CN103170588B - A kind of warm type casting method - Google Patents

A kind of warm type casting method Download PDF

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CN103170588B
CN103170588B CN201310140939.3A CN201310140939A CN103170588B CN 103170588 B CN103170588 B CN 103170588B CN 201310140939 A CN201310140939 A CN 201310140939A CN 103170588 B CN103170588 B CN 103170588B
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casting
metal
warm type
mold
type casting
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CN103170588A (en
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刘雪峰
章鸣
罗继辉
伍伟玉
谢建新
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of warm type casting method, it is characterized by: casting mold is heated by heater, or utilize the heat heated mold of the metal bath conduction before entering casting mold, make mold temperature remain on solidus temperature lower than metal and in scope higher than cooling mold temperature; By the cooler arranged near casting mold outlet, pressure cooling is carried out to metal; With haulage gear, metal strand is drawn.The inventive method is applied widely, there is great promotional value, can low energy consumption, High-efficient Production excellent performance, surface smoothness is good, dimensional accuracy is high, density is high, composition is more even, there is metal inside parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal of metal surface and deposit the high-test metal strand of microstructure, follow-up heavy reduction rate plastic working can be carried out as required.

Description

A kind of warm type casting method
Technical field
The invention belongs to metal casting technique field, in particular, provide a kind of warm type casting method.
Background technology
Be cast in the production of metal and there is very important status.Along with the continuous increase of metal material kind and product variety, the quick expansion of application, and the raising day by day of the fast development of new and high technology and people's living standard, the world faces the present situation of environment deterioration, natural resources and energy resources shortage, more and more higher to energy-saving and cost-reducing, short route, high efficiency, low cost and slab quality the requirement of metal casting operation.
Casting mold makes liquid metal become solid metallic in casting, obtains the container of required form strand, be the critical component in casting and " heart ", play an important role to the Quality and yield of strand.Metal current is cast the casting mold adopted and is mainly contained cooling casting mold (being called for short " cold mould "), heated mold (being called for short " pattern of fever ") and two-phase section casting mold.
Traditional continuous cast method and the D.C.casting method of present extensive industrialized implementation are exactly the cooling casting mold adopted, namely pressure cooling is carried out by applying recirculated water to casting mold surrounding, make mold temperature far below below the solidus temperature of metal, first metal bath solidifies under the chilling effect of casting mold, and gradually to central growth, finally the microstructure obtained from casting billet surface toward core is respectively tiny equiax crystal, perpendicular to the column crystal on surface and the strand of thick equiax crystal.Traditional continuous cast method of cooling casting mold and D.C.casting method is adopted to have production efficiency advantages of higher, but also exist and easily form dendritic crystal, produce segregation, shrinkage cavity and the defect such as loose, cc billet surface quality is poor, milling face is needed before follow-up plastic working, stock utilization is low, technological process is long, production cost is high, and casting blank deformation performance is generally bad, product quality be difficult to meet the problem such as higher instructions for use [Zhang Xiaoping, Liang Aisheng. near net shape casting. Beijing: metallurgical industry publishing house, 2001]; And for having the metal of wide solid-liquid two-phase region, adopt cold mould continuous cast method to be more difficult to prepare high-quality strand.
Emerging semisolid continuous casting method is also the cooling casting mold adopted, by the semi solid slurry of preparation being flowed in cooling casting mold, semi solid slurry is made to realize rapid solidification under the surrounding chilling action of casting mold, strand [the Flemings M C. Behavior of metal alloys in the semisolid state. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A that the tiny eutectic that acquisition microstructure is formed by the primary phase and residue liquid phase Quench with the n on-dendritic that rose is flower-shaped or class is spherical is formed, 1991, 22A(5): 957-981, Zhang Kui, etc. electromagnetic stirring method continuous casting semi-solid aluminium alloy and solidified structure analysis thereof. China YouSe Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 2000,10(1): 47-50].Semisolid continuous casting method is applicable to the preparation with solid-liquid two-phase region (particularly wide solid-liquid two-phase region) metal strand, gained casting blank crystal grains is tiny, there is not gross segregation, performance is even, be easy to near-net forming, but the cast form of simple metal and eutectic alloy can not be used for, there is cc billet surface quality poor, strand inside easily produces shrinkage cavity, the defect such as loose, and production efficiency is lower, casting process technological parameter is wayward, combination property that is strand is difficult to meet the deficiencies such as higher instructions for use.
