CN103103388B - Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable - Google Patents

Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable Download PDF

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CN103103388B
CN103103388B CN201210447143.8A CN201210447143A CN103103388B CN 103103388 B CN103103388 B CN 103103388B CN 201210447143 A CN201210447143 A CN 201210447143A CN 103103388 B CN103103388 B CN 103103388B
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aluminium alloy
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CN103103388A (en
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林泽民
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Anhui Joy Sense Cable Co Ltd
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Anhui Joy Sense Cable Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, present invention also offers a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprise the following steps: a) cast aluminium alloy ingot casting; B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after Homogenization Treatments is rolled, obtains Aluminum alloy pole material; C) Aluminum alloy pole material step b) obtained carries out intermittent type anneal; D) Aluminum alloy pole material step c) obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.Present invention also offers a kind of power cable.The present invention by the selection of Addition ofelements and control, and adopts rational preparation technology, makes aluminium alloy have good over-all properties.

Description

Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of alloy, particularly relate to Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof and power cable.
Background technology
Aluminium alloy is a most widely used class non-ferrous metal structured material in industry, is used widely in Aeronautics and Astronautics, automobile, machinofacture, boats and ships and chemical industry.Along with develop rapidly that is scientific and technical and industrial economy, the demand of aluminium alloy is increasing, then the research of aluminium alloy also thereupon deeply.The widespread use of aluminium alloy facilitates the development of aluminium alloy in power industry, and the Application Areas of aluminium alloy has been expanded again in the development of power industry simultaneously.
Power cable is used to carry and distribute the resource of electric energy, its basic structure by core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer four part form.Wherein, core is the current-carrying part of power cable, is used for transmission of electric energy, and it is the major portion of power cable; Insulation layer is isolated from each other between core and the earth and out of phase core at electric equipment compartment, and ensure electric energy conveying, it is indispensable integral part in power cable structure; Protective layer is the intrusion of protection power cable from introduced contaminants and moisture, and prevents external force from directly damaging power cable.Because copper has good electroconductibility, copper is widely used in the core of power cable.But along with the scarcity day by day of copper resource, and the content of aluminium is very abundant, replaces copper to receive the concern of investigator with aluminium, and therefore aluminium alloy becomes the focus of research as cable conductor.
Aluminium alloy power cable substitutes copper cable becomes a kind of trend gradually, and is widely applied.Aluminum-alloy conductor material of the prior art, comparatively excellent in electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and mechanical property etc., but in anti-fatigue performance or poor, thus easily there are quality problems, affect the work-ing life of aluminum alloy materials or bring potential safety hazard, therefore, aluminium alloy power cable over-all properties is still poor.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention solves is to provide a kind of over-all properties preferably for the aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof of power cable.
In view of this, the invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprising:
The Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%; The Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%; The Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%; The RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
Preferably, the Fe of 0.25 ~ 0.6wt% is comprised.
Preferably, the RE of 0.1 ~ 0.6wt% is comprised.
Preferably, the Cr of 0.003 ~ 0.10wt% is comprised.
The invention provides a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprise the following steps:
A) aluminium alloy cast ingot of following composition is cast: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, the Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus,
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after Homogenization Treatments is rolled, obtains Aluminum alloy pole material;
C) Aluminum alloy pole material step b) obtained carries out intermittent type anneal;
D) Aluminum alloy pole material step c) obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
Preferably, the temperature of described Homogenization Treatments is 450 ~ 550 DEG C, and the time of described Homogenization Treatments is 6 ~ 16h, and the heat-up rate of described Homogenization Treatments is 3 ~ 8 DEG C/min.
Preferably, described step c) is specially:
Aluminum alloy pole material step b) obtained is heated to 280 ~ 350 DEG C, and lower the temperature after insulation 2 ~ 8h, temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 DEG C, cools after insulation 2 ~ 4h.
Preferably, described ageing treatment is carry out in 5 ~ 15KV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field.
Preferably, the temperature of described ageing treatment is 250 ~ 320 DEG C, and the time of described ageing treatment is 4 ~ 20h.
Present invention also offers a kind of power cable, comprise core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, described core is the aluminium alloy described in such scheme or the aluminium alloy prepared by such scheme.
The invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, the present invention is base with aluminium, and with the addition of the iron of trace, aluminium can form Al with iron 3fe, the Al of precipitation 3fe dispersed granules inhibits the creep strain of alloy, and part Fe also forms AlFeRE compound with RE and separates out, and precipitated phase AlFeRE can strengthen the anti-fatigue performance of alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation, and rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity; The copper added forms θ phase with aluminium, and θ phase plays solution strengthening and dispersion-strengthened action, improves tensile strength and the yield strength of aluminium alloy; Vanadium formed with the element such as Fe, Cu, RE in alloy melt al-based compound be distributed in aluminium base in, there is High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy; Chromium forms β-GrAl in aluminium alloy 7, η-Gr 27 kinds of dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as Al, have refinement cast structure, the ability of heat resistanceheat resistant crackle when material crystalline, and chromium also can put forward heavy alloyed wear resistance; Rare earth element as surface active element, can integrated distribution on crystal boundary, reduce pulling force between phase and phase, thus make grain refining.The present invention, by the selection of alloy element and the control of content, is conducive to the raising of aluminium alloy over-all properties.
