CN103173645B - Preparation method of dispersedly strengthened aluminum-based composite material - Google Patents

Preparation method of dispersedly strengthened aluminum-based composite material Download PDF

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CN103173645B
CN103173645B CN201310096661.4A CN201310096661A CN103173645B CN 103173645 B CN103173645 B CN 103173645B CN 201310096661 A CN201310096661 A CN 201310096661A CN 103173645 B CN103173645 B CN 103173645B
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dispersion
cuo
composite
melt
matrix composite
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CN201310096661.4A
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CN103173645A (en
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郭志猛
陈存广
罗骥
陈骏
王雯雯
郝俊杰
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北京科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a preparation method of a dispersedly strengthened aluminum-based composite material, and belongs to the field of the preparation of the aluminum-based composite material. A strengthened particle is derived from CuO/Al2O3 nanometer composite powder prepared by means of sol-gel method. The method comprises the following steps of: melting industrial pure aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and carrying out degassing and slag removal treatment on the molten product to obtain a clean pure aluminum melt or a clean aluminum alloy melt; adding the CuO/Al2O3 nanometer composite powder into the pure aluminum melt or the aluminum alloy melt in batches under the stirring action at 750-850 DEG C to obtain a composite melt, and then carrying out high-energy ultrasonic treatment on the composite melt, wherein the amount of the CuO/Al2O3 nanometer composite powder is 0.2wt.%-2.0wt.% of that of the composite melt; and reducing the temperature of the composite melt to 680-720 DEG C, casting the resulting composite melt to a preheated metal mold at 250-300 DEG C, cooling the mold and carrying out mold release to obtain the dispersedly strengthened aluminum-based composite material. The preparation method disclosed by the invention is simple and stable in process, convenient for operation and low in production cost, interface bonding of enhancing particles with an alloy matrix is good, the enhancing particles are uniformly and dispersedly distributed in the matrix, and the performance of the composite material is excellent.

