CN102986376A - Corn stalk harvesting and storing method - Google Patents

Corn stalk harvesting and storing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102986376A
CN102986376A CN2012104920564A CN201210492056A CN102986376A CN 102986376 A CN102986376 A CN 102986376A CN 2012104920564 A CN2012104920564 A CN 2012104920564A CN 201210492056 A CN201210492056 A CN 201210492056A CN 102986376 A CN102986376 A CN 102986376A
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China
Prior art keywords
skin
straw
flesh
stalk
maize straw
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CN2012104920564A
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CN102986376B (en
Inventor
李洪法
宋明信
黄洪星
华新生
毕衍金
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Heilongjiang Quanlin Ecological Agriculture Co. Ltd.
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SHANDONG QUALIN PAPER INDUSTRY Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201210492056.4A priority Critical patent/CN102986376B/en
Publication of CN102986376A publication Critical patent/CN102986376A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a corn stalk harvesting and storing method, comprising the steps of 1) harvesting corn stalks in a farmland by utilizing a farm-oriented harvester; 2) during harvesting, separating the harvested corn stalks by adopting mechanical means of extruding, grinding, twisting, tearing, smashing by stirring or rubbing into silks, so as to obtain the separated corn stalk pulp, leaves and corn stalk skin, and preferably tearing, smashing by stirring and separating by virtue of a crop stalk separating device arranged in the farm-oriented harvester to obtain the separated corn stalk pulp, leaves and corn stalk skins; and 3) collecting the corn stalk skins obtained in the step (2) as fibrous materials used for papermaking, generating and fibrous raw materials used for fibers when moisture content is 15-45%, and the corn stalk pulp and leaves can be recycled as feed or are used for producing lactic acid or ethanol by virtue of fermentation. The corn stalk harvesting and storing method provided by the invention can realize the whole process from harvest to storage of the corn stalks by virtue of field operation only, so that manpower and materials are saved; and tearing, smashing by stirring and separating of the corn stalk skins and the corn stalk pulp also can be realized, and the aim of fully utilizing the corn stalk can be achieved.

Description

A kind of method of storing up of maize straw
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of processing method of maize straw, relate in particular to a kind of method of storing up of maize straw.
Background technology
Maize straw and timber belong to the recyclability lignocellulose resource by photosynthesis accumulation, but timber is utilized in a large number, and maize straw burns in a large number or discard.Its major reason be the cornstalk biological stalk inhomogeneity, be that skin, flesh, leaf etc. respectively account for certain proportion, and the chemical composition of each several part and fibre morphology are widely different.The maize straw that the present invention adopts is taken from respectively Yanshou County, Heilongjiang Province and Gongzhuling of Jilin Province city, and these two kinds of stalk analyses are obtained such as table 1 data, and these two parts of leaf and flesh have accounted for more than 60% of maize straw total amount as can be seen from Table 1.Blade mechanism intensity is very little, easily forms powder during pulverizing; Flesh density is very little, fluffy softness, and water imbibition is strong, and mechanical strength is extremely low; The fiber content of crust is the highest in each several part, be again mechanical strength The cream of the crop in the maize straw simultaneously, but content is relatively less.At present, the comprehensive utilization of maize straw still belongs to the simple utilization of lower level on processing stage.Because intensity is high, the fibre composition of good toughness says that in the crust of stalk, the nutrient component of stalk then is contained in its leaf and the flesh.Under normal conditions, because the crust and the mutually mutual interference of interior flesh of maize straw, difficulty has new application.Therefore, how the skin flesh with stalk separates, and widens application, improves application performance, improves value, just becomes the key of maize straw comprehensive utilization.
CN102490238A discloses the separating method of maize straw skin flesh, and it relates to the processing method of maize straw.The present invention will solve the crust and the mutually mutual interference of interior flesh of maize straw, and the existence of maize straw flesh has reduced the technical problem of maize straw particle board quality to a great extent.The inventive method is as follows: step 1, the corn straw smashing that will just separate through having seperator now; Step 2, with the maize straw bull screen except scleroma part and dust; Step 3, will again pulverize through the maize straw particle that step 2 is processed, then dry; Step 4, the maize straw particle that step 3 is processed divide by the 10-50 mesh sieve successively, again with the maize straw particle classification selection by winnowing of different meshes; Namely realized the separation of maize straw skin flesh.The purity of skin is fit to do the raw material of producing the maize straw skin flakeboard up to more than 90% in the maize straw skin particle that obtains at last.