The continuous cast method of heated mold is adopted to be called hot-mold continuous cast method (also known as continuous directional solidification method), change the cooling casting mold of cold mould continuous casting into heated mold (namely by heating casting mold, make mold temperature higher than more than the liquidus temperature of metal), near casting mold outlet, carry out pressure to frozen metal cool, the high-temperature gradient along throwing direction is set up between frozen metal and non-solidified melt, make it possess directional solidification condition, thus acquisition have the continuous columnar of unidirectional solidification or the endless strand of single crystal organization continuously.Utilize hot-mold continuous cast method can obtain surface smoothness good, there is continuous columnar or single crystal organization and the strand of properties for follow excellence, but also exist that casting mold heating-up temperature is high, energy consumption is large, easy bleedout, production efficiency is low, the cross-sectional area of product is less, and the not enough [Xie Jianxin of the cast form etc. being difficult to use in the wider metal in solid-liquid two-phase region, Deng. materials processing new technology and new technology. Beijing: metallurgical industry publishing house, 2004].
What directional freeze method adopted equally is heated mold, adopt compulsive means in process of setting, the thermograde of specific direction is set up in frozen metal and non-solidified melt, thus melt is solidified along the direction contrary with hot-fluid, the column crystal or single crystal organization and the strand of excellent performance with unidirectional solidification can be obtained, but it is high to there is casting mold heating-up temperature, energy consumption is large, strand limited length, easily equiax crystal is there is at strand top, and coarse grains, and be difficult to use in the cast form of the wider metal in solid-liquid two-phase region, the shortcomings such as production efficiency is low [Zhou Yaohe, Hu Zhuanqi, be situated between ten thousand strange. solidification technology. Beijing: China Machine Press, 1998].
Sub-liquidus casting method is that inventor waits a kind of novel foundry engieering proposed, authorized national inventing patent [Liu Xuefeng. a kind of mold temperature is Casting Equipment and the method for solid-liquid two-phase region temperature. Chinese invention patent, grant number ZL201010148612.7, authorizes day 2012-10-03].What sub-liquidus casting method adopted is two-phase section casting mold, mold temperature is controlled in the solid-liquid two-phase region temperature range of metal (namely by heating casting mold, mold temperature is remained between the solidus temperature of metal and liquidus temperature), and near the outlet of two-phase section casting mold, pressure is carried out to frozen metal and cool, the casting billet surface fineness obtained is good, dense structure, component distributing is comparatively even, there is brilliant peritectic structure, plastic deformation ability, mechanical property, physical property and chemical property excellent, but the cast form of simple metal and eutectic alloy can not be used for, and it is high to there is casting mold heating-up temperature, energy consumption is large, casting speed can not wait not enough too soon.
In sum, adopt the casting method of existing cooling casting mold, heated mold and two-phase section casting mold to be difficult to meet energy resource consumption is relatively low, production efficiency is high simultaneously, the casting billet surface of shaping and the requirement such as good, the follow-up plastic deformation ability of internal soundness and excellent in mechanical performance.Therefore, for current casting method Problems existing, develop a kind of novel casting method that economize energy, production efficiency and lumber recovery are high, make that the metal strand surface smoothness produced is good, dense structure, component distributing be comparatively even, the excellent combination property such as plastic deformation ability and mechanical property, tool is of great significance.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of warm type casting method, mold temperature is controlled in the low heating temperature region of metal (namely by heating casting mold, make mold temperature remain on solidus temperature lower than metal and in scope higher than cooling mold temperature, be " low-heat casting mold " hereinafter referred to as this kind of casting mold) casting method (hereinafter referred to as " warm type casting ").Because the low-heat mold temperature of warm type casting is lower than the temperature of heated mold and two-phase section casting mold, and higher than cooling the temperature of casting mold, therefore traditional continuous casting can be solved, casting billet surface fineness and the quality and performance of D.C.casting and the production of semi-solid casting making method are poor, hot-mold continuous cast method production efficiency is low, energy consumption is higher, be difficult to production heavy in section strand, easy bleedout, directional freeze method production efficiency is low, energy consumption is higher, strand limited length, yield poorly, sub-liquidus casting method energy consumption is higher, casting speed can not be too fast, and semi-solid casting and sub-liquidus casting method cannot be used for the problems such as the preparation of simple metal and eutectic alloy.
