level, wherein the distance between Lp L2, wells numbered 4, 3, 5, 3 wells water gradient lines, 6,3 wells.

[0043] 图3为地下水库溢流坝与水库纵剖面图,其中,7、地面标高,8、预留地面荷载持力层厚度h1;9、坝顶溢流断面高h2,10、地下水库坝体,11、地下水库丰水期最高洪水位标高线,12、地下水库正常水位标高线。 [0043] FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section of underground reservoir overflow dam reservoir and FIG, wherein, 7, ground elevation, 8 reserved ground load forces holding the layer thickness h1; 9, high crest overflow section h2,10, underground reservoir dam, 11, wet period underground reservoir highest flood level elevation line, 12 underground reservoir normal water level elevation line.

[0044] 图4为水位与水库蓄水量关系曲线图。 [0044] FIG. 4 is a water reservoir levels and the relationship graph.

[0045] 图5为坝体钢筋砼桩与素砼桩布置平面图,其中,13、为钢筋砼桩,14、素砼桩。 [0045] FIG. 5 is a dam disposed Plain Concrete Reinforced Concrete pile and pile plan, wherein, 13, reinforced concrete piles, 14, plain concrete pile.

[0046] 图6为地下水库库区防渗钢筋砼桩与深层搅拌桩平面图,其中,15、深层搅拌桩。 [0046] FIG. 6 is RESERVOIR impermeable reinforced concrete pile and pile deep underground reservoirs stirred plan, wherein, 15, deep pile.

[0047] 图7为库区钢筋砼桩与高压水泥浆旋喷桩平面图,其中,16、高压水泥浆旋喷桩。 [0047] FIG. 7 is RESERVOIR reinforced concrete piles with a high pressure water jet grouting slurry pile plan view, wherein, 16, high-pressure water jet grouting slurry pile.

[0048] 图8为地下水库库区纵剖面图,其中,“0-0”为地下水库控制水位设计标高,长度为L0,“aa”、“bb”、“cc”和“d_d”为水库水位等高线,长度分别为U、L2、L3和L4。 [0048] FIG. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view of the reservoir area of ​​underground reservoir, wherein the "0-0" to control the water level underground reservoir design elevation, the length L0, "aa", "bb", "cc" and "D_D" is RESERVOIR water contours, lengths of U, L2, L3 and L4.

[0049] 图9为图8的AA横断面面积图。 [0049] FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional area AA of FIG. 8.

[0050] 图10为图8的BB横断面面积图。 [0050] FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional area BB in FIG. 8 to FIG.

[0051] 图11为图8的CC横断面面积图。 [0051] FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional area CC of FIG. 8.

[0052] 图12为地下含水岩土层含水量模拟计量器剖面图,其中,17、计量器砂样槽,18、活动隔水板,19、钢网渗漏板,20、集水桶。 [0052] FIG. 12 is a sectional view of the water content of the aqueous analog meter geotechnical ground layer, which, 17, meter sand sample tank 18, the movable plate impermeable, 19, leakage of steel plate, 20, collecting bucket.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0053] 发明人出于职业的责任感与兴趣,从上世纪八十年代初期,就开始对地下古河道、古冲沟构筑地下水库的研究,对地下古河道古冲沟河床地质、地形及其含水层的特点与水源的补给条件,对地下各种不同含水岩土层的防渗方法,地下水坝的类型选择,坝高与坝顶溢流断面标高的设计,以及对地下水库的回灌补水,提高水库供水的持续性等问题,都进行了针对性的研究与实验。 [0053] The inventors sense of duty and interest career, from the early eighties of the last century, began to study the underground reservoir to build underground ancient river, the ancient gullies, ancient underground river gullies ancient riverbed geology, topography and characteristics of the supply water aquifer conditions, on underground impermeable geotechnical various aqueous layers, select the type of underground dams, dam crest overflow cross-sectional elevation of the design, and the replenishment of the recharge of the underground reservoir to improve the sustainability of water supply and other issues, we have carried out targeted research and experiments.

[0054] 经过多年的研究与实验,从理论到具体对工程的勘察、设计、施工,以及对地下含水岩土层含水量的分离方法等技术难关,已全面的创出一套可行的方法。 [0054] After years of research and experiment, from theory to specific survey for engineering, design, construction, and underground water separation methods of rock and soil layer moisture content and other technical difficulties, we have been fully create a set of feasible method. 同时在研究与实验过程中,感到地下水库工程与地面水利工程建设,虽然它们是两种不同理论,开发条件与利用水源方式不同,但它们的建设程序、要求与目的是一致的,彼此都是为了解决人类的用水问题,可说是“殊途同归”。 While research and experiment, feel underground reservoir engineering and water conservancy construction ground, although they are two different theories, development conditions and utilization of water resources in different ways, but their construction procedures, requirements and the purpose is the same, are each other in order to solve human problems with water, it can be said to be "the same thing." 因此笔者对水利工程建设,以及水利学这门学科,从中悟出了一个新的内涵,认为建设地下水库,从理论上应称为“地下水利学”,地面水利工程,应称为“地面水利学”。 Therefore, the author of the water conservancy construction, water conservancy and learn discipline, realize from a new meaning, that the construction of underground reservoirs, in theory, should be called "underground hydraulics", ground water conservancy projects, should be called "Ground Water Resources learn". 水利学是总称,包含有“地面水利学”与“地下水利学”两门不同的学科。 Hydraulics is the general term, includes two different disciplines, "Ground Water Conservancy" and "underground hydraulics." 从而在理论上给地下水库创出了一个名份与地位。 So in theory underground reservoirs to create a higher status and position.

[0055] 下面结合具体实施例对本发明的技术方案做进一步说明。 [0055] The following specific embodiments described in conjunction with further aspect of the present invention.

[0056] 本发明所述的在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法,具体设计和实施按照如下步骤进行: [0056] The method of constructing an underground reservoir in a subterranean ancient river old gully according to the present invention, the specific design and implementation of steps as follows:

[0057] 1、地下古河道、古冲沟地层与地下水的特征 [0057] wherein 1, underground ancient river, old gully formation and groundwater

[0058] (I)地貌单元[0059] 地下古河道、古冲沟地层,属于河流堆积地貌的冲积平原与河口三角洲单元。 [0058] (I) geomorphic units [0059] underground ancient river, the ancient gully formation, belonging to the alluvial plain of the river estuary unit accumulation landforms.

[0060] (2)地层的成因 (2) Causes of formation [0060]

[0061] 由于河流堆积地貌的冲积平原与河口三角洲时期,受到河流中上游水流的作用,大量的砂、砾石等物质把河谷低丘陵、低洼地或前期形成的小河沟掩盖,成为暗浜或暗沟,称为地下古河道或古冲沟。 [0061] As the alluvial plains and river deltas during the river accumulation landform, by the action of the river upstream of the water flow, a lot of sand, gravel and other substances to a small brook valley low hills, lying or pre-formed cover up, become hidden creek or underground drain , known as the ancient underground rivers or ancient gullies. 这些古河道或古冲沟的冲积物均为第四纪冲积地层。 These ancient rivers or gullies of ancient Quaternary alluvial deposits are alluvial formations.

[0062] (3)地下水的特点 [0062] (3) Characteristics of groundwater

[0063] 古河道或古冲沟中的第四纪冲积层,从地面自上而下,岩土层分布依序,多见为粉质粘土、粉土、粉沙、砂、砾石等。 [0063] ancient ancient rivers or gullies in the Quaternary alluvium from the ground from top to bottom, the distribution of rock layers in sequence, more common silty clay, silt, silt, sand, gravel and so on. 但有的河段地面被一层透水性较差的粘性土硬壳层所覆盖,以下的各含水层成为地下水的渗透通道。 However, some reach the ground is covered with a layer of poorly permeable hard cohesive soil layer, the following aqueous layer becomes groundwater permeate channel. 地下水源主要由上游水源与周边大气雨水补给。 Main supply of groundwater and the surrounding atmosphere rain water upstream. 水源比较丰富,地下水位受到季节的影响较大。 Rich water, groundwater level greater impact by season.

[0064] 2、对地下古河道、古冲沟的勘察 [0064] 2, survey of underground ancient river, the ancient gullies

[0065] 地下古河道、古冲沟的形成较复杂,地层亦较复杂,而且它们均深藏于地下,从地面很难看出它们的具体位置、走向、长度、以及其含水层厚度等。 [0065] underground ancient river, to form a more complex ancient gullies, Yijiao complex formation, and they are buried in the earth, is difficult to see their specific location, direction, length, and thickness thereof aquifer from the ground. 对这些条件的了解,对构筑地下水库很重要。 Understanding these conditions, it is important to build an underground reservoir.

[0066] (A)对地下古河道、古冲沟潜水通道勘察 [0066] (A) underground ancient river, channel old gully diving INVESTIGATION

[0067] 当今我国勘察的主要方法有: [0067] the main method of our survey are:

[0068] (I)从国家区域地质构造图与水文地质图上可找到地下古河道、古冲沟的有关资料。 [0068] (I) from the national to regional geology map and hydrogeological map information can be found ancient underground river, ancient gullies. 如地名、地层、成因、走向、长度、地下含水层厚度,以及地下标闻与地面标闻等。 The names, formation, genesis, direction, length, thickness of aquifers, the ground and underground labeled standard smell like smell.

[0069] (2)遥感卫星勘察资料的应用。 [0069] (2) the application of satellite remote sensing survey data. 遥感卫星勘察是近代较先进的勘察技术,对地下古河道、古冲沟潜水通道走向、长度、含水层厚度等勘察效果都很好。 Remote sensing satellite reconnaissance survey is a more advanced modern technology, underground ancient river, channel Investigate old gully to dive, length, thickness and the like are good aquifer. 可在地矿、石油、交通、水电、以及国土等科研、设计部门找到有关资料。 You can find information on mining, petroleum, transportation, electricity, water, and land and other research and design department.