Present invention also offers a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, first carry out Homogenization Treatments by ingot casting, Homogenization Treatments makes ingot casting be heated evenly, and the weave construction of optimized alloy; Then the aluminium alloy cast ingot of Homogenization Treatments is rolled into pole stock and carries out intermittent type anneal, the internal stress produced in elimination mechanical processing process and the damage to microtexture, optimize crystalline structure, recover the electrical property of wire rod, optimize mechanical property, make the tensile property of material, flexility and anti-fatigue performance keep coupling preferably; Again the Aluminum alloy pole material after anneal is carried out ageing treatment in uniform electric field, the performance of whole material can be made to reach by ageing treatment and be uniformly distributed, properties overall target reaches all good coupling.The present invention is by the optimization to aluminum alloy Preparation Method, the tensile property of material, flexility, electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and anti-fatigue performance aspect is made to keep coupling preferably, and the performance of whole material is reached be uniformly distributed, thus obtain the good aluminium alloy of over-all properties.
Embodiment
In order to understand the present invention further, below in conjunction with embodiment, the preferred embodiment of the invention is described, but should be appreciated that these describe just for further illustrating the features and advantages of the present invention, instead of limiting to the claimed invention.
The embodiment of the invention discloses a kind of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprising:
The Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%; The Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%; The Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%; The RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
According to the present invention, iron as feature microalloy element, because aluminium can form Al with iron 3fe, the Al of precipitation 3fe diffusing particle inhibits the creep strain of alloy, and improves the stability connected.Fe can improve aluminium base tensile strength, yield strength and resistance toheat, can also put forward heavy alloyed plasticity simultaneously.In the preparation process of aluminium alloy, in alloy, part Fe is with Al 3the form of Fe is separated out, and part Fe and RE forms AlFeRE compound and separates out, and after the high temperature anneal, the solid solution of Fe in aluminium base is less, then the electrical property of Fe alloy affects very little; But these disperse educts are on good terms and are strengthened the anti-fatigue performance of alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation, and rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity.In alloy, the content of Fe is at below 0.01wt%, very little to aluminium base performance change, do not have effect, but the content of Fe can not be too high, if more than 1.6wt%, the weakening of aluminium base electrical property is comparatively obvious, and have impact for the use for electric wire and cable conductor, cable accessory and appliance field aspect, therefore the following effect of overall content control 1.6wt% is better.The content of described Fe is 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, is preferably 0.20 ~ 1.0wt%, is more preferably 0.25 ~ 0.6wt%, is more preferably 0.30 ~ 0.45wt%.
Copper is the basic strengthening element in aluminium alloy, and it and aluminium form θ (Al 2cu) phase, and θ phase has the effect of solution strengthening and dispersion-strengthened, effectively can improve tensile strength and the yield strength of aluminium alloy.If the content of copper is less than 0.001wt%, then improves not obvious to the mechanical property of aluminium alloy, if content is more than 0.3wt%, then reduce specific conductivity.In addition, Cu can also improve aluminum alloy heat performance.The content of described Cu is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.008 ~ 0.28wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.25wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably be 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
The present invention also added the larger magnesium elements of atomic radius in aluminium alloy, and magnesium can make lattice produce distortion, causes solution hardening; Magnesium can also improve erosion resistance and the resistance toheat of aluminium alloy simultaneously.But the content of magnesium should more than 0.3wt%, too Gao Zehui causes resistance too much to increase and the reduction of resistance toheat.The content of described magnesium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.15wt%.
According to the present invention, select high reactivity element cobalt as alloying trace additives, cobalt can form AlCo, Al in the alloy 3co 2, AlCo 2etc. multiple dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase; It and iron coexists time form Al in interdendritic 4(CoFe) etc. complicated strengthening phase, hinders dislocation, stops grain sliding, effectively improve the antifatigue under Alloy At Room Temperature and high temperature and creep-resistant property, thus improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy.The content of described cobalt is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.28wt%, is more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt%, most preferably is 0.01 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably be 0.055 ~ 0.18wt%.
Beryllium (Be) forms α, β dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase in the alloy, can prevent the oxidation of alloying element, scaling loss and air-breathing, put forward the density of heavy alloyed smelting quality and surface film oxide.Be can also make impurity iron become a shape from needle-like, and when can prevent from pouring into a mould, sand mold casting and model recoil.Because Be has high affinity to oxygen and nitrogen, so it is efficient when melt is degassed, thus it is better to obtain surface smoothness, and intensity is higher, and the improved premium casting of ductility.On the other hand, add Be in alloy and the Fe intermetallic crystal of fragility can be made to be transformed into little equiaxed crystal by large needle-like shape and stratiform shape, improve intensity and the ductility of alloy, and can allow in aluminium alloy, there is higher Fe content.Be can also improve the mobility of aluminium alloy, the mobility of melt is increased, and can put forward heavy alloyed tensile strength and yield strength.According to the present invention, the content of described Be is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.18wt%, is more preferably 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
Calcium (Ca) element, as the feature Addition ofelements of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 4ca, Al 2ca 3, AlCa 2deng metallic compound, can the high-temperature behavior of reinforced aluminium alloy, strengthen resistance toheat and the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy, it can not cause too large impact to the electrical property of aluminium alloy at below 0.3wt%.The content of described calcium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.004 ~ 0.28wt%, is more preferably 0.011 ~ 0.25wt%, most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably be 0.08 ~ 0.15wt%, most preferably be 0.10 ~ 0.12wt%.
