CN103196762A - Experimental device and method for pulse hydrofracture transforming of shale gas storing layer - Google Patents

Experimental device and method for pulse hydrofracture transforming of shale gas storing layer Download PDF

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CN103196762A
CN103196762A CN2013101476877A CN201310147687A CN103196762A CN 103196762 A CN103196762 A CN 103196762A CN 2013101476877 A CN2013101476877 A CN 2013101476877A CN 201310147687 A CN201310147687 A CN 201310147687A CN 103196762 A CN103196762 A CN 103196762A
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pressure
pulse
valve
steel seat
holding unit
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CN2013101476877A
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CN103196762B (en
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陆朝晖
贺培
程礼军
刘俊峰
曾春林
张义
黄帅
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重庆地质矿产研究院
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Abstract

The invention relates to an experimental device and method for pulse hydrofracture transforming of a shale gas storing layer. The experimental device comprises a high pressure water pump, a fracturing fluid pond, a filtering device, a waterpower pulse generating device, a triaxial stress loading device, a pressure sensor, a sound emission device, a throttle valve, an overflow valve, a data collection recording system and a core test specimen. The device provided by the invention can simulate the operating environment of a shale sample under main operating parameter such as different pulse pressures and impulse frequencies on a certain confining pressure condition; moreover, the device can monitor a space-time developing rule of cracks and can test permeability change before and after fracture in real time; therefore, an experimental platform is provided for researching pulse hydrofracture of a shale gas storing layer. The experimental device provided by the invention has strong practicality, is easy to assemble, convenient to operate, is compact in structure, and can better imitate fracture damage and permeability change mechanism of a shale sample of the shale gas storing layer under the actions of static pressure and pulse hydrofracture.

Description

Experimental provision and the method for shale gas reservoir transformed in a kind of pulse waterfrac treatment

Technical field

The present invention relates under a kind of simulation Different Strata pressure environment, different pulse and the frequency, the pulse waterfrac treatment transform the experiment of shale reservoir and monitor the crack type in real time and development, mensuration rock core pressure break before and after experimental provision and the method for permeability.

Background technology

China's shale gas reserves are abundant, potentiality to be exploited is big, but the geologic condition complexity, bury deeply, are difficult for exploitation.Hydraulic fracturing technology is one of gordian technique of high efficiency, low cost exploitation shale gas, obtains also to exist when better using bottleneck problems such as the fracturing liquid consumption is big, capacity usage ratio is low, the volume fracturing effect is not obvious.The pulse waterfrac treatment is a kind of method of new transformation shale reservoir, can effectively use the pulse effects of waterpower and the correctional effect that the CYCLIC LOADING mode improves the shale gas reservoir.Since lack the comparatively scientific research of system, coherent pulse waterfrac treatment mechanism scarcity, and influence is difficult to quantize determine major parameter to fracturing effect, thereby has limited application and the development of this technology in gas reservoir transformation field.Therefore, set up the shale gas reservoir pulse waterfrac treatment experiment test system of science, fracture damage and the anatonosis mechanism of shale are significant to the R﹠D and promotion of this technology under the further investigation pulse hydraulic action.

Conventional waterfrac treatment mainly is to stablize fracturing rock under the high pump pressure, keeping certain pressure then, making fracture propagation.Using the pulse waterfrac treatment to transform the shale gas reservoir is a kind of new transformation reservoir method, adopts the pressure fracturing rock of certain pulsed frequency, can save water blanket, reduces energy consumption.The effect that the shale gas reservoir is transformed in waterfrac treatment be can also improve, fracture penetration and complexity increased.

At present, also under triaxial stress, do not specialize in the experimental provision that the shale gas reservoir is transformed in the pulse waterfrac treatment both at home and abroad, lack the experimental study that the shale gas reservoir is transformed in the paired pulses waterfrac treatment.There is following shortcoming in the experimental provision that reservoir is transformed in research waterfrac treatment both at home and abroad:

1. can only be under constant hydraulic pressure, no pulse frequency, no triaxial stress, can not carry out the pulse waterfrac treatment of simulated formation and transform the reservoir experiment.Perhaps can only not simulate waterfrac treatment transformation reservoir under the triaxial stress but have at pulse.

