CN109468496B - Heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN109468496B
CN109468496B CN201811625450.4A CN201811625450A CN109468496B CN 109468496 B CN109468496 B CN 109468496B CN 201811625450 A CN201811625450 A CN 201811625450A CN 109468496 B CN109468496 B CN 109468496B
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aluminum alloy
aluminum
heat
resistant die
powder
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CN109468496A (en
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陈曦
汪时宜
周银鹏
徐欣
罗云斌
赵华
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Suzhou Huijin New Material Technology Co ltd
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Suzhou Huijin New Material Technology Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of aluminum alloy, and particularly relates to a heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and a preparation method thereof. The heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy comprises the following raw materials in parts by weight: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; b <0.05 wt%; fe: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; sc is less than 0.5 wt%; cu <0.5 wt%, and the balance Al and unavoidable impurities. According to the invention, Ce, Sc, B and Cu are added on the basis of Al-Fe, so that the mechanical properties of the die-casting aluminum alloy at room temperature and 300 ℃ can be obviously improved, and the heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy is prepared.

Description

Heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aluminum alloy, and particularly relates to a heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Aluminum alloys are widely used in various industrial fields because of their low density, high specific strength, excellent ductility, and corrosion resistance. With the development of science and technology, higher requirements are continuously put forward on aluminum alloy in the fields of high-speed rail, aerospace, weapons and the like, and the traditional Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Zn and Al-Mg alloys are difficult to adapt to severe environments. Modern aerospace applications require aluminum alloys to have high temperature stability; however, many aluminum alloys are above T at temperaturesm/2(TmAluminum alloy melting point) causes the dispersed particles and grains to grow due to temperature factors, so that the performance of the aluminum alloy is greatly reduced.
The production principle of the high-temperature alloy is as follows: the solid solubility of the alloy elements in aluminum is low, the diffusion in solid aluminum is slow, a large amount of insoluble second phase particles are formed in the alloy, the heat resistance is high, and the growth of crystal force is prevented. Intermetallic compound Al formed by combining transition metal Fe with Al in Al-Fe casting alloy3Fe has excellent heat resistance. However, once the content of Fe in the aluminum matrix exceeds the solid solution limit, fine needle-like, coarse flake-like iron-rich phases are formed, which severely crack the matrix, causing stress concentration, and drastically reducing the high-temperature mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy.
Therefore, by adding different alloy elements, the heat resistance of the aluminum alloy material is further improved by adding trace elements and purifying elements under the condition of ensuring the casting performance of the material.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provide a heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy and a preparation method thereof.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by the following technical scheme: a heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight: ce: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; b <0.05 wt%; fe: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; sc is less than 0.5 wt%; cu <0.5 wt%, the balance being Al and unavoidable impurities; the inevitable impurities are controlled to be less than 0.05 wt%.
According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of preparing a heat-resistant die-cast aluminum alloy, comprising the steps of:
1) calculating the mass of the needed intermediate alloy according to the proportion, and preparing materials;
2) cleaning the surface of an aluminum ingot, and then putting the aluminum ingot into a smelting furnace or a well-type furnace crucible for smelting at the smelting temperature of 690-710 ℃;
3) when the temperature of the aluminum liquid reaches 750 ℃, adding the dried Fe and Cu into the aluminum liquid, and preserving the heat for 15-20 min;
4) mixing commercially available Ce, Sc and B with Al powder in a metal powder manner, placing the obtained mixture in a high-frequency heating furnace, performing heat treatment for 10-30 min, and directly adding into aluminum liquid, wherein the weight of the Al powder is equal to the sum of the weights of the Ce powder, the Sc powder and the B powder;
5) and after the raw materials are completely melted, refining, removing slag and pouring in sequence to obtain the aluminum alloy casting.
Preferably, the Cu in step 3) is added in a pure Cu form, specifically: processing commercially available pure Cu into a cube with the side length of 10mm, drying at 110 ℃, then wrapping the cube with a metal aluminum foil, adding the metal aluminum foil, and then pressing the metal aluminum foil into the aluminum liquid completely by a pressing plate under the pressure of 300-500 MPa.
Preferably, in the aluminum alloy in the step 3), Fe is added in the form of an iron agent: after the temperature of the aluminum liquid is raised to 780-800 ℃, the commercial iron agent is directly put into the aluminum liquid and the temperature is kept for 30 min.
Preferably, the high frequency wave in step 4) is an electromagnetic wave with a frequency greater than 100Khz, and the Ce, Sc, B and Al metal powders activate positive electric molecules under the action of the high frequency electromagnetic wave, so that the molecules in each metal material collide with each other strongly to generate high temperature, and are melted and mixed. A high-frequency heating method is adopted, so that B and impurity elements form boride, and the boride is converted into a precipitation state, and impurities are reduced. Meanwhile, the Ce, Sc and Al and the residual Fe in the Al metal powder form Al under the action of high-frequency electromagnetic force13Fe3Ce and Al3Sc。
Preferably, the refining in the step 5) is carried out at 720 ℃ by using a special refining agent for aluminum alloy; cooling to 700 ℃ after refining, keeping the temperature, standing for 5 minutes to enable impurities to float upwards or sink sufficiently, and then drawing slag; then adding a modifier at 700 ℃ for modification treatment, fully stirring, standing for 10 minutes, pulling out slag after standing, and removing surface oxide skin and bottom impurities.