The present invention with the addition of the zinc of trace in aluminium alloy, and zinc forms REAl with Al in the melt 2zn 3, Fe 3al 2the various metals compounds such as Zn, can play the tensile property improving aluminium alloy, and to a certain degree effectively improving the high-temp anti-corrosion performance of aluminium alloy, can also improve the wear resisting property of aluminium alloy.The content of described zinc is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.18wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.15wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.12wt%, most preferably be 0.08 ~ 0.10wt%.
Strontium (Sr) element, as the feature Addition ofelements of complex compound, can form Al in the melt 7sr 8, Al 4sr 3, AlSr 2and AlSr 3etc. multiple alloying element, High-Temperature Strengthening effect can be played, improve high temperature creep property.Secondly, Sr adds in aluminium alloy, can prevent aluminium alloy high temperature from ftracture when casting, avoids occurring unnecessary impact in casting, reduction process costs, improves disposablely to be processed into power.The content of described strontium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.28wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.26wt%, is more preferably 0.06 ~ 0.24wt%, be more preferably 0.10 ~ 0.20wt%, most preferably be 0.12 ~ 0.15wt%.
Zirconium (Zr) element is as the feature Addition ofelements of complex compound, and it is by forming tiny dispersion-strengthened phase in the alloy, and reach a high temperature strengthening effect, improves the thermostability of aluminium alloy under hot operation; On the other hand, Zr and Fe, Cu and Al form complicated alloy cpd, can improve the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy.The content of described zirconium is 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.25wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.20wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.15wt%, most preferably be 0.10 ~ 0.12wt%.
Silicon (Si) can promote Al 3the precipitation of Zr, improves tensile strength; Si can also form Mg-Si metallic compound with Mg, improves the thermal characteristics of aluminium alloy.But the content of Si is no more than 0.2%, otherwise electrical property can be caused obviously to decline, and cast bar easily produces defect, in rolling and strand process processed, easily occur phenomenon of rupture.The content of described silicon is greater than zero and is less than or equal to 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.001 ~ 0.18wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.15wt%, most preferably is 0.08 ~ 0.12wt%.
The present invention boron (B) is added aluminium base in, can crystal grain thinning, form tiny disperse educt phase, owing to there is a large amount of this disperse phase in alloy, growing up of crystal grain is also hindered, and thus can significantly improve recrystallization temperature, extend recrystallize incubation period, reduce recrystallize speed.On the other hand, boron can also improve intensity and the extension property of aluminium alloy, and makes alloy have good fatigue resistance.B can also form complex compound with Zr and Al, puies forward heavy alloyed thermal characteristics.The content of described boron is less than or equal to 0.8wt% for being greater than zero, is preferably 0.001 ~ 0.70wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.65wt%, is more preferably 0.10 ~ 0.5wt%, be more preferably 0.25 ~ 0.45wt%, most preferably be 0.30 ~ 0.40wt%.
According to the present invention, with the addition of elemental lithium in aluminium alloy, lithium (Li) element, as the feature Addition ofelements of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 2li 3, AlLi 2and AlLi 5etc. dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phase, thus the hardness of raising aluminium alloy, corrosion resistance nature and toughness.The content of described lithium is 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.20wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.15wt%, most preferably is 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Sodium (Na) element, as the feature Addition ofelements of complex compound, forms Al in alloy melt 2na 3, AlNa 2, AlNa 5deng complex alloys compound, form complex alloys compound with Fe, Mg, RE in the melt simultaneously, above-mentioned alloy cpd Dispersed precipitate in the alloy, can crystal grain thinning, thus raising intensity of aluminum alloy, improve the anti-fatigue performance of aluminium alloy and increase the plasticity of aluminium alloy, strengthening the workability of aluminium alloy.The content of described sodium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, is more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.15wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.13wt%, most preferably be 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Potassium (K) element, as the trace additives of aluminium alloy, forms Al in alloy melt 5k 7, Al 3k 4, Al 2k 3, AlK 2deng complex alloys compound, described alloy cpd has High-Temperature Strengthening effect, can improve thermotolerance and the workability of aluminium alloy, strengthens the plasticity of aluminium alloy.The content of described potassium is 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.23wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.20wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 0.18wt%, most preferably be 0.10 ~ 0.15wt%.