2. can only be through behind the experiment fracturing reform for the monitoring in crack, visual inspection lacks the ability of the monitoring crack rule of development in real time.

3. original experimental provision can only be simulated the situation that rock is directly impacted in the hydraulic energy simulation, can not simulate in being full of the pit shaft of liquid, and the pulse hydraulic energy is from the state of pressure break rock radially.

4. original similar experimental provision can not record pressure break front and back permeability variation simultaneously, measures permeability as need, needs removal of core to carry out at other experimental facilities.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of pulse waterfrac treatment and transform experimental provision and the method for shale gas reservoir, can simulate the waterfrac treatment state of reservoir rock under different triaxial stresses, pulse and pulsed frequency, and monitor pressure break fracturing rock fracture development and type in real time, measure rock core pressure break front and back permeability, estimate pulse waterfrac treatment effect.

The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:

The present invention at first proposes the experimental provision that the shale gas reservoir is transformed in a kind of pulse waterfrac treatment, and it comprises pulse generation and control system, triaxial stress charger, Crack Monitoring device and permeability determination system; Wherein:

Described triaxial stress charger is made up of last steel seat, following steel seat, core holding unit, axle pressure and radial pressure loading system; Described core holding unit surrounds tubular, transmits radial force to being held on an interior rock core test specimen, and last steel seat and following steel seat lay respectively at core holding unit two ends up and down, are close to the two ends up and down of rock core test specimen, transmit axial force; The described steel seat of going up all has center pit with following steel seat, and an end is corresponding with the rock core central hole location of rock core test specimen, is interconnected; Described axle pressure and radial pressure loading system provide confined pressure and the axle pressure of loading by loading terminalization in core holding unit and last steel seat, steel seat down.Adopt this triaxial stress charger, rock sample is under the triaxial stress situation in whole pulse fracturing process, and is easy to assembly, can be assembled in normal triaxial and answer in force loading system or the existing triaxial strength proving installation.

Described pulse generation and control system comprise pressure break liquid pool, high-pressure pump, throttling valve, surplus valve, waterpower pulse generating apparatus, pressure transducer, data acquisition system (DAS); The described center pit other end of going up steel seat and following steel seat is connected throttling valve and surplus valve by pipeline respectively, feed tube picks out from the pressure break liquid pool, connect the throttling valve import by high-pressure pump, first switch valve, drain pipe is connected to the pressure break liquid pool from the surplus valve outlet, forms the circulation of liquid stream; Be connected to a branch line to the pipeline between high-pressure pump and first switch valve from the pressure break liquid pool, and at described branch line the second switch valve be installed; Described waterpower pulse generating apparatus is installed in the center pit exit position of steel seat; Described pressure transducer is built in down in the steel seat, connects outside data acquisition system (DAS) by signal wire.

During work, use the waterpower pulse generating apparatus to produce and produce the fracturing liquid with pulse performance automatically, utilize throttle valve adjustment flow, surplus valve regulating impulse pressure, high-pressure pump provides high-pressure fluid.Pressure transducer transmission fracturing liquid pressure and pulsed frequency data are given data acquisition logging system, utilize the data feedback of record, regulate throttling valve, surplus valve, make pulse and frequency reach requirement of experiment.Fit adjustment between throttling valve, surplus valve, high-pressure pump, pressure transducer and the data acquisition logging system, can produce the pulse fracturing liquid of different pressures, frequency, contrast for the situation of the various pulse waterfrac treatments transformation of research shale gas reservoirs with conventional waterfrac treatment.

Described Crack Monitoring device adopts the acoustic emission signal collector, is mounted on calibrate AE sensor on the core holding unit by signal wire, and its output signal is connected to data acquisition system (DAS).Use the crack development and the crack type that produce in the acoustic emission signal collector acquisition pulse fracturing process, and with data acquisition logging system record crack signal, be convenient to study the pulse hydraulically created fracture.