[0070] (3)从前人现成的地下水井点探索解决。 [0070] (3) the former point man ready groundwater wells to explore solutions. 如图1所示,具体程序是: As shown in FIG. 1, the specific procedure is:

[0071] ①电测剖面勘探法。 [0071] ① measuring sectional prospecting method. 以水井点为中心,在水井的四个方向各布设数条电测剖面勘探线。 In the center point of wells, wells in each of four directions, measuring the number of pieces laid prospecting line profile. 当电测剖面一旦发现地下含水层互相连续成一小段延伸走向时,即逐步延伸与增加电测剖面勘探,继续追索它的走向、长度,一直追索至上游的支流发源地终点为止。 When measuring cross-sectional Once aquifer short continuous element extending towards each other, i.e., gradually increasing the electrical measurement cross-section extending exploration, recourse continue its direction, length, recourse has until the end of the upstream branch cradle.

[0072] ②电测深法勘探。 [0072] ② electrical sounding prospecting. 当电测剖面勘探测出古河道、古冲沟的地下潜水通道的走向、宽度、含水层厚度等初步资料后,再以电测深法来进行验证。 When measuring cross-sectional view illustrating the initial exploration data measured ancient river, underground water passage to ancient gullies, width, thickness of the aquifer, and then to electrical sounding method for authentication. 主要验证地下含水层的厚度与埋藏深度,以及含水层底部不透水岩土层面的标高。 Primary verified aquifer thickness and burial depth, and a bottom aqueous layer impermeable geotechnical level elevation.

[0073] (4)地质钻探是当今较准确,最直观常用的勘探方法。 [0073] (4) more accurate geological drilling today, the most common visual exploration methods. 用它对以上遥感卫星与电法勘探等几种勘探成果检验,主要是对地下潜水层厚度与含水层底部岩土层性质与透水性的鉴定,以及不透水层岩面标高等。 They used the above test results of remote sensing satellites and the exploration of several electrical prospecting, are primarily water permeable aquifer identification of layer thickness and geotechnical properties of the ground and the bottom aqueous layer, and the surface elevation impermeable layer of rock and the like.

[0074] (B)地下水源条件评估 [0074] (B) a source of groundwater condition evaluation

[0075] (I)在以上几种勘探取得大量成果基础上,还要进一步查明上游补给水源的类型,主要分为大气雨水与冰雪融水等。 [0075] (I) made a lot of achievements in several exploration on the basis of the above, but also to further identify the type of upstream supply of water, the atmosphere is divided into rain and snow melt water.

[0076] (2) 了解当地年降雨量与大气蒸发量等资料。 [0076] (2) understand the local annual rainfall and atmospheric evaporation and other information.

[0077] (3) 了解库内地下水位的变化情况。 [0077] (3) understand the changes in the interior of the water table. 如①丰水期最闻洪水位标闻;②枯水期最低水位标高及历时(月)正常水位标高及历时(月)。 ① smell like wet period most flood level mark smell; ② dry season the minimum water level elevation and duration (months) of normal water level elevation and duration (months). 为地下水库坝顶溢流断面与回灌补水的设计提供可靠的依据。 Crest overflow section and recharge for the replenishment of underground reservoirs designed to provide a reliable basis.

[0078] ①测出地下水库水力坡降及估算补给潜水流量。 [0078] ① measure the hydraulic gradient and estimates of underground reservoirs supply diving traffic. [0079] 在拟建地下水库的库内地段,钻探2-3个地下水井,每个水井之间有一定间距。 [0079] In the interior area of ​​the proposed underground reservoirs, underground drilling wells 2-3, there is a spacing between each of the wells. 然后测出各水井的水位标高。 Each well was then measured water level elevation. 最后绘制地下水库内的水力坡度图,如图2所示。 FIG groundwater hydraulic gradient drawn last compartment, as shown in FIG. 2.

[0080] 库区地下水力坡度计算,计算公式如下: [0080] Reservoir groundwater gradient force calculation formula is as follows:

[0081] [0081]

Figure CN103306236AD00101

[0082] 从上游入库区内的潜水流量计算公式,达西公式: [0082] The flow rate is calculated from the upstream storage region dive formula, Darcy formula:

[0083] [0083]

Figure CN103306236AD00102

[0084]式中: [0084] wherein:

[0085] h——地下水在渗流途径L长度上的水头损失(m) [0085] Groundwater h-- head loss in the flow pathway length L (m) of

[0086] L——地下水在渗流途径L长度(m) [0086] L-- groundwater seepage paths L length (m)

[0087] W——地下水渗流的过水横断面面积(m2) [0087] W-- over the water cross-sectional area of ​​the groundwater flow (m2)

[0088] K——渗透系数,反映各种岩土透水性能参数(米/日) [0088] K-- permeability, water permeability performance parameters reflecting various geotechnical (m / day)

[0089] ②计算地下水库最高洪水位的过水最大流量。 [0089] ② calculate the highest flood level underground reservoirs of water over the maximum flow.

[0090] 计出最高水位的过水横断面面积Ws(m2) [0090] The count of the maximum water level over the water cross-sectional area Ws (m2)

[0091 ] 最闻洪水流量为: [0091] The most smell flood flow:

[0092] [0092]

Figure CN103306236AD00103

[0093] ③计算地下水库正常水位(库内水位变化少,历时月数多)的过水流量Q常。 [0093] ③ underground reservoir of normal level (low level library change over several months poly) over the water flow rate Q constant. (Hi3) (Hi3)

[0094] 计出正常水位过水横断面面积W常。 [0094] over the normal water level gauge showing the water W constant cross-sectional area. Cm2) Cm2)

[0095] 正常水位的过水流量为: [0095] The normal water level over the water flow rate:

[0096] [0096]

Figure CN103306236AD00104

[0097] ④计算最低水位的过水流量Qis(m3) [0097] ④ calculate the minimum level of water flow through Qis (m3)

[0098] 最低水位的过水横断面面积为Wffi(m2) Over the water cross-sectional area of ​​the [0098] minimum water level is Wffi (m2)

[0099] 最低水位的过水流量为: [0099] had the lowest level of water flow:

[0100] [0100]

Figure CN103306236AD00105

[0101] (C)地下水库坝址基础的地质地形条件。 [0101] geological and topographical conditions of the dam base (C) subterranean reservoirs.

[0102] (I)选择较狭窄的“壶口”河段。 [0102] (I) selecting a narrow "spout" reach.

[0103] (2)地下河床底部为不透水岩土层,两侧为对称的形状呈“U”字型。 [0103] (2) the bottom of the riverbed impermeable geotechnical ground layer, the shape is symmetrical on both sides of "U" shaped.

[0104] (3)坝体基础岩土层为完整较坚硬的,不透水性的岩土层。 [0104] (3) dam base layer is a complete geotechnical harder, water impermeable layer of rock and soil.

[0105] (D)地下水库库区地质、地形条件。 [0105] (D) Underground Reservoir Geology, terrain conditions.

[0106] (I)选择地下河道较宽阔且较长的,较平缓的,有较厚的含水层的地层。 [0106] (I) are wider and longer selected underground river, less steep, the aqueous layer with a thicker layer. 以保证地下水库有较大的蓄水容量。 In order to ensure underground reservoir has a larger storage capacity.

[0107] (2)库区内地下河床两侧分水岭标高要高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证水库建成蓄水后,库内水不能往库外泄漏。 Divide the interior sides of the bed level [0107] (2) Reservoir level control than the design elevation underground reservoir, to ensure the completion of the water reservoir, the water can not leak into the compartment outside the library.

[0108] (3)在喀斯特较发育地区,地下水库库区要尽量选择在喀斯特发育较弱,基岩较完整的河段,以防库水渗漏。 [0108] (3) is developed in the karst area, underground reservoir area to try to choose a weaker development in karst bedrock more complete river to prevent the reservoir water leakage.

[0109] 3、对地下古河道、古冲沟、地下水库坝体设计 [0109] 3, the ancient underground river, ancient gullies, underground reservoir dam design

[0110] A、构筑地下水库的特殊条件与要求 [0110] A, special conditions and requirements of constructing underground reservoir

[0111] ①在地下古河道、古冲沟建筑地下水库,坝体深埋于地下,利用坝体拦截与围堵第四纪冲积层中的地下潜水,于是形成地下水库。 [0111] ① underground ancient river, ancient buildings gully underground reservoir, dam buried in the ground, using the containment dam to intercept Quaternary alluvium in underground water, thus forming underground reservoir.

[0112] ②地下水库建成后,水库中的水位变化,对地面不受影响,保证在库区的地面及周边原有的工业、农业、畜牧业、林业、以及房屋、道路等环境生态,不受影响,并能得到更好的保护与发展的要求。 [0112] ② after the completion of the underground reservoir, the water level in the reservoir changes, will not be affected on the ground, to ensure that the original ecological environment industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, as well as houses and roads in and around the reservoir area of ​​the ground, not affected, and can get better protection and development requirements.

[0113] ③当地下水库建成后,对水库蓄水量的利用与效益,能得到持续性的运作。 [0113] ③ the local building of the reservoir, the use and benefit of reservoir storage capacity, the sustainability of the operation can be obtained.

[0114] B、坝型的选择 [0114] B, type selection dam

[0115] 基于建坝所处的第四纪冲积物的地层特点与建筑地下水库的条件与要求特殊,在古河道、古冲沟地下地层建筑水库坝型的选择,宜采用“地下溢流坝”的坝体类型。 [0115] Based on the conditions and requirements which Quaternary alluvial dam formation characteristics and special building underground reservoirs, ancient river, reservoir construction old gully subterranean formation dam type selection, should adopt the "underground Spillway "the type of dam.