Preferably, the special aluminum alloy refining agent adopts Shanghai rainbow light metal smelting plant, HGJ-2 aluminum alloy sodium-free refining slag removal agent.
Preferably, in the step 5), the temperature of the refined and modified aluminum liquid is reduced to 680 ℃ for pouring, a metal mold gravity pouring process is adopted, the temperature of a pouring mold is increased to 200 ℃ in an oven, and the aluminum liquid is added into the mold by a material spoon for molding.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the addition of trace amounts of B to the aluminum matrix enables it to be combined with trace impurity elements such as: ti, Cr, Mn, V, etc., react to form borides such as: TiB2,CrB2,CaB6And the like, each boride is converted from a solid solution state to a precipitated state, and the degree of lattice distortion in the aluminum matrix is weakened, thereby effectively improving the thermal stability of the aluminum matrix.
2. Since the radius of cerium and scandium atoms is larger than that of aluminum, if the cerium and scandium atoms enter into aluminum crystal lattices, the crystal lattices are greatly distorted, and the energy of rare earth is increased. Therefore, to maintain the free energy of the rare earthAt the minimum, rare earth atoms can only be enriched at the grain boundary with irregular atomic arrangement, and will be simultaneously enriched at the grain boundary of the aluminum matrix to form Al13Fe3Ce and Al3The second phase of Sc, two of which have high melting points, can further improve the heat resistance of the aluminum alloy.
3. Cerium and scandium can be preferentially adsorbed around the iron-rich phase, so that on one hand, the movement of Fe atoms can be hindered, the concentration of the Fe atoms is increased, and the supercooling of components is caused, and on the other hand, the enrichment of rare earth elements hinders the continuous growth of the iron-rich phase. By adding cerium and scandium, the iron-rich phase is changed into a short rod shape, a spherical Sc shape, a flower shape and a fine needle rod shape from a thick needle sheet shape, so that the distribution uniformity of the iron-rich phase in an aluminum matrix is improved, crystal grains are refined, stress concentration is relieved, and the high-temperature mechanical property of the Al-Fe alloy is improved.
4. Strictly controlling the content of Cu within 0.5 wt% to form micro-dispersed CuAl in the material2The second phase further strengthens the high temperature stability of the aluminum alloy.
Detailed Description
Examples
The high-strength high-heat-conductivity thin-wall die-casting aluminum alloy comprises the following components in percentage by weight as shown in the following table 1, and the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities.
Ce: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; b <0.05 wt%; fe: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; sc is less than 0.5 wt%; cu <0.5 wt%, and the balance of unavoidable impurities is controlled to 0.05 wt% or less, and the balance is Al and unavoidable impurities.
Table 1 shows the contents of the respective elements in the aluminum alloys of examples 1 to 15 by weight
Examples Ce B Fe Cu Sc
1 0 0 0.6 0.2 0
2 0 0 1.50 0.15 0
3 0 0 2.61 0.25 0
4 1.04 0.03 1.72 0.31 0
5 1.22 0.01 1.73 0.34 0.15
6 1.65 0.04 1.77 0.43 0.21
7 1.18 0.02 1.69 0.43 0.23
8 2.28 0.03 2.64 0.32 0.25
9 2.42 0.05 2.6 0.27 0.34
10 2.23 0.02 2.55 0.33 0.38
11 2.13 0.01 2.58 0.17 0.41
12 2.62 0.03 2.46 0.44 0.48
13 3.13 0.02 3.32 0.37 0.35
14 3.45 0.03 3.56 0.31 0.41
15 3.67 0.02 3.74 0.24 0.35
The preparation method of the aluminum alloy in each embodiment comprises the following steps:
1) calculating the mass of the needed intermediate alloy according to the proportion, and preparing materials;
2) cleaning the surface of an aluminum ingot, and then putting the aluminum ingot into a smelting furnace or a well-type furnace crucible for smelting at the smelting temperature of 690-710 ℃;
3) when the temperature of the aluminum liquid reaches 750 ℃, adding the dried Fe and Cu into the aluminum liquid, and preserving the heat for 15-20 min; the addition mode of the Cu intermediate alloy is as follows: processing a commercially available Cu intermediate alloy into a cube with the side length of 10mm, drying at 110 ℃, then completely wrapping the cube with a metal aluminum foil, adding the metal aluminum foil, and then completely pressing the metal aluminum foil into aluminum liquid under the pressure of 300-500MPa by using a pressing plate, wherein the adding mode of Fe is as follows: pre-pressing a commercial iron agent into a sheet plate with the thickness of 2-3mm, and then putting the sheet plate into aluminum liquid;
4) mixing commercially available Ce, Sc and B with Al powder in a metal powder manner, placing the obtained mixture in a high-frequency heating furnace, performing heat treatment for 10-30 min, and directly adding into aluminum liquid, wherein the weight of the Al powder is equal to the sum of the weights of the Ce powder, the Sc powder and the B powder;
5) and after the raw materials are completely melted, refining, removing slag and pouring in sequence to obtain the aluminum alloy casting. The refining is carried out by using a special refining agent for the aluminum alloy at the temperature of 720 ℃; cooling to 700 ℃ after refining, keeping the temperature, standing for 5 minutes to enable impurities to float upwards or sink sufficiently, and then drawing slag; then adding a modifier at 700 ℃ for modification treatment, fully stirring, standing for 10 minutes, pulling out slag after standing, and removing surface oxide skin and bottom impurities. The special refining agent for the aluminum alloy adopts a sodium-free refining slag remover for HGJ-2 aluminum alloy in Shanghai rainbow light metal smelting plant. And (3) cooling the refined and modified aluminum liquid to 680 ℃ for pouring, adopting a metal mold gravity pouring process, heating a pouring mold in an oven to 200 ℃, and adding the aluminum liquid into the mold by using a material spoon for molding.