A kind of warm type casting method of a kind of warm type casting method of the present invention, be by heating the method being controlled by mold temperature to cast in the low heating temperature region of metal to casting mold, described low heating temperature region instigates mold temperature to remain on solidus temperature lower than metal and in scope higher than cooling mold temperature; It is low-heat casting mold that temperature controls at the casting mold in the low heating temperature region of metal.
Described warm type casting method comprises step: metal bath is flowed into low-heat casting mold from crucible; Low-heat casting mold is heated to the low heating temperature region of metal under heater or metal bath conductive force; Directly pressure cooling is carried out to the metal surface of solidifying completely by the cooler arranged near the outlet of low-heat casting mold, under the effect of haulage gear, continuous drawing metal strand; Cooling velocity needed for metal is controlled by the casting speed V of haulage gear, the intensity of cooling of cooler and heater.
Further, described heater adopts external heat source or load coil.
Further, cooling twice is implemented on the basis of the cooler arranged near described low-heat casting mold outlet.
Further: described crucible tundish replaces, for carrying out continuous seepage.
Preferably, described warm type casting method crucible is positioned over air or vacuum or casts in the environment that is filled with nitrogen or is filled with inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process can adopt Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method can be any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% can be adopted as required directly to carry out follow-up plastic working, to omit intermediate annealing operation.
Further, described warm type casting method prefabricated metal solid-liquid mixture or semi solid slurry is added temperature be continuously in the tundish of metal solid-liquid two-phase region; Tundish be positioned over air or vacuum or be filled with nitrogen or be filled with in the environment of inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process adopts Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method adopts any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% can be adopted as required directly to carry out follow-up plastic working, intermediate annealing operation can be omitted.
Further, described warm type casting method is in metal bath, be first added into heterogeneous phase material composite needed for of preparation containing heterogeneous phase; Crucible (2) is positioned over air or vacuum or is filled with nitrogen or is filled with in the environment of inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process adopts Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method adopts any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% can be adopted as required directly to carry out follow-up plastic working, intermediate annealing operation can be omitted.
The metal material that described warm type casting method is prepared is that to have metal inside parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal of metal surface and the heterogeneous microstructure deposited.
Major advantage of the present invention is:
1. the metal strand surface smoothness adopting warm type casting method to be shaped is good, there is special institutional framework (i.e. metal inside parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal of metal surface and the heterogeneous microstructure deposited), dense structure, component distributing are comparatively even, and plastic deformation ability, mechanical property, physical property and chemical property are better than the conventional cast blank of identical component metal.
2. warm type casting method is applied widely, nearly all metal all can realize warm type cast form, as simple metal, iron and steel, aluminium alloy, copper alloy, titanium alloy, magnesium alloy etc., also can be used for the shaping of the laminar composite of this metalloid, gradient composites and homogeneous composite material, and the products such as metal wire rod, tubing, sheet material, band, bar and section bar can be produced by near-net forming.
3. warm type casting method has great promotional value, as long as change the cooling casting mold in existing casting method, heated mold and two-phase section casting mold into low-heat casting mold, all can develop corresponding warm type casting method.
4. warm type casting method economize energy, reduce and consume, production efficiency is high.
5. the metal strand adopting warm type casting method to be shaped can carry out follow-up heavy reduction rate plastic working as required, can omit and carry out intermediate annealing operation, enormously simplify technique, reduce production cost, improve product quality.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the principle schematic of a kind of warm type casting method of the present invention.Wherein (1) is metal bath; (2) be crucible; (3) be low-heat casting mold; (4) be heater; (5) be metal strand; (6) be cooler; (7) be dummy bar; (8) be haulage gear.