Titanium (Ti) element is as the trace additives of complex compound, aluminium base complex compound is formed with multiple elements such as Fe, Mg, Cu, RE in alloy melt, effective crystallization of refinement, improve crystalline structure structure, and composite alloy compound is separated out on aluminium base crystal boundary, reduce the abated effect of other trace element to aluminium alloy electric performance, and the creep-resistant property improving aluminium alloy improves the castability of alloy.The content of described titanium is 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.18wt%, is more preferably 0.005 ~ 0.15wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.13wt%, most preferably be 0.05 ~ 0.10wt%.
Vanadium (V) element as the trace additives of complex compound, formed with elements such as Fe, Cu, RE in alloy melt aluminium base complex compound be distributed in aluminium base in, there is the effect of High-Temperature Strengthening, the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy can be improved.The content of described vanadium is 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, is preferably 0.005 ~ 0.13wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.10wt%, most preferably is 0.03 ~ 0.07wt%.
Chromium (Cr) forms β-GrAl in the alloy 7, η-Gr 27 kinds of dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as Al, have refinement cast structure, the ability of heat resistanceheat resistant crackle when material crystalline; Chromium can also improve the wear resistance of aluminium alloy.The content of described chromium is 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, is preferably 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%, is more preferably 0.01 ~ 0.08wt%.
The present invention with the addition of rare earth element in aluminium alloy, described rare earth element can put forward heavy alloyed electroconductibility, due to rare earth element energy crystal grain thinning, and form stable compound with elements such as Fe, the Cu in alloy and separate out from crystal, reduce electrolytical liquidus temperature, ion is accelerated in the move under influence speed of electric field, reduces concentration overpotential, thus the resistivity of aluminium alloy is reduced.On the other hand, rare earth element is larger than aluminium with the avidity of the elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, form multiple compounds, thus rare earth be degasification in alloy, denitrogenation, slag making, neutralization trace low-melting impurities and change the clearing machine of impurity state, good refining effect can be played, make alloy become purer, thus resistivity is greatly improved, electric conductivity can reach 60%IACS.On the other hand, rare earth element can form dense oxide membrane structure, for putting forward heavy alloyed oxidisability and electrochemical corrosion resistant plays fabulous effect, improves the work-ing life of aluminium alloy.In addition, rare earth is surface active element, can integrated distribution on crystal boundary face, reduce pulling force between phase and phase, therefore make the merit of formation critical size nucleus reduce, the increase of nuclei of crystallization quantity, thus make grain refining.Secondly, after ageing treatment in melting, high temperature annealing and uniform electric field, Fe forms complicated ferro-aluminum rare earth metal in Al with RE, improve the antifatigue limit and the yield strength of alloy, increases alloy result of use in actual applications and work-ing life.
Described rare earth elements RE is one or more in lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y), is preferably one or more in Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm and Lu.Wherein, rare earth Pm forms Al in the alloy 11pm 3~ AlPm 2deng 6 kinds of active metallic compounds; Rare-earth Sm forms Al in the alloy 11sm 4, Al 3sm, Al 2sm, AlSm, AlSm 3isoreactivity metallic compound; Rare earth Eu forms EuAl in the alloy 4, EuAl 2, EuAl isoreactivity metallic compound; Rare-earth Gd forms Al in the alloy 4gd ~ Al 17gd 2deng 7 kinds of infusibility metallic compounds; Rare earth Tb forms Al in the alloy 3tb, Al 2tb, AlTb, AlTb 2, AlTb 3deng infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth β-diketone complex forms Al in the alloy 5dy ~ Al 17dy 2deng 8 kinds of infusibility active metallic compounds; Rare earth Ho forms Al in the alloy 5ho 3, Al 3ho, AlHo 2, AlHo 3deng infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth Tm forms Al in the alloy 3tm 2, Al 3tm, AlTm, AlTm 3deng infusibility active metallic compound; Rare earth Lu forms Al in the alloy 7lu 3, Al 5lu 3, Al 2lu 3, AlLu 2, AlLu 3deng infusibility active metallic compound.Above-mentioned dystectic active metallic compound Dispersed precipitate in the intergranular in netted or skeleton shape and interdendritic, and with matrix mortise, serve the effect of strengthening and stable crystal boundary.Meanwhile, also can in and molten metal in the element such as element of Fe, Cu, form dystectic compound or make them be uniformly distributed in the whole crystalline structure in interdendritic, eliminate dendritic structure, to improve the over-all properties of alloy material.The content of described rare earth element is 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, is preferably 0.03 ~ 2.5wt%, is more preferably 0.05 ~ 1.5wt%, most preferably is 0.1 ~ 0.6wt%.
According to the present invention, for the base aluminum in aluminium alloy, can adopt the fine aluminium of industrial Al99.70, aluminium alloy prepared by the present invention has the advantages such as raw material supply abundance, cost is low, buying is convenient; Simultaneously aluminium base refined aluminium or the high-purity grade of aluminium of can also adopting is as matrix alloy, and this is aluminium base has higher quality than conventional aluminium sill, and the product be processed into has more advantage at electrical property and mechanical properties.