TABLE 2 mechanical Property test results at room temperature and 300 ℃ for the aluminum alloy casting specimens of examples 1-15
As can be seen from Table 2, the addition of Ce, Sc, B and Cu on the basis of Al-Fe can significantly improve the mechanical properties of the die-cast aluminum alloy at room temperature and 300 ℃, and as the content of Ce and Fe in the aluminum alloy increases, the mechanical properties at room temperature and high temperature are continuously improved, and the content of Ce and Fe exceeds 3 wt%, which is not significant in improving the mechanical properties of the die-cast aluminum alloy.
The above embodiments are preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and any other changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications which do not depart from the spirit and principle of the present invention should be construed as equivalents thereof, and all such changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications are intended to be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A heat-resistant die-cast aluminum alloy is characterized in that: the composite material comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight: ce: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; 0.01 wt% and less than 0.05 wt% of B; fe: 0.5 wt% -3 wt%; 0.15 wt% < Sc <0.5 wt%; 0.17 wt% < Cu <0.5 wt%, the balance being Al and unavoidable impurities; the inevitable impurities are controlled below 0.05 wt%;
the preparation method of the heat-resistant die-casting aluminum alloy comprises the following steps,
1) calculating the mass of the needed intermediate alloy according to the proportion, and preparing materials;
2) cleaning the surface of an aluminum ingot, and then putting the aluminum ingot into a smelting furnace or a well-type furnace crucible for smelting at the smelting temperature of 690-710 ℃;
3) when the temperature of the aluminum liquid reaches 750 ℃, adding the dried Fe and Cu into the aluminum liquid, and preserving the heat for 15-20 min;
4) mixing Ce, Sc and B in the form of metal powder with Al powder, placing the mixture in a high-frequency heating furnace, performing heat treatment for 10-30 min, and directly adding the mixture into aluminum liquid, wherein the weight of the Al powder in the mixture is equal to the sum of the weights of the Ce powder, the Sc powder and the B powder;
5) and after the raw materials are completely melted, refining, removing slag and pouring in sequence to obtain the aluminum alloy casting.
2. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein: the Cu in the step 3) is added in a pure Cu mode, and the specific adding steps are as follows: processing pure Cu into a cube with the side length of 10mm, drying at 110 ℃, then wrapping the cube with a metal aluminum foil, adding the metal aluminum foil, and then pressing the metal aluminum foil into the aluminum liquid completely by a pressing plate under the pressure of 300-500 MPa.
3. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein: adding Fe in the aluminum alloy in the step 3) in the form of an iron agent, wherein the specific adding steps are as follows: heating the aluminum liquid to 780-800 ℃, directly adding the iron agent into the aluminum liquid, and keeping the temperature for 30 min.
4. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein: the high frequency wave in the step 4) is an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of more than 100 Khz.
5. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein: the refining in the step 5) is carried out by using a special refining agent for the aluminum alloy at the temperature of 720 ℃.
6. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 5, wherein: the special refining agent for the aluminum alloy adopts a sodium-free refining slag remover for HGJ-2 aluminum alloy in Shanghai rainbow light metal smelting plant.
7. The heat resistant die cast aluminum alloy of claim 1, wherein: and 5) cooling the refined and modified aluminum liquid to 680 ℃ for pouring, adopting a metal mold gravity pouring process, heating a pouring mold in an oven to 200 ℃, and adding the aluminum liquid into the mold by using a material spoon for molding.
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