[0116] C、地下坝高与坝顶溢流断面的设计 [0116] Design of C, and underground dam crest overflow cross section

[0117] 要满足构筑地下水库的几点特殊条件,地下水库的坝高与坝顶溢流断面两项设计的方案是一道难关。 [0117] Some special conditions to be met to build an underground reservoir, dam crest overflow with two underground reservoir section design solution is a storm. 但是只要能弄清地下水的自然规律,就能制定出符合科学的设计方案。 But as long as the laws of nature can clarify groundwater, we will be able to develop designs in line with science.

[0118] 主要方法是: [01] The main method is:

[0119] ①、首先了解拟建地下水库库区内地面现有的工、农、林、牧、以及房屋、道路等各种行业活动总荷载对地面以下土层持力层承载力的要求进行评估。 [0119] ①, first understand the proposed underground reservoir area of ​​the existing ground reservoir engineering, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, as well as houses, roads and other industry events on the ground below the total load bearing layer of soil bearing capacity requirements evaluation. 初步确定从地面至地下水库坝顶过水溢流断面顶部之间的土层厚度(即预留满足地面荷载的土层厚度)。 Initially determined from the surface to underground reservoirs crest over the top soil layer of water between the overflow cross section (i.e., the ground soil thickness to meet the reserve load).

[0120] 然后测出地下水库库区内丰水期最高地下水位标高与正常水位标高(地下水位标高变化较小保持历时最长时间,以月数计)。 [0120] and then measure the reservoir area underground reservoir flood season water table elevation and highest elevation of the normal water level (water table elevation changes lasted less to maintain the maximum time in a few months).

[0121] ②、预留地面荷载持力层土层厚度的设计。 [0121] ②, reserved ground load bearing layers of soil thickness design.

[0122] 用最高地下水位标高作预留地面荷载持力层土层底板标高。 [0122] with the highest groundwater level reserved for holding ground load floor elevation soil stratum. 以确保在地下水库建成后,地下水库水位对库区地面及周边原有的环境生态,以及各种设施不受影响。 To ensure that after the completion of underground reservoirs, underground water reservoir on the reservoir floor and surrounding the original ecological environment, as well as various facilities will not be affected. 见图3所示的4。 3 shown in Figure 4.

[0123] ③、坝顶标高设计 [0123] ③, crest elevation design

[0124] 以正常水位标高为地下水库坝顶设计标高。 [0124] In normal water level elevation designed crest elevation of underground reservoir. 确保地下水库蓄水量的正常性与效益的持续性。 Ensure continuity of normal and effective storage capacity of underground reservoirs.

[0125] ④、坝顶溢流断面设计 [0125] ④, crest overflow section design

[0126] 以地下水库最高水位标高与正常水位标高之间的断面高为坝顶过水溢流断面。 [0126] In normal level and the highest water level elevation between the elevation of the underground reservoir section height over the water overflow crest section. 确保丰水期,最大过水流量能顺利地从坝顶溢流面通过,不会因洪水期水位上升,影响上部土层产生软化或下陷等现象。 To ensure that the wet period, the maximum flow smoothly over the water from the surface through the crest overflow, such as softening or no subsidence phenomenon due to the flood water level rises, affecting the upper soil layer. 如图3所示的h2。 h2 as shown in Fig.

[0127] D、地下溢流坝体的设计 [0127] design D, underground overflow dam body

[0128] ①、因地下古河道、古冲沟地下第四纪冲积物砂、砾、卵石层较松散,施工难度大,宜采用冲孔桩构建成地下连续墙防渗坝体。 [0128] ①, because underground ancient river, underground old gully Quaternary alluvial sand, gravel, gravel layer looser construction difficult, should be adopted punched piles constructed underground continuous wall impermeable dam.

[0129] ②、地下溢流坝主体结构为大直径钢筋砼排桩,桩之间互相紧贴。 [0129] ②, the underground structure of large diameter Spillway main discharge reinforced concrete piles, piles close to each other. 钢筋砼桩入岩为桩长的1/3桩长。 Reinforced concrete piles into the rock pile to pile length 1/3 length. [0130] ③、在钢筋砼排桩上游侧紧靠每两条钢筋砼桩之间的接触三角处位置增设一排小直径素砼桩,以御防钢筋砼桩之间渗漏水。 [0130] ③, in the upstream side of the row of piles of reinforced concrete in abutting contact at a location between each of the triangle two reinforced concrete piles adding a row of small diameter Plain Concrete piles, to guard against leakage of water between the reinforced concrete piles.

[0131] ④、利用冲孔桩机在施工过程中,冲锤上、上冲击造孔把孔壁周边岩土层挤实,提高岩土层密实度、内摩擦角以及变形模量等物理性力学指标,大大提高了对坝体的抗倾覆与抗剪等强度的特点,为坝体结构设计方案提供了更好、更省的依据与条件。 [0131] ④, by punching pile in the construction process, the hammer, the impact on the pore walls of rock and soil around the hole Compaction layer, to improve the physical properties of geotechnical layer density, angle of internal friction and deformation modulus mechanical index, greatly improving the strength characteristics of the anti-dam of overturning and shear, to provide a better design for the dam structure, according to the conditions of more provinces.

[0132] 要获得坝体(桩基)施工前后岩土层密实度、内摩擦角以及变形模量等物理性力学指标两个变化不同的数据,可通过桩体施工前后对桩体周边两侧岩土层进行两次动力触探检测,即可获得两个不同的数据。 [0132] To get the dam (pile) geotechnical construction front layer density, angle of internal friction and deformation modulus change of physical and mechanical indexes two different data can be both before and after the periphery of the pile of pile construction Geotechnical dynamic sounding layer is detected twice, to obtain two different data.

[0133] ⑤、坝体是由冲孔钢筋砼排桩连结组成的地下坝体,坝体的上、下游两个侧面,从坝顶至坝脚已形成垂直线,不需再做直线或拆线形状设计,如图2所示。 [0133] ⑤, reinforced concrete dam by punching link row pile underground dam, the dam downstream of the two side surfaces consisting of, a vertical line has been formed from the dam crest to the feet, straight or do not need to dismantle line shape design, as shown in FIG.

[0134] ⑥、由于地下水库坝顶上、下游溢流段标高相差较小,含水层过水渗流速度较慢,对坝后冲刷力较小,因此对坝顶与坝后,不需做成曲线形状设计,如图3所示。 [0134] ⑥, since the upper crest underground reservoir, a downstream overflow section elevation difference is small, the water flow through the aquifer slow erosion of the dam force is small, and so the dam crest, made without the design curve shape, as shown in FIG.

[0135] 4、地下水库库区防渗坝体设计 [0135] 4, underground reservoir dam design Seepage Control

[0136] 地下水库库区河床两岸地下分水岭标高要高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证地下水库建成蓄水后,库区水不能往库外泄漏。 [0136] Reservoir riverbed underground reservoirs on both sides of the underground watershed elevation higher than the elevation of groundwater reservoirs control the water level design to ensure that the underground reservoir impounding water reservoir can not leak to the outside of the refrigerator. 对于库区局部河段地下分水岭标高低于地下水库控制水位标高的地段,一定要构筑地下防渗坝,称为地下水库库区防渗坝。 For local river watershed underground reservoir underground reservoir level is below water level control elevation of the lot, we must build underground seepage dam, called Underground Reservoir dam seepage. 库区防渗坝体,由钢筋砼排桩与防渗排桩组成。 Impermeable dam reservoir area, a row of reinforced concrete pile and pile row impermeable composition.

[0137] A、钢筋砼排桩的设计 [0137] A, the design of reinforced concrete pile row

[0138] 基于考虑到处在较低地下分水岭地段构筑防渗坝,坝体会受到地下水库内水的侧压力影响,因此防渗坝体需使用抗滑与抗倾覆的钢筋砼桩为主体结构。 [0138] Based on consideration of seepage everywhere to build the dam in the lower underground watershed area, the dam will be side effects of groundwater library water pressure, so the seepage of the dam need to use anti-skid and overturn reinforced concrete piles for the main structure.

[0139] 钢筋砼排桩,桩之间互相紧贴,桩径Φ800-1000πιπι,桩端入岩层或地下不透水粘土层中1/3桩长。 [0139] Reinforced concrete piles row, each close contact between the pile, the pile diameter Φ800-1000πιπι, the pile tip or underground impermeable clay strata 1/3 pile length. 桩顶高度大于地下水库有效控制水位设计标高2.0-3.0m,钢筋配制按设计 The pile height is greater than the effective control of water underground reservoir design elevation 2.0-3.0m, steel formulated in the design

需要确定。 You need to determine.

[0140] B、防渗排桩的设计 [0140] B, row pile impermeable Design

[0141] 防渗桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧,紧贴钢筋砼桩之间接触的三角处,以防止钢筋砼桩之间空隙漏水。 [0141] Reservoir impermeable inner pile row laid in reinforced concrete piles, the close contact between the triangular reinforced concrete piles, in order to prevent the leakage gap between the reinforced concrete piles. 防渗排桩有深层搅拌桩,高压水泥浆旋喷桩、素砼桩等。 There impermeable pile row deep mixing pile, high-pressure water jet grouting slurry pile, plain concrete pile. 根据不同的土层性质与不同的含水状态,选择不同的防渗固结方法。 Depending on the nature of the soil with a different water content, to select a different bonding methods impermeable.