After " maize straw skin, flesh separate and fully utilize feasible " (referring to Wang Ying, Wang Yanping etc. " maize straw skin, flesh separate and fully utilize feasible ") have proposed the skin flesh process separating treatment with maize straw, because the wood fibre cellulose content of skin is high, can replace timber, reed etc., be good paper making raw material; Flesh contains more sugar, protein and starch, can be used as the first-class roughage of the ruminants such as cattle and sheep.
The separating effect of existing corn stalk skin-pulp separator is not very desirable, and will first maize straw be collected again and separate with seperator, has wasted a large amount of man power and materials; Maize straw is not well utilized yet simultaneously.
And also there are problems in the storage of maize straw.At present, the main banking system of maize straw has open-air preservation, booth to preserve, dry, shine post-drying, ensiling, little storage or ammonification etc." different banking systems are on the impact of maize straw nutrient component " [referring to Jin Jiaming. different banking systems are on the impact [J] of maize straw nutrient component, feed industry, 2010,31(17): 40-41] by experimental study the impacts of different banking systems (preserve in the open, booth is preserved, oven dry, shine post-drying, ensiling and ammonification) on nutrient components such as maize straw water soluble carbohydrates (WSC).The result shows: oven dry and booth store method are conducive to maize straw CP(crude protein) etc. preservation and the WSC content of nutriment also high, open-air preservation is the most worthless a kind of method." micro preservation of corn stalk exist problem and key technology " (cultivate in the field. problem and key technology [J] that micro preservation of corn stalk exists) main cause of having analyzed present little storage has following 4 aspects: 1. temperature problem.Making little storage many is that complete carrying out later stored in the field crop harvesting in busy farming season, and generally about mid-November, this moment, temperature reached below 0 ℃, was unfavorable for the breeding fermentation of lactobacillus inoculation; 2. moisture problem.Do not consider exactly the content of the former moisture of stalk when adding moisture, the required moisture of the little storage science of not carrying out is calculated and strict control in the manufacturing process simultaneously; 3. living contaminants problem.In the dress cellar for storing things process, be difficult to accomplish " fast-assembling is stored soon " at aspects such as the design at little storage cellar for storing things and organizing and implementing, that this process has even continue several days, so that the material of little storage is increased by the chance of other living contaminantses; 4. sealing problem.In the process at dress cellar for storing things, do not have abundant compacting, particularly after the envelope cellar for storing things, have ventilative and drainage." maize straw is stored up selecting of new technology and corollary equipment " [Wang Dezhong. maize straw is stored up select [J] of new technology and corollary equipment, the mechanization of pastoral area, rural area, 2011, (1): 26] proposed a kind of " whole strain maize straw---cut off silkization---trailer transhipment---compress pack---piling storage---hello raise cattle and sheep or industrialized utilization " maize straw store up new technology, but the method fails to make maize straw to be fully utilized.(5) manpower problem.How make little storage, ensiling and ammonification, be that the field crop harvesting is stored and carried out after complete in busy farming season, and the peasant is busy with the results of crops, has no idea to recruit the basic work that staff is collected, transported and do little storage, ensiling and ammonification.(6) the maize straw moisture content of harvesting is greater than 70%, and the compression packing can cause and go mouldy, and whole strain transportation useful load is few, and cost of transportation is excessive.
Summary of the invention
For addressing the above problem, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of storing up of maize straw, the method is not only by farm work, just can realize maize straw from gathering in to the whole process that stores, thereby greatly save the man power and material; But also can realize tearing, blend, separating of maize straw skin flesh, and its separation rate can reach 95%, and sorting net rate can reach 99%; And can make maize straw reach the purpose that takes full advantage of.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of method of storing up of maize straw, wherein: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
When 2) gathering in, the maize straw of harvesting separates the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin through the mechanical means that silk was rubbed, tears, blends or rubbed to extruding, stone roller with the hands; The separator for agricultural crop straw is separated that preferably arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the upper corn stalk skin that obtains that goes on foot treats to collect when moisture is 15~45% the fibrous raw material of using as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
Wherein, step 2) separator that is used for agricultural crop straw is separated described in is for blending agricultural crop straw, and the stalk separator that straw skin, flesh, leaf are separated, described stalk separator comprises that a rotary periphery is with the structure that maize straw can be blended and flesh and a leaf structure with the porose stalk that can leak down to blend of a plurality of teeth.
Among the present invention, described separator for agricultural crop straw is separated is maize straw skin flesh leaf separator.
Among the present invention, described maize straw skin flesh leaf separator comprises charging aperture, and discharging opening is used for tearing, blending maize straw, the axial-flow type drum of separating corn straw skin flesh leaf be used to leak down to separate after flesh and the sieve of leaf, between axial-flow type drum and the sieve certain interval is arranged.