Fig. 2 is the longitudinal section microstructure of warm type cast form fine copper.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is specifically described; what be necessary to herein means out is that the present embodiment is only used to further illustrate the present invention; can not be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention, the those of skill in the art in this field can make some nonessential improvement and adjustment according to the content of the invention described above.
embodiment 1
Diameter is that the fine aluminium bar warm type continuous casting of 20mm is shaped.Melt 1 flows into low-heat casting mold 3 from the crucible 2 being filled with argon shield; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 550 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 15 DEG C, flow is 1000L/h to carry out pressure cooling to fine aluminium; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 50mm/min, obtains fine aluminium bar 5.Prepared fine aluminium Surface of Rod Bar fineness is good, dense internal organization, and microscopic appearance is primarily of fine aluminium bar interior parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal on fine aluminium bar top layer and the microstructure of depositing is formed, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 2
The pure copper section warm type continuous casting that the outer square length of side is 20mm, inner circular aperture diameter is 10mm is shaped.Fine copper melt 1 flows into low-heat casting mold 3 from the crucible 2 being filled with argon shield; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 900 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 18 DEG C, flow is 600L/h to carry out pressure cooling to fine copper; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 100mm/min, obtains pure copper section 5.Prepared fine copper square-outside and round-inside section bar surfaces externally and internally fineness is good, dense internal organization, microscopic appearance is primarily of pure copper section interior parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal on pure copper section top layer and the microstructure of depositing is formed, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 3
The Cu-12wt%Al aluminium bronze sheet material warm type continuous casting that width is 25mm, thickness is 5mm is shaped.Cu-12wt%Al aluminium bronze melt 1 flows into low-heat casting mold 3 from crucible 2; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 850 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 20 DEG C, flow is 800L/h to carry out pressure cooling to Cu-12wt%Al aluminium bronze; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 80mm/min, obtains Cu-12wt%Al aluminium bronze sheet material 5.Prepared Cu-12wt%Al aluminium bronze plate surface fineness is good, chemical constituents analysis is comparatively even, dense internal organization, microscopic appearance is primarily of aluminium bronze sheet material interior parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal on aluminium bronze sheet material top layer and the microstructure of depositing is formed, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 4
Diameter is that the Al-4.5wt%Mg aluminum-magnesium alloy wire rod warm type continuous casting of 10mm is shaped.Al-4.5wt%Mg aluminium-magnesium alloy melt 1 flows into low-heat casting mold 3 from crucible 2; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 500 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 17 DEG C, flow is 1300L/h to carry out pressure cooling to Al-4.5wt%Mg almag; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 40mm/min, obtains Al-4.5wt%Mg aluminum-magnesium alloy wire rod 5.Prepared Al-4.5wt%Mg aluminum-magnesium alloy wire rod surface smoothness is good, chemical constituents analysis is comparatively even, dense internal organization, microscopic appearance is primarily of aluminum-magnesium alloy wire rod interior parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal on aluminum-magnesium alloy wire rod top layer and the microstructure of depositing is formed, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 5
The BFe10-1-1 White brass alloy tubing warm type continuous casting that external diameter is 12mm, wall thickness is 2mm is shaped.BFe10-1-1 White brass alloy melt 1 flows into low-heat casting mold 3 from crucible 2; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 920 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 15 DEG C, flow is 900L/h to carry out pressure cooling to BFe10-1-1 White brass alloy; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 120mm/min, obtains BFe10-1-1 White brass alloy tubing 5.Prepared BFe10-1-1 White brass alloy tubing surfaces externally and internally fineness is good, chemical constituents analysis is comparatively even, dense internal organization, microscopic appearance is primarily of White brass alloy tubing interior parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal on White brass alloy tubing top layer and the microstructure of depositing is formed, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 6
Diameter is that the Cu-4.7wt%Sn tin bronze alloys wire rod warm type continuous casting of 10mm is shaped.Solid volume fraction be 10% Cu-4.7wt%Sn tin bronze alloys semi solid slurry 1 from the crucible 2 being filled with argon shield, flow into low-heat casting mold 3; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 830 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 20 DEG C, flow is 1000L/h to carry out pressure cooling to Cu-4.7wt%Sn tin bronze alloys; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 60mm/min, obtains Cu-4.7wt%Sn tin bronze alloys wire rod 5.Prepared Cu-4.7wt%Sn tin bronze alloys wire surface fineness is good, chemical constituents analysis is comparatively even, dense internal organization, microscopic appearance is parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction, the equiax crystal being positioned at tin bronze alloys wire rod top layer and globular crystal and the microstructure of depositing is formed primarily of tin bronze alloys wire internal, and quality and performance is excellent.