[0142] ①、处于沙层、砂砾层。 [0142] ①, in sand, gravel. 当沙、砾石粒径较小,含泥质较少,另外含水量较小,而且地下水没有承压力现象等条件,防渗桩宜采用高压水泥浆旋喷固结排桩方法。 When sand, gravel, small particle size, containing less muddy, further, smaller water content, and there is no ground bearing pressure conditions such phenomena, the pile should be impermeable high pressure jet grouting slurry consolidation pile discharge method. 防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面。 Seepage laid row of piles in reinforced concrete pile cluster reservoir side. 防渗排桩与钢筋砼排桩互相平行,间距300mm,利用高压水泥浆旋喷桩的扩散,把钢筋砼排桩与水泥浆旋喷桩固结成一幅地下防渗墙坝体。 Pile and exhaust impermeable reinforced concrete pile rows parallel to each other, the pitch 300mm, high pressure water slurry by diffusion rotating pile, the pile of reinforced concrete grout discharge Churning Pile consolidated into a cutoff wall underground dam. 如图7所示。 As shown in FIG.

[0143] ②、在粉土层、粉质粘土层、淤泥层、杂填土层等混合软弱土层。 [0143] ②, powder soil, silty clay, silt layer, heteroaryl fill soil and the like mixed in soft soil. 防渗排桩宜采用两排深层搅拌桩固结方法。 Seepage row of piles consolidation method should adopt two rows of deep pile. 两排防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面,与钢筋砼排桩互相紧贴,防渗桩之间要求互相御接100mm,要求连续施工,桩端入不透水土层0.5-1.0m (或至基岩面上)。 Seepage pile rows two rows laid on reinforced concrete piles in the reservoir discharge side, and close contact with one row of piles of reinforced concrete, each connection requires Royal seepage between 100mm pile construction requiring continuous, water-impermeable soil layer into the pile tip 0.5 1.0m (or surface to bedrock). 桩顶高度大于地下水库控制水位设计标高2-3m。 The pile height is greater than the control level underground reservoir design elevation 2-3m. 如图6所示。 As shown in Figure 6.

[0144] ③、在粉土层、砂砾层,当地下水较丰富,但地下水没有承压性时,防渗桩则采用钻孔素砼灌注桩排桩施工方案。 [0144] ③, in the silt, gravel, when rich groundwater, groundwater but no pressure resistance, impermeable bored pile construction scheme is used Plain Concrete Pile row of piles. 素砼桩布设在钢筋砼桩的水库内侧面,紧贴钢筋砼排桩。 Plain Concrete piles laid within the reservoir reinforced concrete pile side, close to the row of piles of reinforced concrete. 桩端入地下不透水土层0.5—1.0m,桩长与钢筋砼排桩一致。 End of the pile into the ground soil impermeable 0.5-1.0m, the pile length is consistent with the row of piles of reinforced concrete. 如图5所示。 As shown in FIG.

[0145] ④、在细砂层、砂砾层、砾石层较厚,且粒径较大,地下水很丰富,具有很大的承压力,同时地下水库库内水侧压力较大时,防渗桩要采用冲孔桩素砼排桩方案。 [0145] ④, the layer of fine sand, gravel, the gravel layer is thick, and a larger particle size, the groundwater is very rich, has a great bearing pressure, water side pressure simultaneously large underground reservoir compartment, the pile seepage plain concrete piles to be used punching scheme row of piles. 防渗排桩要紧贴钢筋砼排桩。 Impermeable pile row to row against the reinforced concrete piles. 钢筋砼排桩施工在前,防渗排桩施工在后。 The front row of reinforced concrete piles, the pile row after seepage. 防渗排桩桩端入地下不透水土层0.5一1.0m,桩长与钢筋轮排桩长度相等。 Seepage discharge end pile into the ground soil impermeable a 0.5 1.0m, the pile length and pile reinforced Permuterm equal length. 如图5所不。 5 is not shown in FIG.

[0146] 5、地下水库坝体的稳定计算 [0146] 5. Calculation of stable underground reservoir dam

[0147] 在地下古冲沟、古河道地层构建地下水库对坝型的选择时,我们均选用“地下溢流坝”型。 [0147] In the ancient underground gullies, ancient river underground reservoir formation to build the dam on the type of choice when we are using the "underground spillway dam" type. 在地下水库库区防渗坝选用的“地下防渗坝”,虽然两种坝型不同,用途不同,但在坝的主体结构上是大同小异。 Underground Reservoir impermeable dam selection "underground impermeable dam", while both the dam different type, for different purposes, but the main structure is similar to the dam.

[0148] 由于以上两种坝型构筑条件要求特殊,地质条件复杂。 [0148] Since the above two conditions require a special type of dam constructed, complicated geological conditions. 在考虑坝体设计与施工方案时,已采用了相应的措施,对坝体的稳定已得到一定的增强作用,同时因地下水库工程规模较小,故对以上两种坝型的坝体稳定评估,可不需作坝体的倾覆验算,只作坝体的抗剪强 In considering the dam design and construction program, has adopted corresponding measures, the stability of the dam has been a certain degree of enhancement, while the underground reservoir project because a smaller scale, so the stability assessment of these two type of dam dam shear can without checking for overturning the dam, the dam only for strong

度验算。 Of checking.

[0149] 抗剪强度公式为: [0149] Shear Strength formula:

Figure CN103306236AD00131

[0151] K 一按抗剪强度计算的抗滑稳定安全系数(按表采用) [0151] K a stability safety coefficients are calculated shear strength (Table employed)

[0152] f 一坝体与坝基岩接触面的抗剪摩擦系数 [0152] Shear friction coefficient f a dam and foundation rock contact surface

[0153] Σ W—作用于坝体上全部荷载对滑动平面的法向分值(包括扬压力) [0153] Σ W- dam all loads acting on the sliding plane of the method value (including uplift pressure)

[0154] Σ P—作用于坝体上全部荷载对滑动平面的切向分值(包括扬压力KN) [0154] Σ P- all loads acting on the dam of the sliding plane tangential to the value (including the uplift pressure KN)

[0155] 6、地下水库坝体施工 [0155] 6, underground reservoir dam construction

[0156] ①、施工机械。 [0156] ①, construction machinery. 主要是采用冲孔桩机、旋挖桩机。 Mainly used punching pile driver, rotary drilling pile driver.

[0157] ②、钢筋砼桩先安排施工。 [0157] ②, to arrange the construction of reinforced concrete piles. 桩径一般800-1000mm,桩端嵌入岩基(或不透水岩土层),深度为桩长的1/3,桩的配筋按设计确定。 Generally 800-1000mm pile diameter, embedded rock pile end group (or geotechnical impermeable layer), a depth of 1/3 pile length, the pile reinforcement is determined according to the design.

[0158] ③、在桩身施工造孔时容易塌孔,要注意加入适量粘土、水泥,或采用护筒施钻。 [0158] ③, building construction Kongshi Rong pile hole collapse easily, to be noted that adding an appropriate amount of clay, cement, or using casing drilling application.

[0159] ④、钢筋砼桩顶标高按设计确定预留负桩长度。 [0159] ④, the top of the pile of reinforced concrete according to the design elevation specifying reservation negative pile length.

[0160] ⑤、坝体素砼桩,在钢筋砼排桩完成施工后一个星期施工。 [0160] ⑤, dam plain concrete piles, pile row after the completion of construction of one week in reinforced concrete construction. 素砼排桩布设在钢筋砼排桩上游侧面,素砼桩位紧贴钢筋砼桩两桩之间的接触三角处。 Plain Concrete pile row laid row of piles in reinforced concrete upstream side, plain concrete pile close contacts between the two triangular reinforced concrete piles. 桩径Φ600-800πιπι。 Pile diameter Φ600-800πιπι. 桩端入岩基0.5m,砼强度C15-C20。 Into the rock foundation pile tip 0.5m, concrete strength C15-C20. 如图5所示。 As shown in FIG.

[0161] 7、地下水库库区防渗坝的施工 [0161] 7, impervious dam underground Reservoir Construction

[0162] 库区防渗坝体,由钢筋砼排桩与防渗排桩组成。 [0162] impermeable dam reservoir area, a row of reinforced concrete pile and pile row impermeable composition.

[0163] (I)钢筋砼排桩的施工 [0163] Construction (I) of the reinforced concrete pile row

[0164] ①、钢筋砼排桩安排在防渗排桩施工之前进行。 [0164] ①, reinforced concrete piles arranged in rows before the construction of impervious row of piles.

[0165] ②、钢筋砼桩之间互相紧贴布设。 [0165] ②, laid close to each other between a reinforced concrete pile.

[0166] ③、根据库区地下分水领土层性质与地下水状态而选择适合施工条件的桩机,如钻孔粧机、冲孔粧机、旋挖粧机等。 [0166] ③, according to the nature of the ground state territory layer trap underground reservoir area is selected for pile construction conditions, such as makeup drilling machine, punching machine makeup, makeup rotary drilling machines.

[0167] ④、钢筋砼桩直径Φ800-1000πιπι,桩端入地下不透水土层深为桩长的1/3,入基岩层中0.5m,砼强度为C20-C25。 [0167] ④, Φ800-1000πιπι diameter reinforced concrete piles, water impermeable end into the ground soil deep pile length 1/3, the group formation 0.5m, concrete strength of C20-C25.

[0168] ⑤、钢筋笼配筋按设计要求定,桩长按设计标高确定。 [0168] ⑤, steel cage reinforcement according to design requirements may be, the pile length is determined according to the design elevation.

[0169] (2)防渗排桩的施工 [0169] (2) rows of pile seepage control

[0170] 库区防渗排桩根据不同的土层性质与不同的含水状态,选择不同的防渗固结方法。 [0170] Reservoir impermeable row piles depending on the soil properties and different water content, to select a different bonding methods impermeable.

[0171] 根据以上第4条B设计,防渗固结方法有高压水泥浆旋喷桩,深层搅拌桩、钻孔素砼灌注桩与冲孔素砼灌注桩等4种。 [0171] According to the above design article 4 B, seepage consolidation method of the high-pressure jet grouting slurry piles, deep mixing pile, four kinds of plain concrete pile bored with plain concrete pile punching and the like. 有关施工方面,在设计上,已有说明,这里不需多赘。 Construction-related aspects in the design, there are instructions here do not need more than superfluous.