Described permeability determination system comprises described stop valve, pressure regulator valve, flowmeter, pressure gauge, core holding unit and source of the gas.The outlet pipe of source of the gas connects pressure regulator valve, and gas enters the rock core test specimen by an end of core holding unit, and gaseous tension is controlled by pressure regulator valve.It is nitrogen that this experimental provision can pump into medium, regulates pressure regulator valve, cooperates pressure transducer and data acquisition logging system, measures core permeability.

Described permeability determination system is that replaceability ground is connected with the pipeline at core holding unit two ends with pulse generation and the pipeline of control system, carries out different mensuration respectively.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: controlled pulse hydraulic energy can be provided, can simulate the shale rock under the triaxial stress of stratum and be similar to waterfrac treatment actual environment in the pit shaft, the state of pulse hydraulic energy fracturing rock, can monitor simultaneously crack development and crack generation type in the fracturing process in real time, measure core permeability, can contrast with conventional waterfrac treatment, estimate pulse waterfrac treatment effect, instruct the exploitation of waterfrac treatment new technology.This system can carry out the effect contrast experiment of pulse waterfrac treatment and conventional waterfrac treatment, also can directly measure pressure break front and back core permeability, assessment pulse fracturing effect.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is that shale gas reservoir experimental provision structural representation is transformed in pulse waterfrac treatment of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the synoptic diagram of rock core packing ring.

Fig. 3 is the synoptic diagram of triaxial stress charger.

Fig. 4 is that core permeability is measured synoptic diagram.

Fig. 4 A is the direction of gas infiltration in the rock core.

Among the figure, 1-pressure break liquid pool, 2-high-pressure pump, the 3-throttling valve, 4-waterpower pulse generating apparatus, 5-epoxy gluing layer, the 6-packing ring, 7-rock core test specimen, 8-acoustic emission signal collector, the 9-data acquisition logging system, 10-pressure transducer, 11-filtration unit, the 12-surplus valve, 13-rock core center pit, 14-second switch valve, 15-first switch valve, the last steel seat of 16-, 17-is holder radially, steel seat under the 18-, the 19-source of the gas, the 20-calibrate AE sensor, 21-stop valve, 22-pressure regulator valve, the 23-flowmeter, the 24-pressure gauge.

Embodiment

Above-mentioned only is the general introduction of technical solution of the present invention, and for can clearer understanding technological means of the present invention, the present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment.

The experimental provision of shale gas reservoir is transformed in a kind of pulse waterfrac treatment of the present invention, comprises pulse generation, monitoring and control system, triaxial stress charger, Crack Monitoring device and permeability determination system.

Consult Fig. 1 and Fig. 3, the triaxial stress charger by last steel seat 16, down steel seat 18, radially core holding unit and the triaxial stress loading system formed of holder 17 formed, the triaxial stress loading system axially can provide 0-4000kN pressure, radially can provide the 0-50MPa confined pressure, rock core specification Φ 100mm * 200mm.Radially holder 17 can by two, three arc pieces surround one cylindric, transmit a radial force to a rock core test specimen that is held in the tube.Waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4, pressure transducer 10 are built-in respectively at last steel seat 16, be convenient to load axle pressure in the steel seat 18 down.Packing ring 6 and epoxy gluing layer 5 are enclosed in the rock core two ends, when preventing from loading axle pressure, make the rock core two ends be subjected to the physical damage of non-experiment purpose.Packing ring 6 stretches into 5mm in the rock core center pit 13, prevents that the pulse hydraulic energy runs off by the rock core two ends, does not have the pulse fracturing effect.