embodiment 7
Diameter is that the aluminum matrix composite wire rod warm type continuous casting of 15mm is shaped.Al 2o 3granule solid volume fraction be 15% aluminum matrix composite melt 1 from the crucible 2 being filled with argon shield, flow into low-heat casting mold 3; Regulate the power of induction heater 4, controlling low-heat casting mold 3 temperature is 570 DEG C; Cooler 6 adopts the cooling water that temperature is 18 DEG C, flow is 1200L/h to carry out pressure cooling to aluminum matrix composite; Haulage gear 8 carries out continuous drawing with the casting speed of 40mm/min, obtains aluminum matrix composite wire rod 5.Prepared aluminum matrix composite wire surface fineness is good, Al 2o 3distribution of particles is comparatively even, dense internal organization, and microscopic appearance is parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction, the equiax crystal being positioned at aluminum matrix composite wire rod top layer and Al primarily of aluminum matrix composite wire internal 2o 3particle the microstructure of depositing are formed, and quality and performance is excellent.

Claims (8)

1. a warm type casting method, it is characterized in that: described warm type casting method is by heating the method being controlled by mold temperature to cast in the low heating temperature region of metal to casting mold, described low heating temperature region instigates mold temperature to remain on solidus temperature lower than metal and in scope higher than cooling mold temperature; It is low-heat casting mold that temperature controls at the casting mold in the low heating temperature region of metal; The metal material that described warm type casting method is prepared is that to have metal inside parallel or be approximately parallel to the column crystal in throwing direction and the equiax crystal of metal surface and the heterogeneous microstructure deposited.
2. a kind of warm type casting method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described warm type casting method comprises step: metal bath (1) is flowed into low-heat casting mold (3) from crucible (2); Low-heat casting mold (3) is heated to the low heating temperature region of metal under heater (4) or metal bath (1) conductive force; Directly pressure cooling is carried out to the metal surface of solidifying completely by the cooler (6) arranged near low-heat casting mold (3) outlet, under the effect of haulage gear (8), continuous drawing metal strand (5); Cooling velocity needed for metal is controlled by the casting speed V of haulage gear (8), the intensity of cooling of cooler (6) and heater (4).
3. a kind of warm type casting method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, described heater (4) adopts external heat source or load coil.
4. a kind of warm type casting method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, cooling twice is implemented on the basis of the cooler (6) arranged near described low-heat casting mold (3) outlet.
5. a kind of warm type casting method according to claim 2, is characterized in that: described crucible (2) tundish replaces, for carrying out continuous seepage.
6. a kind of warm type casting method according to claim 2, is characterized in that: described warm type casting method, is crucible (2) be positioned over air or vacuum or cast in the environment that is filled with nitrogen or is filled with inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process adopts Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method is any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% is adopted directly to carry out follow-up plastic working as required, to omit intermediate annealing operation.
7. a kind of warm type casting method according to claim 1 or 5, is characterized in that: described warm type casting method prefabricated metal solid-liquid mixture or semi solid slurry is added temperature be continuously in the tundish of metal solid-liquid two-phase region; Tundish be positioned over air or vacuum or be filled with nitrogen or be filled with in the environment of inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process adopts Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method adopts any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% is adopted directly to carry out follow-up plastic working as required, to omit intermediate annealing operation.
8. a kind of warm type casting method according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: described warm type casting method is in metal bath, be first added into heterogeneous phase material composite needed for of preparation containing heterogeneous phase; Crucible (2) is positioned over air or vacuum or is filled with nitrogen or is filled with in the environment of inert gas shielding; Whole cast form process adopts Artificial Control or computer to control; Warm type casting method adopts any one in pull-down, arc form, horizontal or top-guiding type; The passage heavy reduction rate of 10% ~ 40% is adopted directly to carry out follow-up plastic working as required, to omit intermediate annealing operation.
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CN104353795A (en) * 2014-10-29 2015-02-18 北京科技大学 Continuous directional solidification technology adopting temperature gradient crystallizer
CN104818443A (en) * 2015-04-03 2015-08-05 北京科技大学 Short-process efficient production method of copper-sliver alloy wire
CN104858379B (en) * 2015-06-03 2017-09-15 北京科技大学 A kind of warm casting mold casting method of ladder
CN105149529B (en) * 2015-08-21 2018-03-02 江苏华威铜业有限公司 A kind of temperature control type metal casting method
CN108543919A (en) * 2018-05-25 2018-09-18 湖南工学院 A kind of high-performance Mg-Zn-Zr alloy short flow processes

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