[0172] 8、地下水库蓄水量的计算方法 [0172] 8. A method of calculating an amount of water underground reservoir

[0173] A、测绘地下水库纵剖面图 [0173] A, a longitudinal sectional view mapping underground reservoir

[0174] ①、首先从坝址至水库尾,进行河床地质钻探,并绘制成地下水库纵剖面图。 [0174] ①, from the dam to the first end of the reservoir, a geological drilling bed, and a longitudinal sectional view drawn into the underground reservoir. 如图8所示。 As shown in FIG. 然后根据库区地下河床地形不同标高点,绘制与计算出几个横断面面积。 Then depending on the terrain elevation points bed underground reservoir area, drawing and several cross-sectional area is calculated. 如AA、BB、CC的横断面图,分别为图9、图10和图11。 Such as AA, BB, CC of the cross-sectional view, respectively, of FIG. 9, FIG 10 and FIG 11.

[0175] ②、算出坝体至水库尾各个不同水位等高线(U、L1, L3、L4)的长度,以及其平均长度(L〒)。 [0175] ②, calculating the end dam to various water reservoirs contour (U, L1, L3, L4) of the length, and the average length (L〒). 如图8所示。 As shown in FIG.

[0176] B、计算地下水库含水岩土层体积 [0176] B, calculates the volume of the aqueous layer geotechnical underground reservoir

[0177] ①、计出地下水库水位0-a、a_b、b_c、c_d之间含水岩土层的体积 [0177] ①, an underground reservoir water level meter 0-a, the volume of the aqueous layer between geotechnical a_b, b_c, c_d

[0178] [0178]

Figure CN103306236AD00141

[0180] ②、计出地下水库含水岩土层体积(V总沙) [0180] ②, count the aqueous layer geotechnical underground reservoir volume (V total sand)

[0181] (V 总沙)=Vi 沙+乂2 沙+乂3 沙+乂4 沙(4) [0181] (V overall sediment) = Vi + qe 2 Sand Sand Sand + 3 + qe qe sand 4 (4)

[0182] C、计算地下水库蓄水量 [0182] C, calculates the amount of water underground reservoir

[0183] 计算公式: [0183] formula:

[0184] V总水=V总沙XV平水 [0184] V = V total water level of water of the total sand XV

[0185]式中: [0185] wherein:

[0186] V总水-地下水库蓄水总量(m3) [0186] V total water - Underground Reservoir amount (m3)

[0187] V总沙——地下水库含水层总体积(m3) [0187] V Total sand - the total volume of the aqueous layer underground reservoir (m3)

[0188] νψ7Κ——综合多层含水层平均每立方米分离出水量的平均值(ν〒#) (m3) [0188] νψ7Κ-- multilayer integrated average separated aqueous layer was an average value of the amount of water per cubic meter (ν〒 #) (m3)

[0189] D、地下含水层含水量的分离方法 [0189] The method of separation D, aquifer water content

[0190] 本文所说的地下水库,是在地下含水层中建筑地下水库,准确的说应称为“地下含水层库”。 [0190] As referred to herein underground reservoirs, underground aquifers are building underground reservoirs, to be exact should be called "underground aquifers library." 地下水库的蓄水量,指的是从地下含水层中所含的水量(m3)。 Underground reservoir storage capacity, the amount of water contained in the finger from an underground aquifer (m3).

[0191] 地下水库的含水层,是由多种不同岩土层组成的混合地层。 The aqueous layer was [0191] subterranean reservoir, the formation of a mixture of a plurality of different layers of rock and soil. 因每层含水层的岩性、颗粒直径大小、级配、密度等条件的不同,含水量都有很大的差异。 Due to the different conditions of each lithology aqueous layer, the particle diameter size, gradation, density, moisture content are very different.

[0192] 对于地下含水层的含水量分离研究,多年来人们创造了几种方法: [0192] For the Separation of aquifer water content, over the years it has created several ways:

[0193] (I)、样简烘干法; [0193] (I), simple sample drying method;

[0194] (2)、离心机分离法; [0194] (2), a centrifuge separation method;

[0195] ( 3 )、笔者推荐采用模拟计量法。 [0195] (3), I recommend analog measurement method.

[0196] 模拟计量法的测验程序: [0196] Test Method analog measurement procedures:

[0197] ①、首先通过地质钻探资料弄清拟建地下水库控制水位设计标高以下有多少层含水层,每层含水层的岩土性质,及其分布层序,土层结构颗粒直径、密度、每层土厚度等要素。 [0197] ①, first proposed by geological drilling underground reservoir control data to ascertain the design elevation of the level of the aqueous layer number of layers each of geotechnical properties of the aqueous layer, and the sequence distribution, the particle diameter of the soil structure, density, each element of soil thickness.

[0198] ②、模拟计量器的制作。 [0198] ②, making the analog meter. 计量器可制成长方体,其体积V=abc, a=长度,b=宽度,C=高度。 The meter can be made a rectangular parallelepiped, the volume V = abc, a = length, b = width, C = height. 制作计量器内空体积2.0-3.0 (m3)。 The empty volume meter produced 2.0-3.0 (m3). 板料可用木板或铁皮。 Sheet wood or metal can be used. 在计量器另一端为排泄水钢网板,在钢网板之前紧贴一块活动防渗水板。 At the other end of the drain water gauge steel plate, water seepage activity against a stencil plate before plate. 防渗板后为集水槽,集水槽底部设一个可开、闭的排水管孔。 After the plate is impermeable sump, a set of openable bottom of the tank is provided, the drain hole closed.

[0199] ③、计量器制作完成后,然后按地下水库的水力坡度的比例安放计量器的倾斜坡度。 After [0199] ③, meter finished, then, to the underground reservoir hydraulic gradient meter mounted inclined slope. 计量器的排水端朝向倾斜坡脚,令其近似于河床地下水的自然坡度渗流态势。 Discharge ends inclined towards the foot of the gauge, so that it approximates the natural slope of the bed flow situation groundwater.

[0200] ④、采样机械,可选用旋挖桩机的挖斗钻头施工。 [0200] ④, mechanical sampling, the choice of the bucket auger drill pile construction. 挖斗直径Φ1.0-2.0 (m)。 Bucket diameter Φ1.0-2.0 (m). 或采用人工挖孔桩施工方法采样。 Or the use of hand-dug pile construction method of sampling.

[0201] ⑤、采样与测验层序,从上而下,分层采样与测验,试验成果记录要层序分清,不得混乱。 [0201] ⑤, sampling and test sequence, from the top down, stratified sampling and test, test results recorded sequence to distinguish, not chaos.

[0202] ⑥、把试样(地下含水层)装进计量器后,先把试样表面铺平整,然后就地利用水源,注入计量器中。 [0202] ⑥, after the sample (aquifer) loaded into the meter, first laid flat sample surface, and then using in situ water injected into the metering vessel. 当试样表面水位稳定呈饱和状态后,即测出计量器含水层在饱和状态下的体积V(m3)。 When the surface level of the sample was saturated stable, i.e., the aqueous layer was measured at meter saturation volume V (m3). 最后开启活动隔水板与集水槽底部的排水管孔,待计量器中水排干后,算出计量器中分离出水的体积V# (m3),即为每立方米饱和含水岩土层的含水量体积V#(m3)。 Finally, opening drain hole activity impermeable bottom plate collector sink, after the meter to be drained, the water separated in the meter calculates a volume V # (m3), is, per cubic meter of saturated aqueous geotechnical containing layer volume of the water V # (m3).

[0203] ⑦、最后算出综合多层含水层平均每立方米分离出水量的平均值 [0203] ⑦, the Composite multilayer aqueous layer was separated water per cubic meter of final calculated

[0204] E、对地下含水层含水量几种分离成果的评价。 [0204] E, the separation results of the evaluation of several underground aquifer water content.

[0205] 从以上三种分离方法所得的V#值对比来看,烘干法比离心机分离法大,模拟计量法最小。 [0205] From the above three values ​​V # Comparative obtained separation process point of view, the drying method is larger than the centrifuge method, the minimum analog measurement method. 即烘干法>离心机分离法>摸拟计量法。 I.e. drying method> centrifuge method> Measurement method simulates.

[0206] 虽然烘干法与离心机分离法分离出的水量V#值较大。 [0206] While the method of drying the separated water V # centrifuge separation value is larger. 凡经过烘干法与离心机法分离过的含水层,已变成松·散的干沙、干土。 Everyone who passes through the separation of the centrifuge method and drying method aquifer, has become a loose-loose dry sand, dry soil. 但从当今现实对地下含水层抽水的手段与设备来看,主要是采用地下大口径水井与机钻小口径水井,用水泵抽水的手段与设备,对饱和含水层每立方米能吸取的水量,亦远远达不到烘干法与离心机从每立方米饱和含水层中分离出的水量。 But today's reality means and equipment for underground aquifer pumping of view, mainly the use of large-diameter underground wells and small-caliber machine drilling water wells, water pumps pumping means and equipment, water saturated aquifer per cubic meter can be learned, also far less than the amount of water from the drying method per cubic meter of centrifuge separation the aqueous layer is saturated out. 但是,当水井抽水停止一定时间后,上游的潜水即慢慢从含水层中渗透流来补充,使含水层的含水量又获得恢复原状。 However, when the pumping wells stopped for a certain time, i.e., upstream of diving slowly permeate stream from the aqueous layer to supplement the water content of the aqueous layer obtained and restitution. 这种的变化过程,与模拟计量法的分离过程更近似于地下水渗流的自然状态。 This separation process of the change process, the analog measurement approach more akin to the natural state groundwater flow. 另外,模拟计量法的分离过程与分离出来的水量与效果,与目前利用水井抽水的效果近似,对于地下水库蓄水量的评估更具指导意义与实用意义。 In addition, the separation process analog measurement approach and separated the water and effect, and the effect of the current use of pumping wells approximation for assessing storage capacity of underground reservoirs more significance and practical significance.