The invention provides a kind of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, described aluminium alloy is base with aluminium, and with the addition of the iron of trace, aluminium can form Al with iron 3fe, the Al of precipitation 3fe dispersed granules inhibits the creep strain of alloy, and part Fe also forms AlFeRE compound with RE and separates out, and precipitated phase AlFeRE can strengthen the anti-fatigue performance of alloy and the resistance toheat of hot operation, and rare earth compound precipitated phase can also improve yield strength intensity; Copper forms θ phase with aluminium, serves good effect for the tensile strength and yield strength improving aluminium alloy; Vanadium formed with the element such as Fe, Cu, RE in alloy melt al-based compound be distributed in aluminium base in, there is High-Temperature Strengthening effect, improve the thermotolerance of aluminium alloy; Chromium forms β-GrAl in aluminium alloy 7, η-Gr 27 kinds of dispersivity High-Temperature Strengthening phases such as Al, have refinement cast structure, the ability of heat resistanceheat resistant crackle when material crystalline, and chromium also can put forward heavy alloyed wear resistance; Rare earth element is surface active element, can integrated distribution on crystal boundary face, reduce pulling force between phase and phase, thus make grain refining.The present invention, by adding Determination of multiple metal elements and the control to constituent content, is conducive to the raising of aluminium alloy over-all properties.
Present invention also offers a kind of preparation method of Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprise the following steps:
A) raw material of following composition is cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, the Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus,
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after Homogenization Treatments is rolled, obtains Aluminum alloy pole material;
C) Aluminum alloy pole material step b) obtained carries out intermittent type anneal;
D) Aluminum alloy pole material step c) obtained carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
According to the present invention, step a) is casting process, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, fully melt to make various element, be uniformly distributed, preferably, above-mentioned casting technique specifically comprises: dropped into by aluminium ingot in smelting furnace, in closed environment, be heated to 720 ~ 800 DEG C and be incubated, Fe is added again after aluminium ingot fusing, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr or Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Al-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, after stirring, add rare earth elements RE, obtain alloy melt, described alloy melt is added refining agent, carries out furnace refining, insulation 20 ~ 40min, obtains aluminium alloy, by described aluminium alloy through degasification, slagging-off, enter casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot.Due to aluminium not easily scaling loss, and add-on is more, therefore first aluminium is added smelting furnace, then adds other metallic element.Alloying element of the present invention preferably adopts said sequence to add, and loss does not occur after making various element melting, and various element can fully melt simultaneously, is uniformly distributed.
Step b) is the Homogenization Treatments stage, and the temperature of described Homogenization Treatments is preferably 450 ~ 550 DEG C, and be more preferably 480 DEG C ~ 520 DEG C, the time of described Homogenization Treatments is preferably 2 ~ 8h, is more preferably 3 ~ 6h.Aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, and can ensure that ingot casting is in the process of rolling pole stock, its intensity and ductility have good coupling, thus avoid adopting traditional way cause the destruction of material microstructure and affect processing characteristics further.In order to ensure that ingot casting is heated evenly, the weave construction of optimized alloy, avoid alloy in the course of processing owing to heating up or the too fast generation causing internal structural defects of lowering the temperature, the heat-up rate of described Homogenization Treatments is preferably 3 ~ 8 DEG C/min, is more preferably 5 DEG C/min.After aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, then by aluminium alloy cast ingot rolling, obtain Aluminum alloy pole material.
Subsequently Aluminum alloy pole material is heat-treated, first Aluminum alloy pole material is carried out batch anneal process in the lehr.Described batch anneal process is specially: described Aluminum alloy pole material is heated to 280 ~ 350 DEG C, and lower the temperature after insulation 2 ~ 8h, temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 DEG C, cools after insulation 2 ~ 4h.In order to avoid aluminum alloy materials, oxidation at high temperature occur and cause material to weaken in electrical property and surface corrosion resistance energy, described anneal is preferably carried out under an inert atmosphere.The present invention adopts intermittent type substep anneal, and progressively cooling down, the internal stress that this kind of processing mode can be eliminated to produce in mechanical processing process and the damage to microtexture, optimize crystalline structure, recover the electrical property of wire rod, optimize mechanical property, make the tensile property of material, flexility and anti-fatigue performance aspect keep coupling preferably.
After Aluminum alloy pole material is carried out anneal, then the Aluminum alloy pole material after anneal is carried out ageing treatment.Described ageing treatment is preferably carry out in 5 ~ 15KV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field.The temperature of described ageing treatment is preferably 250 ~ 320 DEG C, is more preferably 280 ~ 300 DEG C, and the time of described ageing treatment is preferably 4 ~ 20h, is more preferably 8 ~ 15h, most preferably is 10 ~ 13h.Ageing treatment is carried out on the basis of anneal technology, heat conduction in annealing process can be made up further uneven, cause the feature of performance profile inequality or local defect inside and outside material.The performance of whole material can be made to reach by ageing treatment to be uniformly distributed, properties overall target reaches all good coupling.Therefore anneal and ageing treatment, both effectively combine, and the optimization for material monolithic performance serves vital effect, and Neither of the two can be dispensed.The present invention preferably carries out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of high strength, and first aspect changes the arrangement of atom, coupling and migration, and second aspect, improves the solid solution degree of alloying element, induce the homogeneous nucleation of T1 phase, improve the yield strength of alloy; After making the sample of Homogenization Treatments carry out ageing treatment, precipitated phase even dispersion distributes, and the mechanical property of alloy improves greatly; The third aspect, changes precipitation form and the quantity of fine crystals tissue, makes that the orientations such as form, size, distribution occur in material solid state phase transformation and is controlled, thus controls materials microstructure, the excellent mechanical property of final acquisition and electric property.