Description

A kind of preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite
Technical field
The invention belongs to aluminum matrix composite preparing technical field, a kind of preparation method of nano particle dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite is particularly provided.
Technical background
Excellent physicals and the mechanical properties such as that aluminum matrix composite has is lightweight, specific tenacity is high, specific modulus is high, thermal expansivity is low, high temperature resistant, wear-resistant, dimensional stabilizing, are widely used in the fields such as aerospace, military and national defense and communications and transportation, Electronic Packaging.Wherein, dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite has the features such as cost is low, preparation technology simple, performance is more outstanding, becomes gradually the study hotspot in domestic and international aluminum matrix composite field.Conventional dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite technology of preparing has powder metallurgic method and two kinds of techniques of casting.The complex process equipment of powder metallurgic method, high expensive, be difficult for preparation large volume and complex-shaped part, and have in process of production the danger such as dust-firing and blast.And casting technique is simple, easy to operate, can prepare the matrix material of large volume, equipment investment is few, and production cost is low, and productivity is high, suitability for industrialized scale production.
Traditional aluminum matrix composite is that enhanced granule is applied in aluminum substrate, due to additional particle in aluminum substrate, to exist between enhanced granule and matrix wettability poor, surface reaction is difficult to control, and the defects such as enhanced granule skewness have affected the performance of aluminum matrix composite.How to improve the wettability between enhanced granule and matrix, improve the interface performance of material, become when previous problem demanding prompt solution.
High-energy ultrasonic method be a kind of by nanoparticulate dispersed to the effective ways in aluminium alloy melt.High-energy ultrasonic ratio juris is to utilize stirring in sound cavitation effect and the caused mechanics effect of acoustic streaming effect that ultrasonic wave produces in aluminium alloy melt, dispersion, degasification etc. to be used for promoting nano particle to sneak into aluminium alloy melt; improve the wettability between nano particle and aluminium alloy melt, force nano particle dispersed in aluminium alloy melt.High-energy ultrasonic method is the preparation method of a kind of simple process, dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite with low cost.But, according to conventional cast technique, single enhanced granule is applied in aluminium alloy melt, in high-energy ultrasonic dispersion process, most of enhanced granule can float over bath surface or adhere to smelting pot inwall, is difficult for dispersed entering in whole aluminium alloy melt.Therefore, disperse inhomogeneously in the final aluminum matrix composite obtaining in enhanced granule macroscopic view, consistency of performance is poor.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome in the aluminum matrix composite that prior art exists, in enhanced granule macroscopic view, disperse inhomogeneous, the problem that consistency of performance is poor, a kind of preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite is provided, make it solve dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite in the past and have fragility phase and the inhomogeneous defect of distribution of material, nano level Al 2o 3particle is uniformly distributed in matrix, has played dispersion-strengthened action, and the strength and modulus of matrix is improved significantly.
A preparation method for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite, first adopts sol-gel method to prepare CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder, makes nanometer Al 2o 3mix with CuO uniform particles, to ensure nanometer Al 2o 3the follow-up abundant dispersion of particle enters aluminium alloy melt inside, then adopts high-energy ultrasonic legal system for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.Concrete grammar comprises following content:
1, sol-gel method is prepared CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder
(1) with soluble copper salt and exsiccated ammonium alum (NH 4al (SO 4) 2) be raw material, be mixed with the aqueous solution of 0.1~25 mol/L as reaction mother liquor, prepare certain density bicarbonate of ammonia (NH 4hCO 3) solution is as precipitation agent, according to CuO/Al 2o 3middle Al 2o 3content is determined mantoquita and exsiccated ammonium alum (NH 4al (SO 4) 2) amount, according to NH 4al (SO 4) 2with NH 4hCO 3mol ratio be 1:4 and Cu 2+with NH 4hCO 3mol ratio be that 1:2 determines NH 4hCO 3amount.
(2) precipitant solution is added in reaction mother liquor, in reaction system, add 0.5~1.0 mol/L NH simultaneously 3h 2it is neutral that O regulation system pH value remains, after lasting stirring 10~60 min, ultrasonic dispersion 5~30 min obtain the water-sol, and stirring velocity is 100~500 r/min, and ultrasonic power is 100~1000 W.
(3) by after above-mentioned gained water-sol ageing 10~24 h, remove supernatant liquid, after centrifuge dehydration, obtain gel.After gel being dried at 80 DEG C, pulverize, in 500~800 DEG C of air, calcine 60~120 min and obtain CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder.
2, high-energy ultrasonic legal system is for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite
(1) technical pure aluminum or aluminum alloy is placed in to crucible electrical resistance furnace, is warming up to higher than 50~80 DEG C of technical pure aluminum or aluminum alloy fusing points and makes its fusing, after degasification slagging-off is processed, obtain clean fine aluminium or aluminium alloy melt.
(2) continue to be warming up to 750~850 DEG C, by the CuO/Al of aluminium foil parcel 2o 3nano composite powder pushes melt inside with graphite sleeve, turn on agitator simultaneously, and stirring velocity is 500~1000 r/min, churning time is 10~30 min, obtains compounding flux.
(4) high-energy ultrasonic is processed compounding flux, and frequency is 17~20 KHz, and peak power output is 1~2 KW, and the treatment time is 5~30 min.
(5) above-mentioned compounding flux is cooled to 680~720 DEG C, is poured in the metal type dies of 250~300 DEG C of preheatings, the cooling rear demoulding obtains dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
Step a(1) described in CuO/Al 2o 3al in nano composite powder 2o 3content is 10wt.%~90 wt.%.
Step a(1) described in soluble copper salt comprise any one or a few in copper sulfate, cupric chloride, cupric nitrate.
Step b(1) described in aluminium alloy can be any one or a few in Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Zn system.
Step b(2) described in CuO/Al 2o 3the add-on of nano composite powder is 0.2wt.%~2.0 wt.% of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