[0207] F、地下水库蓄水量计算实例 [0207] F, underground reservoir storage capacity calculation example

[0208] ( I)以图8-图11为例 [0208] (I) in Example 8-11

[0209] 1、设坝体至水库尾各水位等高线长度为: [0209] 1, the end of the reservoir is provided to each water dam contour length:

[0210] “O”水位等高线长度Ltl = 1200m [0210] "O" level contour length Ltl = 1200m

[0211] “a”水位等高线长度L1 = 1050m [0211] "a" level contour length L1 = 1050m

[0212] “b”水位等高线长度L2 = 900m [0212] "b" level contour length L2 = 900m

[0213] “c”水位等高线长度L3 = 750m [0213] "c" level contour length L3 = 750m

[0214] “d”水位等高线长度L4 = 600m [0214] "d" level contour length L4 = 600m

[0215] 2、设地下水库几个横断面宽度为 [0215] 2, disposed cross section width of several underground reservoir

[0216] ①AA横断面如图9。 [0216] ①AA cross section in FIG. 9.

[0217] L' ο = 70m ;L,x = 60m ;L,2 = 53m ;L,3 = 40m ;L,4 = 20m [0217] L '= 70m ο; L, x = 60m; L, 2 = 53m; L, 3 = 40m; L, 4 = 20m

[0218] ②BB横断面如图10。 [0218] ②BB cross section 10 shown in FIG.

[0219] L' ◦ = 50m ;L,x = 40m ;L,2 = 36m ;L,3 = 32m ;L,4 = IOm [0219] L '◦ = 50m; L, x = 40m; L, 2 = 36m; L, 3 = 32m; L, 4 = IOm

[0220] ③CC横断面如图11。 [0220] ③CC cross section 11 shown in FIG. [0221] L,ο = 30m ;L,x = 20m ;L,2 = IOm [0221] L, ο = 30m; L, x = 20m; L, 2 = IOm

[0222] 3、设每级水位0—a、a一b、b一c、c一d之间的间距为2.0 (m)0 [0222] 3, provided each grade level 0-a, a a b, b c a, c between a pitch d of 2.0 (m) 0

[0223] 4、设模拟计量法综合多层含水层平均每立方米分离出水量平均值0.25(m3) [0223] 4, provided the analog integrated metrology Multiaquifer an average separation of water per cubic meter average 0.25 (m3)

[0224] (2)算出水位O —a、a一b、b一C、c一d之间含水层体积(V1沙、V2^Λ V3沙、V4沙)。 [0224] (2) was calculated level O -a, a a b, b a C, the volume of the aqueous layer between the c-d (V1 sand, V2 ^ Λ V3 sand, V4 sand).

[0225] ①、O— I之间含水层体积V1^ [0225] ①, O- I aquifer between the volume V1 ^

[0226] [0226]

Figure CN103306236AD00161

[0232] V1*= Wl¥ XLl¥= 90X 1125 = 101250 (m3) [0232] V1 * = Wl ¥ XLl ¥ = 90X 1125 = 101250 (m3)

[0233] ②、以同样的计算方法算出 [0233] ②, the same calculation method of calculating

^2沙、V3沙、V4沙。 ^ 2 sand, V3 sand, V4 sand.

[0234] V2沙=71175 Cm3) [0234] V2 Sediment = 71175 Cm3)

[0235] V3沙=47025 Cm3) [0235] V3 Sediment = 47025 Cm3)

[0236] V4沙=34425 Cm3) [0236] V4 Sediment = 34425 Cm3)

[0237] (3)地下水库含水层总体积为 [0237] (3) the total volume of the aqueous layer is an underground reservoir

[0238] V 总沙=Vi 沙+V2 沙+乂3 沙+乂4 沙 [0238] V = Vi Total Sand Sand Sand + V2 3 + qe Sediment Sediment 4 + qe

[0239] = 101250+71175+47025+34425 = 253875 Cm3) [0239] = 101250 + 71175 + 47025 + 34425 = 253875 Cm3)

[0240] (4)地下水库蓄水总量为: [0240] (4) the total amount of water underground reservoirs is:

[0241] V总水=V总沙父乂平水=253875X0.25 = 63469 Cm3) [0241] V = V total water level of water of the total sand parent qe = 253875X0.25 = 63469 Cm3)

[0242]其中: [0242] wherein:

[0243] V1 水=V# 父乂平水=101250X0.25 = 25312 Cm3) [0243] V1 = V # Parent water level of water qe = 101250X0.25 = 25312 Cm3)

[0244] 乂2水=V2沙父丫平水=71175X0.25 = 17794 (m3) [0244] 2 water qe = V2 sediment water level parent Ah = 71175X0.25 = 17794 (m3)

[0245] V3水=V3沙XV¥*= 47025X0.25 = 11756 (m3) [0245] V3 = V3 water and sediment XV ¥ * = 47025X0.25 = 11756 (m3)

[0246] 乂4水=V4沙父乂平水=34425X0.25 = 8606 Cm3)[0247] 9、对地下水库蓄水量的科学利用 [0246] 4 qe = V4 water level of water and sediment parent qe = 34425X0.25 = 8606 Cm3) [0247] 9, scientific utilization of the storage capacity of the underground reservoir

[0248] ①、绘制地下水库水位与蓄水量关系曲线图,如图4所示。 [0248] ①, draw water level and storage capacity graph of reservoir, as shown in FIG.

[0249] a、参见图8与步骤8的第(4)点。 [0249] a, see FIG. 8 and step (4) 8 points.

[0250] b、已知地下水库蓄水量为V总水=63469 Cm3) [0250] b, known as V underground reservoir storage capacity of the total water = 63469 Cm3)

[0251] 因地下水库蓄水量总量即为“O”水位标高水库蓄水总量。 [0251] due to the total amount of water is the total storage capacity of underground reservoir "O" level elevation reservoir.

[0252] 则各水位标高的水库蓄水量体积为: [0252] the elevation of the water level in each reservoir storage volume:

[0253] “O” = 63469 (m3) [0253] "O" = 63469 (m3)

[0254] “a”水位标高的水库蓄水量为: [0254] "a" reservoir storage water level is:

[0255] 63469 — V1*= 63469 — 25312 = 38157 (m3) [0255] 63469 - V1 * = 63469 - 25312 = 38157 (m3)

[0256] “b”水位标高的水库蓄水量为: [0256] "b" water reservoir storage level is:

[0257] 38157 — V2*= 38157-17794 = 20363 (m3) [0257] 38157 - V2 * = 38157-17794 = 20363 (m3)

[0258] “b”水位标高的水库蓄水量为: [0258] "b" water reservoir storage level is:

[0259] 20363 — V3*= 20363 — 11756 = 8607 (m3) [0259] 20363 - V3 * = 20363 - 11756 = 8607 (m3)

[0260] “d”水位标高的水库蓄水量为: [0260] "d" water level of reservoir levels are:

[0261] 8607—V4*= 8607 - 8607 = O [0261] 8607-V4 * = 8607 - 8607 = O

[0262] C、绘制水位与水库蓄水量关系曲线图 [0262] C, an amount of drawing water impoundment graph of

[0263] 用以下几个水位标高与其相关的水库蓄水量值绘制成《水位与水库蓄水量关系曲线图》 [0263] with the following values ​​Reservoir water level associated therewith plotted as "water reservoir storage and a graph"

[0264] “O” = 63469 (m3) [0264] "O" = 63469 (m3)

[0265] “a” = 38157 (m3) [0265] "a" = 38157 (m3)

[0266] “b” = 20363 (m3) [0266] "b" = 20363 (m3)

[0267] “c”= 8607 (m3) [0267] "c" = 8607 (m3)

[0268] “d” = 0.0 (m3) [0268] "d" = 0.0 (m3)

[0269] ②、以“水位与水库蓄水量曲线图”为用水抽水的指南与依据,实行计划、科学用 [0269] ②, the "water level and reservoir storage plot" for the water pumping guidelines and basis for the implementation plan, with science

水,克服盲目性。 Water, overcome blindness.

[0270] ③、在水库坝体上游侧设一口水位观测井,为水库中观测水位的永久观测井。 [0270] ③, provided in a side dam upstream of the reservoir water level observation wells, permanent observation well for observing water reservoir.

[0271] ④、每次抽水后,要增加测量水位次数,掌握水位恢复的周期与历时时间。 [0271] ④, after each pumping, the water level to increase the number of measurements, control the water level recovery cycle and elapsed time.

[0272] ⑤、当水位尚未恢复之前,严禁超量抽水,不准搞“揭泽而渔”的错误做法。 [0272] ⑤, when the water level has not been restored before, over-pumping is strictly prohibited, not allowed to engage in "exposing Ze and fishing" wrong practices.

[0273] ⑥、抽水前,先观测水位,了解水库现存水量情况。 [0273] ⑥, before pumping, the water level to observe, understand the situation existing water reservoirs. 然后按计划定时定量抽水。 Then according to plan regular meals pumping. 抽水后,要把抽水时间迄止与抽水前后水位、抽水量等要记录立档。 After pumping, the pumping time should stop until the water level before and after pumping, pumping amount of the file is to be recorded.

[0274] ⑦、水库有专人管理,抽水用电与机械设备专人负责。 [0274] ⑦, reservoir expert management, electrical and mechanical pumping devices specifically responsible.