Consult Fig. 1, pulse generation, monitoring and control system are made up of pressure break liquid pool 1, high-pressure pump 2, throttling valve 3, waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4, data acquisition logging system 9, pressure transducer 10, filtration unit 11, surplus valve 12, second switch valve 14, first switch valve 15.The center pit other end of last steel seat 16 and following steel seat 18 is connected throttling valve 3 and surplus valve 12 by pipeline respectively, feed tube picks out from the pressure break liquid pool, connect throttling valve 3 imports by high-pressure pump 2, first switch valve 15, drain pipe is connected to pressure break liquid pool 1 from surplus valve 12 outlets, forms the circulation of liquid stream; Be connected to a branch line to the pipeline between high-pressure pump 2 and first switch valve 15 from pressure break liquid pool 1, and at described branch line second switch valve 14 be installed.The pipeline that is exported between the surplus valve 12 at the center pit that descends steel seat 18 is equipped with filtration unit 11.Described waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4 is installed in the center pit exit position of steel seat 16; Described pressure transducer 10 is built in down in the steel seat 18, connects outside data acquisition system (DAS) 9 by signal wire.Waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4 is a vibration nozzle, and is replaceable.After high-pressure pump 2 was opened, throttling valve 3, data acquisition logging system 9, pressure transducer 10, surplus valve 12 were used, and reached predetermined requirement of experiment pulsed frequency and pulse.Can change pulsed frequency and pulse by changing waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4 types and regulating high-pressure pump 2 pump pressures in addition, this experimental provision pulsed frequency can reach 0-2000HZ, and pulse can reach 0-100MPa.Filtration unit 11 filters the rock core chip that produces because of the pressure break rock core, and fracturing liquid is recycled.Second switch valve 14, first switch valve 15 play the effect of connecting or change the used fracturing liquid flow direction of experiment that high-pressure pump pumps.

Consult Fig. 1, the Crack Monitoring system is made up of acoustic emission signal collector 8, data acquisition logging system 9, calibrate AE sensor 20.Calibrate AE sensor 20 is embedded in radially in the holder 17, and crack development, crack produce type in the acoustic emission signal collector 8 acquisition pulse waterfrac treatment processes.Note and Treatment Analysis for data acquisition logging system 9 by line transmissions.

Consult Fig. 4 and Fig. 4 A, the permeability determination system comprises stop valve 21, pressure regulator valve 22, flowmeter 23, pressure gauge 24, core holding unit and source of the gas 19, the outlet pipe of source of the gas 19 connects pressure regulator valve 22, end through flowmeter 23, pressure gauge 24, core holding unit enters the rock core test specimen, gaseous tension is by pressure regulator valve 22 controls, the ability of pressure regulator valve 22 concrete meticulous controlled pressures.

Consult Fig. 3, having a diameter in the middle of the rock core test specimen 7 is 10mm rock core center pit 13.All there are the center pit of a 10mm diameter in last steel seat 16, following steel seat 18, packing ring 6 and epoxy gluing layer 5 center, and are connected with rock core center pit 13.Be embedded in packing ring 6 and stretch into certain-length in the rock, avoid rock sample from the sealing of entrance end destroying infection experiment.

Consult Fig. 2, packing ring 6 embeds in the rock cores bore portion external diameter and rock core center pit 13 internal diameters always, rock core center pit 13 diameter 10mm, and packing ring 6 diameter 100mm, consistent with core diameter.

The method that the experimental provision that uses a kind of pulse waterfrac treatment of the present invention to transform the shale gas reservoir experimentizes mainly may further comprise the steps.

Step 1, produce on request band Φ 10mm hole, center rock core Φ 100mm * 200mm several, and guarantee that rock core two ends and circumference polish; Configuring fracturing liquid is stored in the pressure break liquid pool 1.

Step 2 is packed the rock core test specimen in the core holding unit into, loads onto the permeability determination system at the core holding unit two ends, close stop valve 21, pump into gas, regulate pressure regulator valve 22 control gaseous tensions, begin to measure core permeability, record pumps into gaseous tension, atmospheric pressure, gas injection flow.Can calculate permeability before the gas rock core pressure break according to following formula.After testing, close source of the gas, remove the permeability determination system, the removal of core test specimen.