Step b(2) described in CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder add mode for add in batches, be divided into 2~5 equal portions.
Compared with prior art, superiority of the present invention is:
(1) adopt sol-gel method to prepare CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder, makes nanometer Al 2o 3mix with CuO uniform particles, ensure on the one hand nanometer Al 2o 3the follow-up abundant dispersion of particle enters aluminium alloy melt inside, on the other hand in the time of nanometer CuO and molten aluminium generation thermite reaction, due to Al 2o 3the existence of particle, plays certain " solid diluting effect " to nanometer CuO powder, prevents that reaction process from blasting, and the Cu that thermite reaction generates plays solution strengthening effect, has improved Al simultaneously 2o 3the interface wet ability of particle and aluminum substrate, thus the interface performance of matrix material improved.
(2) utilize graphite sleeve by CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder pushes melt inside, has solved the problem that enhanced granule that traditional enhanced granule mode that adds produces floats over bath surface or adheres to smelting pot inwall.
(3), under high-energy ultrasonic effect, the rolling disturbance that simultaneously utilizes violent surface reaction to form, realizes the nanometer Al that surface reaction generates 2o 3particle and CuO/Al 2o 3the nanometer Al that nano composite powder is directly introduced 2o 3the disperse of particle in whole aluminium alloy melt distributes, and strengthening effect further strengthens.
(4) adopt the aluminum matrix composite prepared of the inventive method, there is the performance of high abrasion, high tenacity, have a extensive future.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
(1) sol-gel method is prepared CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder: preparation 0.1 mol/L CuSO 4, 1.4 mol/L NH 4al (SO 4) 2) the aqueous solution as reaction mother liquor, preparation 5.8 mol/L NH 4hCO 3solution, as precipitation agent, adds 500 ml precipitant solution in 500 ml reaction mother liquors, adds 0.5 mol/L NH in reaction system simultaneously 3h 2it is neutral that O regulation system pH value remains, with ultrasonic dispersion 5 min after the lasting stirring of 100 r/min stirring velocitys 10 min, ultrasonic power is 100 W.By after above-mentioned gained water-sol ageing 10 h, remove supernatant liquid, after centrifuge dehydration, obtain gel.After gel being dried at 80 DEG C, pulverize, in 500 DEG C of air, calcine 60 min and obtain CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder, wherein Al 2o 3content is 90wt.%.
(2) high-energy ultrasonic legal system is for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite: 500 g commercial-purity aluminiums are placed in to crucible electrical resistance furnace, are warming up to 710 DEG C and make its fusing, after degasification slagging-off is processed, obtain clean melt.Continue to be warming up to 750 DEG C, by 10 g CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder is divided equally 5 parts, after aluminium foil parcel, pushes molten aluminium inside with graphite sleeve, stirs 10 min with 1000 r/min stirring velocitys, obtains clad aluminum melt.Afterwards clad aluminum melt is applied supersound process 30 min of frequency 20 KHz, peak power output 1 KW.Above-mentioned melt is cooled to 680 DEG C, is poured in the metal type dies of 250 DEG C of preheatings, the cooling rear demoulding obtains dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
Embodiment 2
(1) sol-gel method is prepared CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder: preparation 5.8 mol/L Cu (NO 3) 2, 10 mol/L NH 4al (SO 4) 2) the aqueous solution as reaction mother liquor, preparation 51.6 mol/L NH 4hCO 3solution, as precipitation agent, adds 500 ml precipitant solution in 500 ml reaction mother liquors, adds 1.0 mol/L NH in reaction system simultaneously 3h 2it is neutral that O regulation system pH value remains, with ultrasonic dispersion 30 min after the lasting stirring of 500 r/min stirring velocitys 60 min, ultrasonic power is 1000 W.By after above-mentioned gained water-sol ageing 24 h, remove supernatant liquid, after centrifuge dehydration, obtain gel.After gel being dried at 80 DEG C, pulverize, in 900 DEG C of air, calcine 120 min and obtain CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder, wherein Al 2o 3content is 10wt.%.
(2) high-energy ultrasonic legal system is for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite: 800 g 2024 aluminium alloys are placed in to crucible electrical resistance furnace, are warming up to 750 DEG C and make its fusing, after degasification slagging-off is processed, obtain clean melt.Continue to be warming up to 850 DEG C, by 1.6 g CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder is divided equally 2 parts, after aluminium foil parcel, pushes molten aluminium inside with graphite sleeve, stirs 30 min with 500 r/min stirring velocitys, obtains clad aluminum melt.Afterwards clad aluminum melt is applied supersound process 5 min of frequency 17 KHz, peak power output 2 KW.Above-mentioned melt is cooled to 700 DEG C, is poured in the metal type dies of 300 DEG C of preheatings, the cooling rear demoulding obtains dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
Embodiment 3
(1) sol-gel method is prepared CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder: preparation 3.2 mol/L CuCl 2, 5 mol/L NH 4al (SO 4) 2) the aqueous solution as reaction mother liquor, preparation 26.4 mol/L NH 4hCO 3solution, as precipitation agent, adds 500 ml precipitant solution in 500 ml reaction mother liquors, adds 0.8 mol/L NH in reaction system simultaneously 3h 2it is neutral that O regulation system pH value remains, with ultrasonic dispersion 20 min after the lasting stirring of 300 r/min stirring velocitys 30 min, ultrasonic power is 600 W.By after above-mentioned gained water-sol ageing 18 h, remove supernatant liquid, after centrifuge dehydration, obtain gel.After gel being dried at 80 DEG C, pulverize, in 750 DEG C of air, calcine 90 min and obtain CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder, wherein Al 2o 3content is 50wt.%.
(2) high-energy ultrasonic legal system is for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite: 400 g 6063 aluminium alloys are placed in to crucible electrical resistance furnace, are warming up to 730 DEG C and make its fusing, after degasification slagging-off is processed, obtain clean melt.Continue to be warming up to 800 DEG C, by 4 g CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder is divided equally 4 parts, after aluminium foil parcel, pushes molten aluminium inside with graphite sleeve, stirs 20 min with 800 r/min stirring velocitys, obtains clad aluminum melt.Afterwards clad aluminum melt is applied supersound process 15 min of frequency 19 KHz, peak power output 1.5 KW.Above-mentioned melt is cooled to 720 DEG C, is poured in the metal type dies of 300 DEG C of preheatings, the cooling rear demoulding obtains dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.