[0275] 10、地下水库回灌补水措施 [0275] 10, recharge underground reservoir replenishment measures

[0276] 在枯水期,有的地下水库会出现最低水位历时较长时间,影响了水库用水运行的持续性。 [0276] In the dry season, there will be some minimum level underground reservoir which lasted a long time, affecting the continuity of running water reservoir. 因此,在建筑地下水库时,就应该同时考虑到构建回灌补水工程的事宜。 Therefore, when building underground reservoirs, it should also take into account the construction of issues recharge replenishment project.

[0277] A、回灌补水工程有以下几种方法: [0277] A, there are several ways to recharge replenishment project:

[0278] (I)在地下水库上游、支流建造集水柜、圹、库。 [0278] (I) in underground reservoirs upstream tributaries water tank construction set, Kuang, library. 然后将这些储水引入地下水库中。 These were then introduced into an underground storage reservoir.

[0279] 这部份水源均属地面水资源,流动于地下水库的上游地面。 [0279] This part of the ground water resources belong water flows in the upstream surface of underground reservoirs. 主要水源为: The main source of water is:

[0280] ①地下水库库区内与水库上游的地面集雨面积的雨水量; [0280] ① the amount of rainwater catchment area of ​​the surface region library with the upstream reservoir underground reservoir;

[0281] ②上游山上、高岭地表冰雪溶水;[0282] ③地表小泉涌水。 [0281] ② upstream mountain, snow kaolin surface water soluble; [0282] ③ surface Koizumi gushing.

[0283] (2)从库外挖渠引水。 [0283] (2) water from outside the library dig trenches. 把库外水源引来给地下水库回灌补水。 The water outside the library attracted to recharge replenishment of groundwater reservoirs.

[0284] (3)在库外打井引水回灌补水。 [0284] (3) water recharge wells outside-replenishment.

[0285] B、几种回灌补水工程的设计与施工 [0285] B, design and construction of several recharge replenishment project

[0286] ①以上的集水柜、圹、库工程,用引水渠道与地下水库连通。 [0286] ① water tank above the set, tomb, library projects, communicating with the diversion channel and ground water reservoir. 这些集水工程从地面开始往地下挖成长方体,深度大于顶宽,坑内回填粗砂与砾石,砂砾石层面比地面坑口低500-1000mm,然后在砂碌石层面上回填粘土层厚500-1000mm,粘土层经夯实后与坑口地面标高持平。 These catchment project from the ground began to dig into a rectangular deepened, the depth is greater than the top width, pit backfill sand and gravel, sand and gravel pit level lower than the ground 500-1000mm, then backfill sand busy on the level of clay stone thickness 500-1000mm , clay pit after compaction and ground level flat. 以减少水分蒸发与影响地面交通。 In order to reduce evaporation and influence of ground transportation. 但集水坑在回填粘土时,要留出补充水源流入集水坑的进水口。 However, when the sump clay backfill, leaving a supplemental source of water flows into the inlet of the sump.

[0287] ②从库外打井或引水渠道之地下坑渠道,亦要回填粗砂与砾石层,以及回填粘土层500-1000mm,夯实后与地面标高持平。 [0287] ② from wells outside the library or underground pit water diversion channels, but we also want to backfill sand and gravel, and clay backfill layer 500-1000mm, after compaction and ground level flat. 目的与作用,也是为了减少水分蒸发与影响地面交通。 The purpose and function, but also to reduce evaporation and effects of ground transportation.

[0288] 11、对地下水库的保护 [0288] 11, protection of underground reservoir

[0289] ①地下水库的勘测、设计、施工等原始资料,要立档长期保存。 [0289] ① survey, design and construction of underground reservoir of raw data to the file is long-term preservation.

[0290] ②在构筑地下水库的场地地面,要标出坝体、库区边沿、库尾等实地位置,并树牌宣示给予保护。 [0290] ② in building underground reservoirs of ground space, ground to mark the location of the dam, the edge of the reservoir area, Tail, etc., and tree card declared for protection.

[0291] ③严禁超过预留土层持力层允许承载力的各种大型道路与建筑物基础横跨库区地面。 [0291] ③ non-reserved basis over a variety of roads and building large-scale soil bearing layer allows the carrying capacity of the reservoir across the ground. 如没有选择余地,则采用桥梁跨越方式,从库区地面上空通过。 As no alternative embodiment is used across the bridge, over the reservoir area by the ground.

Claims (2)