Wherein: Q i-be that gas injects flow (m 3/ s), μ-gas viscosity (Pas), r 1-rock core post inside radius (m), r 2-rock core post external radius (m), H-rock core post thickness (m), P i-pump into gaseous tension (Pa), P Atm-atmospheric pressure (Pa).

Step 3 is opened second switch valve 14, close first switch valve 15 after, open high-pressure pump 2, wait high-pressure pump 2 pump pressures stable after, open data acquisition logging system 9, the first switch valves 15, close second switch valve 14.Observed data acquisition and recording system 9 regulates throttling valve 3, surplus valve 11, makes pulse and frequency reach requirement of experiment, opens second switch valve 14 then, closes first switch valve 15.

Step 4 is packed the rock core test specimen for preparing in the core holding unit 17 into, regulates the triaxial stress charger, reaches the required confined pressure of experiment, axle pressure requirement.

Step 5 is opened acoustic emission signal collector 8;

Step 6, open first switch valve 15, close second switch valve 14, begin the experiment, fracturing liquid from high-pressure pump 2 through first switch valve 15 to throttling valve (3), arrive waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4 again, produce pulsed flow, the pressure break rock core, last fracturing liquid flows to pressure break liquid pool 1 through rock core center pit 13, filtration unit 11, surplus valve 12 successively, and every data are recorded in experiment midway.The pressure break experiment finishes, and opens second switch valve 14, closes first switch valve 15, and fracturing liquid forms circulation through high-pressure pump 2, second switch valve 14, pressure break liquid pool 1, prevents switch high-pressure pump 2 repeatedly, causes high-pressure pump 2 to damage.

Step 7, again the permeability determination system is replaced and install, close stop valve 21, pump into gas, regulate the control gaseous tension by pressure regulator valve 22, begin to measure core permeability, record pumps into gaseous tension, atmospheric pressure, gas injection flow, according to step 2 correlation formula, core permeability after the calculating pressure break.

Step 8 is tested repeating step 4-7 as the pulse waterfrac treatment that need are studied under the different triaxial stresses.As waterfrac treatment situation under need research different pulse frequency and the pulse pressure break, repeating step 2-7, perhaps before repeating 3 steps, change waterpower pulse generating apparatus 4 after, repeating step 2-7.

Step 9, experiment finishes, and closes high-pressure pump 2, lays down triaxial stress, handles fracturing waste liquor.

Claims (7)