Present invention also offers a kind of preparation method of aluminium alloy, first Homogenization Treatments is carried out by ingot casting, then the aluminium alloy cast ingot of Homogenization Treatments is rolled into pole stock and puts into annealing furnace again, carry out anneal, ageing treatment is carried out again in uniform electric field, make the tensile property of material, flexility, electrical property, corrosion resistance nature and anti-fatigue performance aspect keep preferably coupling, and the performance of whole material is reached be uniformly distributed, thus obtain the good aluminium alloy of over-all properties.Aluminum alloy materials of the present invention is by adding multiple alloying element and adopting heat treatment technics, greatly improve the resistance toheat of fine aluminium, make this aluminum alloy materials long-time running temperature at 234 DEG C, creep is less, tensile strength keeps the survival rate of 90%, ensure that mechanical property changes less under hot operation, anti-fatigue performance also obtain good raising simultaneously, the number of times of bending repeatedly of aluminium alloy reaches 37 times, can avoid the loss in various degree occurred in installation process as conductor thread core like this; And make the snappiness of alloy fairly good by heat treatment technics, cable installs bending radius more than 4.5 times of outside diameters of cable, substantially increase the ductility of aluminium alloy, unit elongation is more than 32%, damage phenomenon can not be easily there is due to pulling force effect, and processing characteristics is very good, be applicable to be drawn into the monofilament that filament diameter differs in size at more than 0.1mm.
Present invention also offers a kind of power cable, described power cable comprises core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, described core is aluminium alloy, described aluminium alloy contains the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, the Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, be greater than the Si that zero is less than or equal to 0.2wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus, the preparation method of described aluminium alloy is prepared by the method according to such scheme.Preparation method the present invention of described power cable does not have special restriction, is mode well known to those skilled in the art.
Using the core of the aluminium alloy in such scheme of the present invention as power cable, power cable can be made to have good over-all properties, experimental result shows: aluminium alloy electric conductivity prepared by the present invention is greater than 60%, tensile strength is greater than 125MPa, elongation at break is greater than 32%, and long-time running heat resisting temperature can reach 234 DEG C, and after heat-resisting test run(s), intensity survival rate can reach 90%, 90 degree repeatedly bend number of times and reach 37 times, and the mass loss of 400h corrosion resistance nature is less than 0.9g/m 2hr, minimum bending radius is greater than 4.5 times of outside diameters of cable, and monofilament minimum diameter is greater than 0.1m.
In order to understand the present invention further, be described in detail to aluminium alloy provided by the invention and preparation method thereof below in conjunction with embodiment, protection scope of the present invention is not limited by the following examples.
Embodiment 1
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 720 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr pure metal, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 650 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 5 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 450 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 6h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 280 DEG C of insulation 2h, then annealing temperature is down to 150 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 5kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 250 DEG C, and aging time is 4h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 2
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 740 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr pure metal, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 720 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 3 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 550 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 16h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 360 DEG C of insulation 8h, then annealing temperature is down to 200 DEG C of insulation 2h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 15kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 320 DEG C, and aging time is 20h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 3
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 760 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 680 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 8 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 500 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 10h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 300 DEG C of insulation 4h, then annealing temperature is down to 160 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 10kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 260 DEG C, and aging time is 10h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 4
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 780 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 750 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 5 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 480 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 8h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 350 DEG C of insulation 4h, then annealing temperature is down to 170 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 12kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 260 DEG C, and aging time is 14h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 5
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 800 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr pure metal, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 700 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 6 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 490 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 18h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 320 DEG C of insulation 6h, then annealing temperature is down to 190 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 12kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 310 DEG C, and aging time is 16h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 6
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 730 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 800 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 7 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 460 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 14h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 350 DEG C of insulation 7h, then annealing temperature is down to 190 DEG C of insulation 4h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 11kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 305 DEG C, and aging time is 18h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 7
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 750 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr pure metal, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 720 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 4 DEG C/min heats up, temperature to 470 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 12h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 DEG C of insulation 5h, then annealing temperature is down to 170 DEG C of insulation 4h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 12.5kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 315 DEG C, and aging time is 17h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 8