  1. 1.在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤: (1)对地下古河道、古冲沟的勘察,具体勘察步骤如下: (A)勘察地下古河道古冲沟的地名、地层、成因、走向、长度、地下含水层厚度以及地下标闻与地面标闻; (B)评估地下水源条件,在步骤(A)的基础上,进一步查明上游补给水源的类型,了解当地年降雨量、大气蒸发量以及库内地下水位的变化情况,包括丰水期最高洪水位标高、枯水期最低水位标高及历时和正常水位标高及历时;测出地下水库水力坡降,估算补给潜水流量,计算地下水库最高洪水位的过水最大流量、地下水库正常水位的过水流量和最低水位的过水流量; (C)根据地下水库坝址基础的地质地形条件,选择较狭窄的壶口河段,地下河床底部为不透水岩土层,两侧为对称的形状呈“U”字型;坝体基础岩土层为完整坚硬 1. Underground Paleochannel old gully constructing a subterranean reservoir, characterized by comprising the steps of: (1) underground ancient river, old gully investigation, the specific steps are as follows investigation: (A) prospecting underground Paleochannel ancient gullies names, formation, genesis, direction, length, thickness, and underground aquifers and ground marked smell standard; (B) evaluation groundwater conditions, on the basis of the step (a), the further identification of the upstream water supply type, understand the local annual rainfall, evaporation and atmospheric changes in the water table of the library, including the highest flood level elevation wet period, the dry season duration and the lowest water level elevation and normal water level elevation and duration; measured hydraulic gradient of groundwater reservoirs, diving estimated supply flow, calculate the highest flood level underground reservoirs of water over the maximum flow rate, the normal water level underground reservoirs over the water flow and water level had the lowest water flow; (C) based on geological and topographical conditions of the underground reservoir dam foundation, choose a more narrow the spout of the river, underground river bed bottom is impermeable geotechnical layer, the shape is symmetrical on both sides of "U" shaped; dam base layer is a complete hard geotechnical 、不透水性的岩土层; (D)根据地下水库库区地质地形条件,选择地下河道较宽阔且较长的,较平缓的,有较厚的含水层的地层,以保证地下水库有较大的蓄水容量;库区内地下河床两侧分水岭标高高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证水库建成蓄水后,库内水不能往库外泄漏;在喀斯特较发育地区,地下水库库区选择在喀斯特发育较弱,基岩较完整的河段,以防库水渗漏; (2)设计地下水库坝体,具体步骤如下: (A)坝型的选择,采用地下溢流坝的坝体类型; (B)设计地下坝高与坝顶溢流断面,具体方法如下: ①、首先对拟建地下水库库·区内地面现有的工、农、林、牧以及房屋和道路各种行业的活动总荷载对地面以下土层持力层承载力的要求进行评估,初步确定从地面至地下水库坝顶过水溢流断面顶部之间的土层厚度,即预留满足地面荷载的土层厚度 , Water impermeable geotechnical layer; (D) according to the geological subsurface terrain Reservoir, select underground river are wider and longer, more gradual, with a thick stratum aqueous layer to ensure there is more underground reservoir large storage capacity; watershed on both sides of the river bed under the Mainland Gorges reservoir elevation above the underground water level control design elevation to ensure that after the reservoir impounding, water can not leak into the library outside the library; the more developed areas of karst, underground Reservoir karst development zone selection weak, more complete reach bedrock, to prevent water leakage library; (2) design of underground dam reservoirs, the following steps: (a) dam type selection, using underground weir dam type; (B) the design and underground dam crest overflow section, as follows: ①, first floor area of ​​the proposed library-existing underground reservoir engineering, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry as well as houses and roads in each trades activities total load on the bearing layer below the surface soil bearing capacity requirements be evaluated initially determined from the ground to the underground reservoir through the soil thickness between the crest of water overflowing the top section, i.e. the ground to meet the load reserved soil thickness ;然后测出地下水库库区内丰水期最闻地下水位标闻与正常水位标闻,地下水位标闻变化较小保持历时最长时间,以月数计; ②、预留地面荷载持力层土层厚度的设计,用最高地下水位标高作预留地面荷载持力层土层底板标高,以确保在地下水库建成后,地下水库水位对库区地面及周边原有的环境生态,以及各种设施不受影响; ③、坝顶标高设计,以正常水位标高为地下水库坝顶设计标高,确保地下水库蓄水量的正常性与效益的持续性; ④、坝顶溢流断面设计,以地下水库最高水位标高与正常水位标高之间的断面高为坝顶过水溢流断面,确保丰水期最大过水流量能顺利地从坝顶溢流面通过,不会因洪水期水位上升,影响上部土层产生软化或下陷等现象; (C)地下溢流坝体的设计,采用冲孔桩构建成地下连续墙防渗坝体,地下溢流坝主体结构为大直 ; Then measure the Underground Reservoir area wet season water table marked smell and hear the most normal water mark smell, the smell changes in the water table marked lasted less to maintain the maximum time in several months count; ②, set aside ground load holding force design of the thickness of the layer of soil, water table elevation as a reserve with the highest elevation of the ground floor load bearing layer of soil held to ensure that after the completion of underground reservoirs, underground water reservoir on the reservoir floor and surrounding the original ecological environment, as well as kinds of facilities will not be affected; ③, design crest elevation to the normal water level elevation of the underground reservoir design crest elevation, to ensure continuity of normal and effective storage capacity of underground reservoir; ④, crest overflow section designed to section elevation between the highest water level underground reservoir with a normal water level elevation is high crest over the water overflow section, too wet period to ensure maximum water flow smoothly from the surface through the crest overflow, the water level will not rise due to the flood, Effect of the upper soil subsidence phenomenon is generated to soften or the like; design (C) subterranean overflow dam body, punched piles constructed using underground continuous wall impermeable dam, underground main structure is large-Spillway 径钢筋砼排桩,桩之间互相紧贴,钢筋砼桩入岩为桩长的1/3桩长;在钢筋砼排桩上游侧紧靠每两条钢筋砼桩之间的接触三角处位置增设一排小直径素砼桩,以御防钢筋砼桩之间渗漏水;利用冲孔桩机在施工过程中,冲锤上、上冲击造孔把孔壁周边岩土层挤实,提高岩土层密实度、内摩擦角以及变形模量; (3)地下水库库区防渗坝体设计,地下水库库区河床两岸地下分水岭标高要高于地下水库控制水位设计标高,以保证地下水库建成蓄水后,库区水不能往库外泄漏;对于库区局部河段地下分水岭标高低于地下水库控制水位标高的地段,构筑地下水库库区防渗坝;库区防渗坝体,由钢筋砼排桩和防渗排桩组成;钢筋砼排桩的设计如下步骤(A),防渗排桩的设计如下步骤(B): (A)钢筋砼排桩的设计,钢筋砼排桩之间互相紧贴,桩径Φ800-1000πιπι,桩端入岩层或 Diameter reinforced concrete pile rows, the pile against each other, the reinforced concrete piles of rock pile length the pile length 1/3; contacting against the cam at a position between each of two reinforced concrete piles in reinforced concrete piles in the upstream row adding a row of small diameter concrete pile element to the reinforced concrete pile between defense against the leakage of water; pile by punching in the construction process, the hammer, the impact on the pore walls of rock and soil around the hole Compaction layer, to improve the Geotechnical layer density, angle of internal friction and deformation modulus; impermeable reservoir area (3) dam design underground reservoirs, underground reservoir area bed underground reservoir watershed elevation than both sides of the ground water reservoir for the design elevation, in order to ensure underground reservoir after the completion of water, the water reservoir area not leak to outside of the refrigerator; Reservoir for topical underground river watershed elevation below the elevation of the water level control underground reservoir area, impermeable dam constructed underground reservoir area; impermeable dam reservoir area by reinforced concrete pile row pile row and impermeable composition; reinforced concrete pile cluster design steps (a), seepage row pile design steps (B): (a) the design of reinforced concrete pile rows, the row of piles of reinforced concrete close contact between each other, the pile diameter Φ800-1000πιπι, or pile tip into the formation 下不透水粘土层中1/3桩长;桩顶高度大于地下水库有效控制水位设计标高2.0-3.0m ; (B)防渗排桩的设计,防渗桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧,紧贴钢筋砼桩之间接触的三角处,以防止钢筋砼桩之间空隙漏水; (4)地下水库坝体的稳定评估,通过计算坝体的抗剪强度进行验算; (5)按照步骤(2)的设计,对地下水库坝体进行施工,采用冲孔桩机或旋挖桩机为施工机械,先安排钢筋砼桩的施工,一个星期后安排坝体素砼桩的施工; (6)按照步骤(3)的设计,对地下水库库区防渗坝进行施工; (7)测绘地下水库纵剖面图,计算地下水库含水岩土层体积、地下水库蓄水量和地下含水层的平均分离水量; (8)对地下水库蓄水量的科学利用,绘制地下水库水位与蓄水量关系曲线图,以该曲线图为用水抽水的指南和依据,实行计划科学用水;在水库坝体上游侧设一口水位 The impermeable clay layer 1/3 pile length; pile height greater than the top-level design effectively control the underground reservoir elevation 2.0-3.0m; (B) impermeable pile cluster design, impermeable reinforced concrete pile row laid in piles inside the reservoir , the close contact between the triangular reinforced concrete piles, in order to prevent the leakage gap between the reinforced concrete pile; (4) stability assessment underground reservoir dam, checking performed by calculating the shear strength of the dam; (5) following the procedure of (2) designed for the construction of underground reservoir dam, using rotary drilling or punching pile of pile construction machine, to arrange the construction of reinforced concrete piles, a week after the construction of the dam arrangement plain concrete piles; (6 design) according to step (3), the seepage of underground reservoir dam in the construction; vertical sectional view (7) mapping underground reservoirs, underground reservoir in calculation of aqueous layer volume, the average volume of water and underground aquifers underground reservoir separating water; (8) for the scientific utilization of underground water storage reservoir, water level and storage capacity to draw a graph of underground reservoirs, pumping water to the curve of the graph and based on guidelines, a planned water SCIENCES; dam at the upstream reservoir side set up a level 测井,为水库中观测水位的永久观测井;抽水前,先观测水位,了解水库现存水量情况,然后按计划定时定量抽水;抽水后,把抽水时间迄止与抽水前后水位和抽水量记录立档;每次抽水后,要增加测量水位次数,掌握水位恢复的周期与历时时间;当水位尚未恢复之前,严禁超量抽水; (9)在枯水期,当地下水库出现最低水位历时较长时间时,进行地下水库回灌补水措施;补水措施如下: (A)在地下水库上游或支流建造集水柜、集水圹或集水库,然后将这些储水引入地下水库中; (B)从库外挖渠引水,把库外水源引给地下水库回灌补水; (C)在库外打井引水回灌补水。 Logging, as observed in a permanent reservoir water level observation wells; before pumping, the water level observed before, to understand the situation existing water reservoir and pumping schedule time quantitative; After pumping, the pumping stops and the time until the water level before and after pumping and the pumping amount of the recording Li file; after each pumping, the water level to increase the number of measurements, control the water level recovery cycle and elapsed time; when the water level has not been restored before, non-excessive pumping; the lowest level over a longer time (9) appear in the dry season, local lower reservoir , for replenishment measures recharge underground reservoir; replenishment measures are as follows: (A) upstream of the branch or underground reservoir water tank construction set, collection sump or reservoir tomb, which are then introduced into the reservoir underground reservoir; (B) from outside the library dig trenches water, the water outside the library primer to recharge replenishment underground reservoir; (C) water recharge wells outside-replenishment.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的在地下古河道古冲沟构筑地下水库的方法,其特征在于,步骤(3)所述的防渗排桩包括深层搅拌桩、高压水泥浆旋喷桩或素砼桩, ①、当坝体处于沙层或砂砾层,沙和砾石粒径较小,含泥质少,含水量小,地下水没有承压力现象时,防渗排桩宜采用高压水泥浆旋桩;防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面,防渗排桩与钢筋砼排桩互相平行,间距300mm,利用高压水泥浆旋喷桩的扩散,把钢筋砼排桩与水泥浆旋喷桩固结成一幅地下防渗墙坝体; ②、当坝体在粉土层、粉质粘土层、淤泥层或杂填土层时,防渗排桩采用深层搅拌桩,两排防渗排桩布设于钢筋砼排桩的水库内侧面,与钢筋砼排桩互相紧贴,防渗桩之间互相御接100mm,连续施工,桩端入不透水土层0.5-1.0m,桩顶高度大于地下水库控制水位设计标高2_3m ; ③、当坝体在粉土层或 2. The method of constructing an underground reservoir in a subterranean ancient river old gully according to claim 1, wherein the step (3) comprises a row of piles according impermeable deep mixing pile, high-pressure water jet grouting slurry or pile element concrete piles, ①, when the dam is sand or gravel, gravel sand, and small particle size, containing less muddy, small water content, there is no ground bearing pressure phenomenon, the pile should be high-pressure discharge impermeable grout rotating pile ; impermeable inner pile row laid on reinforced concrete piles reservoir discharge side, the row of piles of reinforced concrete seepage pile rows parallel to each other, the pitch 300mm, using a high pressure slurry diffusion rotating pile, the pile of reinforced concrete and grout discharge screw solid form an underground pile discharge cutoff wall dam; ②, when in the silt dam fill soil, silty clay, silt layer or heteroaryl, impermeable pile row deep mixing pile, two rows of seepage row of piles in reinforced concrete laid row of piles in the reservoir side, close to the row of piles of reinforced concrete and mutual Yu impermeable connection between 100mm pile, continuous construction, the pile tip 0.5-1.0M impermeable soil, the pile height greater than the control level underground reservoir design elevation 2_3m; ③, when the dam in the silt or 砾层,地下水较丰富,但地下水没有承压性时,防渗桩采用素砼桩,素砼桩布设在钢筋砼桩的水库内侧面,紧贴钢筋砼排桩,桩端入地下不透水土层0.5-1.0m,桩长与钢筋砼排桩一致; ④、当坝体在细砂层或砂砾层,砾石层较厚,且粒径较大,地下水很丰富,具有很大的承压力,同时地下水库库内水侧压力较大时,防渗桩采用素砼桩,防渗排桩要紧贴钢筋砼排桩,钢筋砼排桩施工在前,防渗排桩施工在后,防渗排桩桩端入地下不透水土层0.5-1.0m,桩长与钢筋轮排桩长度相等。 Gravel, groundwater rich, but when there is no pressure of the groundwater, seepage Plain Concrete piles using pile, plain concrete pile reinforced concrete laid within the reservoir pile side, close to the row of reinforced concrete piles, water-impermeable soil into the ground terminal 0.5-1.0M layer, the pile length and pile row RC consistent; ④, when the dam in a layer of fine sand or gravel layer, a gravel layer is thicker and larger particle size, the groundwater is very rich, has a great bearing pressure, when underground reservoir compartment while the water side pressure, seepage plain concrete piles using pile, the pile should be close to the discharge impermeable reinforced concrete pile row, reinforced concrete pile row forward, the pile row after seepage, seepage row impermeable soil pile into the ground terminal 0.5-1.0m, equal to the length of the pile and pile lengths of reinforced wheel row. ` `
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