1. the experimental provision of a pulse waterfrac treatment transformation shale gas reservoir comprises pulse generation and control system, triaxial stress charger, Crack Monitoring device and permeability determination system; It is characterized in that:
Described triaxial stress charger is made up of core holding unit and axle pressure and radial pressure loading system; Described core holding unit comprises steel seat (16), down steel seat (18) and holder (17) radially, described radially holder (17) surrounds tubular, transmit radial force to the rock core test specimen that is held in the tube, last steel seat (16) and following steel seat (18) lay respectively at radially holder two ends up and down, transmit axial force to the rock core test specimen; Describedly go up steel seat (16) and following steel seat (18) all has center pit, be interconnected with the rock core center pit of rock core test specimen; Described axle pressure and radial pressure loading system be by load terminalization in holder (17) radially, go up steel seat (16) and following steel seat (18), confined pressure and the axle pressure of loading is provided;
Described pulse generation and control system comprise pressure break liquid pool (1), high-pressure pump (2), throttling valve (3), surplus valve (12), waterpower pulse generating apparatus (4), pressure transducer (10), data acquisition system (DAS) (9); The two ends up and down of core holding unit, the center pit of namely going up steel seat (16) and following steel seat (18) is connected throttling valve (3) and surplus valve (12) by pipeline respectively, feed tube picks out from the pressure break liquid pool, connect throttling valve (3) import by high-pressure pump (2), first switch valve (15), drain pipe is connected to pressure break liquid pool (1) from surplus valve (12) outlet, forms the circulation of liquid stream; Be connected to a branch line to the pipeline between high-pressure pump (2) and first switch valve (15) from pressure break liquid pool (1), and at described branch line second switch valve (14) be installed; Described waterpower pulse generating apparatus (4) is installed in the center pit exit position of steel seat (16); Described pressure transducer (10) is built in down in the steel seat (18), connects outside data acquisition system (DAS) (9) by signal wire;
Described Crack Monitoring device adopts acoustic emission signal collector (8), is mounted on calibrate AE sensor (20) on the core holding unit by signal wire, and its output signal is connected to data acquisition system (DAS) (9);
Described permeability determination system comprises stop valve (21), pressure regulator valve (22), flowmeter (23), pressure gauge (24) and source of the gas (19), the air delivering pipeline of source of the gas (19) connects pressure regulator valve (22), flowmeter (23), pressure gauge (24), and inserted by the pipeline of an end of core holding unit, gas is imported the rock core test specimen, gaseous tension is by pressure regulator valve (22) control, and stop valve (21) is installed on the pipeline by the core holding unit other end.
2. the experimental provision of shale gas reservoir is transformed in pulse waterfrac treatment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: also include packing ring (6), between its upper/lower terminal that is fixed on the rock core test specimen and last steel seat (16), time steel seat (18).
3. the experimental provision of shale gas reservoir is transformed in pulse waterfrac treatment according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described packing ring (6) is glued fixing by epoxy gluing layer (5).
4. according to the experimental provision of claim 2 or 3 described pulse waterfrac treatments transformation shale gas reservoirs, it is characterized in that: the central hole location of packing ring (6) has the Embedded Division of projection, embeds the rock core center pit (13) of rock core test specimen.
5. transform the experimental provision of shale gas reservoirs according to claim 2 or 3 described pulse waterfrac treatments, the center pit that it is characterized in that steel seat (18) under the place is exported on the pipeline between the surplus valve (12) filtration unit (11) is installed.
6. according to the experimental provision of claim 2 or 3 described pulse waterfrac treatments transformation shale gas reservoirs, it is characterized in that: the pipeline at described core holding unit two ends is connected with control system with permeability determination system or pulse generation by hydraulic quick coupler.
7. carry out the experimental technique that the shale gas reservoir is transformed in the pulse waterfrac treatment according to any described device among the right to use requirement 1-6, it is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
(1) rock core test specimen (7) is packed in the core holding unit, load onto the permeability determination system at the core holding unit two ends, close stop valve (21), pump into gas from pressure regulator valve (22) end, measure core permeability before the pressure break, test back removal of core test specimen;
(2) remove the permeability determination system, the removal of core test specimen, load onto pulse generation and control system at the core holding unit two ends, open high-pressure pump (2), fracturing liquid flows to waterpower pulse generating apparatus (4) production burst fluid through high pressure line, pressure transducer (10) is monitored the pulse situation in real time, pulse, frequency that data acquisition logging system (9) record pressure transducer (10) spreads out of; By pulse, the frequency of observed and recorded, regulate throttling valve (3), surplus valve (11), reach experiment required pulse pressure and frequency, open second switch valve (14) then, close first switch valve (15);
(3) the rock core test specimen is packed in the core holding unit, regulate the triaxial stress charger, reach pre-provisioning request;
(4) open acoustic emission signal collector (8);
(5) open first switch valve (15), close second switch valve (14), begin experiment, gather the signal that the rock core damage is sent in the experiment by acoustic emission signal collector (8), be transferred to data acquisition logging system (9) record;
(6) again the replacement of permeability determination system is installed, close stop valve (21), pump into gas from pressure regulator valve (22) end, core permeability after the mensuration pressure break;
(7) according to different pulse frequency, pulse, triaxial stress needs, repeat the A-G step;
(8) experiment finishes, and closes high-pressure pump (2), lays down triaxial stress, handles fracturing waste liquor.
CN201310147687.7A 2013-04-25 2013-04-25 Experimental device and method for pulse hydrofracture transforming of shale gas storing layer CN103196762B (en)

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