Claims (6)

1. a preparation method for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite, is characterized in that, preparation process comprises:
A, sol-gel method are prepared CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder
(1) with soluble copper salt and NH 4al (SO 4) 2for raw material, be mixed with the aqueous solution of 0.1~25mol/L as reaction mother liquor, prepare certain density NH 4hCO 3solution is as precipitation agent, according to CuO/Al 2o 3middle Al 2o 3content is determined mantoquita and NH 4al (SO 4) 2amount, according to NH 4al (SO 4) 2with NH 4hCO 3mol ratio be 1:4 and Cu 2+with NH 4hCO 3mol ratio be that 1:2 determines NH 4hCO 3amount;
(2) precipitant solution is added in reaction mother liquor, in reaction system, add 0.5~1.0mol/LNH simultaneously 3h 2it is neutral that O regulation system pH value remains, after lasting stirring 10~60min, ultrasonic dispersion 5~30min obtains the water-sol, and stirring velocity is 100~500r/min, and ultrasonic power is 100~1000W;
(3) by after step (2) gained water-sol ageing 10~24h, remove supernatant liquid, after centrifuge dehydration, obtain gel, after at 80 DEG C, gel being dried, pulverize, in 500~800 DEG C of air, calcine 60~120min and obtain CuO/Al 2o 3nano composite powder;
B, high-energy ultrasonic legal system are for dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite
(1) technical pure aluminum or aluminum alloy is placed in to crucible electrical resistance furnace, is warming up to higher than 50~80 DEG C of technical pure aluminum or aluminum alloy fusing points and makes its fusing, after degasification slagging-off is processed, obtain clean fine aluminium or aluminium alloy melt;
(2) continue to be warming up to 750~850 DEG C, by the CuO/Al of aluminium foil parcel 2o 3nano composite powder pushes melt inside with graphite sleeve, turn on agitator simultaneously, and stirring velocity is 500~1000r/min, churning time is 10~30min, obtains compounding flux;
(4) high-energy ultrasonic is processed compounding flux, and frequency is 17~20kHz, and peak power output is 1~2kW, and the treatment time is 5~30min;
(5) step (4) gained high-energy ultrasonic compounding flux after treatment is cooled to 680~720 DEG C, is poured in the metal type dies of 250~300 DEG C of preheatings, the cooling rear demoulding obtains dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
2. the preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite according to claim 1, is characterized in that CuO/Al described in step a (1) 2o 3al in nano composite powder 2o 3content is 10wt.%~90wt.%.
3. the preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described in step a (1), soluble copper salt comprises any one or a few in copper sulfate, cupric chloride, cupric nitrate.
4. the preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite according to claim 1, is characterized in that, aluminium alloy described in step b (1) is any one or a few in Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Zn system.
5. the preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite according to claim 1, is characterized in that CuO/Al described in step b (2) 2o 3the add-on of nano composite powder is the 0.2wt.%~2.0wt.% of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite.
6. the preparation method of dispersion-strengthened aluminum matrix composite according to claim 1, is characterized in that CuO/Al described in step b (2) 2o 3nano composite powder add mode for add in batches, be divided into 2~5 equal portions.
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CN104131186B (en) * 2014-08-16 2016-04-20 银川博聚工业产品设计有限公司 Strengthen the preparation method of the aluminum matrix composite of particle-compatible process in copper alloy interface
CN105506328A (en) * 2015-12-17 2016-04-20 梅庆波 Preparation method for magnesium-based aluminum iron composite material
CN105537310B (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-12-15 山东豪门铝业有限公司 A kind of preparation method of aluminium alloy extrusions
CN105834609A (en) * 2016-05-04 2016-08-10 桂林市庆通有色金属工艺材料开发有限公司 Continuous brazing composite aluminum-based brazing wire applying nanometer aluminum trioxide and preparation method of continuous brazing composite aluminum-based brazing wire applying nanometer aluminum trioxide
CN108251685B (en) * 2018-01-22 2020-04-07 北京科技大学 Tungsten dispersion strengthening copper-based composite material and preparation method thereof
CN109396422B (en) * 2018-12-27 2019-09-27 吉林大学 A kind of method evenly dispersed in the pre-dispersed complementary melt of nano particle in parcel
CN110791613A (en) * 2019-09-30 2020-02-14 鞍钢股份有限公司 Method for adding nano particles into steel, refining structure of nano particles and strengthening and toughening steel
CN111057979A (en) * 2019-12-17 2020-04-24 北京科技大学 Composite physical field regulation and control method for original phase dispersion of high-performance aluminum alloy for vehicle

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