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 790 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 750 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 5 DEG C/min heats up, temperature 510 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 13h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 310 DEG C of insulation 5h, then annealing temperature is down to 170 DEG C of insulation 4h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 8kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 285 DEG C, and aging time is 14h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 9
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 760 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Be, Ca, Zn, Sr, Zr, Si, B, Li, Na, K, Ti, V and Cr pure metal, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 25min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 690 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 5 DEG C/min heats up, temperature 480 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 14h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 DEG C of insulation 4h, then annealing temperature is down to 190 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 11kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 295 DEG C, and aging time is 15h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Embodiment 10
(1) drop in smelting furnace by aluminium ingot, heating makes it fusing and is incubated at 740 DEG C, and melting process completes in sealed environment; First add Al-Fe, Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Co, Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-Zn, Zn-Sr, Al-Zr, Al-Si, Al-B, Al-Li, Al-Na, Al-K, Al-Ti, Al-V and Al-Cr master alloy, add rare earth RE after stirring again and stir 20min until stir, leave standstill insulation 30min; Then furnace refining is carried out to above-mentioned alloy melt; In alloy melt, add refining agent, and stir, then leave standstill insulation 30min, melt refining operates in sealed environment; Slag hitting after refining, leave standstill, temperature adjustment to 800 DEG C, aluminium alloy is toppled over and is come out of the stove, then through degasification, except after Slag treatment, enters casting machine and cast, obtain aluminium alloy cast ingot, and ingot casting becomes to be respectively in table 1;
(2) speed of the aluminium alloy cast ingot that step (1) obtains being carried out 5 DEG C/min heats up, temperature 530 DEG C, is rolled into pole stock after insulation 15h;
(3) pole stock that step (2) obtains is carried out anneal under an inert atmosphere, be heated to 340 DEG C of insulation 7h, then annealing temperature is down to 160 DEG C of insulation 3h, be cooled to room temperature;
(4) pole stock step (3) obtained is carry out ageing treatment in the uniform electric field of 13kV/cm in strength of electric field, and aging temp is 275 DEG C, and aging time is 19h, obtains aluminium alloy.
The aluminium alloy prepared according to the method described above is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Comparative example 1
Choose the standard aluminium ingot of 99.7% purity, the outer content of its impurity silica removal, iron, copper is no more than 0.02wt%; Described aluminium ingot is put into molten aluminium stove to melt, add the yttrium of the zirconium of 0.15wt%, the copper of 0.25wt%, the iron of 0.70wt% and 0.25wt%, alloying temperature is 750 DEG C; Through homogenizing stirring, refining degasification, slag making, slagging-off, aluminum alloy melt refining temperature is 725 DEG C, with solid insulating covering agent aluminium coating aluminium alloy surface, leaves standstill 60min, carries out stokehold chemical composition analysis, monitor, adjusts with control element content; Aluminium liquid is carried out continuous casting, obtains aluminium alloy cast bar; Aluminium alloy cast bar is rolled into aluminium alloy rod, and it is 500 DEG C that aluminium alloy cast bar enters to roll temperature, and the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod is 250 DEG C; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out bracing wire process, and pull wire speed is 20 meter per seconds, repeatedly after bracing wire, is drawn into required high-strength heat-resisting aluminum-alloy circle line; Described aluminum alloy round line is carried out Tempering and Quenching, and temperature is 200 DEG C, and the time is 120min, by the aluminum alloy round line cooling after thermal treatment, obtains heat-resisting aluminium alloy circle line.The aluminum alloy round line of preparation is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Comparative example 2
Select eight tons of aluminium ingots, its foreign matter content (except silicon, iron, copper) is no more than 0.02wt%, put into circular aluminum melting furnace fusing, add the rare earth of the zirconium of 0.10wt%, the copper of 0.02wt%, the iron of 0.35wt%, the silicon of 0.20wt% and 0.35wt%, alloying temperature is 730 DEG C simultaneously; Through homogenizing stirring, refining degasification, slag making, slagging-off, aluminum alloy melt refining temperature is 725 DEG C, with solid insulating covering agent aluminium coating aluminium alloy surface, leaves standstill 40min, carries out stokehold chemical composition analysis, monitor, adjusts with control element content; Aluminium liquid is carried out continuous casting, obtains aluminium alloy cast bar; Aluminium alloy cast bar is rolled into aluminium alloy rod, and it is 500 DEG C that aluminium alloy cast bar enters to roll temperature, and the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod is 250 DEG C; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out bracing wire process, and pull wire speed is 10 meter per seconds, repeatedly after bracing wire, is drawn into required high-strength heat-resisting aluminum-alloy circle line; Described aluminum alloy round line is carried out Tempering and Quenching, and temperature is 200 DEG C, and the time is 200min, by the aluminum alloy round line cooling after thermal treatment, obtains heat-resisting aluminium alloy circle line.The aluminum alloy round line of preparation is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
Comparative example 3
The aluminium ingot that purity is greater than 99.70wt% is added in shaft furnace, be warming up to 750 DEG C, aluminium ingot is melted, temperature is increased to 750 DEG C, add the Er of Y, 0.23wt% of Sc, 0.33wt% of Ca, 0.13wt% of Zr, 0.29wt% of Mg, 0.13wt% of Cu, 0.15wt% of Fe, 0.11wt% of 0.86wt% successively, make it dissolve completely, and regulate alloying constituent to setting range, alloying element is all add with the form of aluminium intermediate alloy; At 760 DEG C of insulation 30min, then add the refining agent of 0.15wt%, carry out removing the gred, degasification, and then be cast into aluminum alloy casting; Aluminum alloy casting is imported milling train, and the temperature importing milling train is 450 DEG C, imports milling train and becomes the finishing temperature of aluminium alloy rod to be 300 DEG C; Aluminium alloy rod is carried out the cold drawn aluminum alloy line being processed into 3.0mm, is drawn into aluminum alloy line by 7 and carries out stranded, be prepared into conductor thread core; Described aluminium alloy conductor is carried out anneal, and annealing temperature is 370 DEG C, and the time is 12h, stop body of heater heating, then annealing furnace is Sino-Japan so cools, and takes out, obtain aluminium alloy conductor after 24h from stove.The aluminium alloy conductor of preparation is carried out performance test, and result is see table 2.
The component list (wt%) of aluminium alloy prepared by table 1 embodiment
Component list (continued) (wt%) of aluminium alloy prepared by table 1 embodiment
The performance test data table of aluminium alloy prepared by table 2 embodiment and comparative example
The performance test data table (continued) of aluminium alloy prepared by table 2 embodiment and comparative example
Relatively can find out by table 2, aluminum alloy materials of the present invention has obvious advantage from over-all properties, particularly long-time running heat resisting temperature can reach 234 DEG C, and intensity survival rate can reach 90% after heat-resisting test run(s), 90 degree repeatedly bend number of times and reach 37 times, minimum bending radius is greater than 4.5 times of outside diameters of cable, and 400h anti-corrosion test mass loss is less than 0.9g/m 2hr, monofilament minimum machining diameter is greater than 0.1mm.
The explanation of above embodiment just understands method of the present invention and core concept thereof for helping.It should be pointed out that for those skilled in the art, under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention, can also carry out some improvement and modification to the present invention, these improve and modify and also fall in the protection domain of the claims in the present invention.
To the above-mentioned explanation of the disclosed embodiments, professional and technical personnel in the field are realized or uses the present invention.To be apparent for those skilled in the art to the multiple amendment of these embodiments, General Principle as defined herein can without departing from the spirit or scope of the present invention, realize in other embodiments.Therefore, the present invention can not be restricted to these embodiments shown in this article, but will meet the widest scope consistent with principle disclosed herein and features of novelty.

Claims (10)

1. an Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, comprising:
The Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%; The Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%; The Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%; The Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%; The V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%; The Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%; The RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%; Be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt%; The aluminium of surplus.
2. aluminium alloy according to claim 1, is characterized in that, comprises the Fe of 0.25 ~ 0.6wt%.
3. aluminium alloy according to claim 1, is characterized in that, comprises the RE of 0.1 ~ 0.6wt%.
4. aluminium alloy according to claim 1, is characterized in that, comprises the Cr of 0.003 ~ 0.10wt%.
5. a preparation method for Al-Fe-Cr-RE aluminium alloy, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
A) aluminium alloy cast ingot of following composition is cast: the Fe of 0.01 ~ 1.6wt%, the Cu of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Mg of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Co of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Be of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Ca of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zn of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the Sr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Zr of 0.001 ~ 0.3wt%, the Li of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Na of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the K of 0.002 ~ 0.25wt%, the Ti of 0.001 ~ 0.2wt%, the V of 0.001 ~ 0.15wt%, the Cr of 0.001 ~ 0.12wt%, the RE of 0.01 ~ 3.0wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the Si of 0.2wt%, be greater than zero and be less than or equal to the B of 0.8wt% and the aluminium of surplus,
B) described aluminium alloy cast ingot is carried out Homogenization Treatments, the aluminium alloy cast ingot after Homogenization Treatments is rolled, obtains Aluminum alloy pole material;
C) by step b) Aluminum alloy pole material that obtains carries out intermittent type anneal;
D) by step c) Aluminum alloy pole material that obtains carries out ageing treatment, obtains aluminium alloy.
6. preparation method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, the temperature of described Homogenization Treatments is 450 ~ 550 DEG C, and the time of described Homogenization Treatments is 6 ~ 16h, and the heat-up rate of described Homogenization Treatments is 3 ~ 8 DEG C/min.
7. preparation method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described step c) be specially:
By step b) Aluminum alloy pole material that obtains is heated to 280 ~ 350 DEG C, and lower the temperature after insulation 2 ~ 8h, temperature is down to 150 ~ 200 DEG C, cools after insulation 2 ~ 4h.
8. preparation method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described ageing treatment is carry out in 5 ~ 15kV/cm uniform electric field in strength of electric field.
9. preparation method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, the temperature of described ageing treatment is 250 ~ 320 DEG C, and the time of described ageing treatment is 4 ~ 20h.
10. a power cable, comprises core, insulation layer, screen layer and protective layer, it is characterized in that, described core is the aluminium alloy described in Claims 1 to 4 any one or the aluminium alloy prepared by claim 5 ~ 9 any one.
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