Among the present invention, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum is 900-1000r/min, preferred 950-1000r/min; Gap between described axial-flow type drum and the sieve is 5mm-20mm, preferred 5mm, 10mm, 15mm or 20mm.
Among the present invention, step 2) the corn stalk suitcase described in is drawn together straw skin and the straw skin silk of strip, and remaining on the corn stalk skin of described strip have a flesh.
Among the present invention, the remaining quantity of described flesh on the straw skin of strip is not higher than 5%, preferably is not higher than 3%, and more preferably 0.5~2.5%.
Among the present invention, described straw skin silk comprises the straw skin silk one by one and the straw skin tow that is incorporated on the skin after skin flesh leaf separates; The length of the straw skin of described strip is not more than 45cm; Described straw skin tow is included in the straw skin tow that tubercle position and leather block close or the straw skin silk that is incorporated into the partial continuous on the skin; On the described skin along the slight crack that the straw skin silk that forms partial continuous is arranged on the stalk longitudinal direction.
Among the present invention: step 3) is described treats that moisture is collected as in the fields airing or the air-dry bundling of collecting when being 15~45% to moisture when being 15~45%; Described airing or when air-dry, the initial aqueous rate in the corn stalk skin is 50%~75%, stops airing or air-dry when moisture is 15~45% to the end.
Among the present invention, the quality percentage composition of water-soluble sugar is 10.0-17.5% in the described maize straw straw skin, and the quality percentage composition of holocellulose is 67.57-71.26%, and the quality percentage composition of lignin is 12.91-15.85%.
Realize that the method reasonable selection corollary equipment of storing up of the present invention is crucial, the equipment of processing on the market at present agricultural crop straw is a lot, but will note supporting science, reasonability when selecting, and makes the equipment performance maximum efficiency of apolegamy, guarantee the continuity of production, reach the optimum productivity index.Owing to be the crop stem of harvesting in the field, therefore will select can be at the equipment of limit, field walking edge work, with the conveniently moving that guarantees equipment, flexibly, realizes farm work.The present invention selects agricultural harvester, also can realize the separation of skin flesh leaf in harvesting.And at the supporting skin flesh leaf separator of agricultural harvester installation, this device can adopt multiple mechanical type, adopts extruding, grind multiple mechanical means such as rubbing, tear, blend, rub silk with the hands, thereby reaches the technique effect with the skin flesh leaf separation of maize straw.Stalk after the present invention will process is in the field airing, impact by factors such as air oxidation, ultraviolet ray irradiations, thereby play the effect of sterilization, make the maize straw raw material for preparing be difficult for going mouldy, shelf-life prolongs, and can accelerate the oxidation Decomposition of sugar in the stalk, Protein components, thereby further reduces the content of impurity in the fibrous raw material, further improve cellulosic content, thereby more adapt to the commercial Application such as papermaking.
Agricultural harvester of the present invention comprises chassis 4, power set, electric device, hydraulic system, driver's cabin 5, the receipts stem ceding of Taiwan 1 of harvesting corn stalk, maize straw is torn, blend, and with skin, flesh, the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 that leaf separates, maize straw under the harvesting is transported to maize straw is torn, blend and with skin, flesh, the defeated stem device 2 of the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 that leaf separates, between each structure or each structure directly use securing member to connect with the chassis, guarantee bonding strength, avoid in the process of harvesting corn stalk, accident occurring.
Described maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 comprise be used to the axial-flow type drum 11 of tearing, blend maize straw and separating corn straw skin flesh leaf be used to leak down to separate after flesh and the sieve 12 of leaf.
Described axial-flow type drum 11 is provided with a plurality of teeth be used to tearing, blend maize straw and separating corn straw skin flesh leaf.
Described tooth is one or more in screw-shaped bar tooth, spike tooth or the dull and stereotyped tooth.
Described sieve 12 is provided with a plurality of maize straw fleshes of separation and holes that leaf passes through of supplying.
The described receipts stem ceding of Taiwan 1 is provided with cutter A, the downward-sloping certain angle of described cutter A along continuous straight runs, the maize straw that can avoid like this being cut off by cutter A is not cut by cutter when also not entering grain header again, can not enter grain header and blends so that one section stalk drops to ground.
Described maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 also comprises straw skin dispersal device 6 and anti-block apparatus 7.
Straw skin dispersal device 6 can be avoided maize straw skin to be sticked together and guide maize straw skin to be scattering into a side of grain header, can avoid like this trailing wheel of grain header to roll the straw skin that is scattering into the ground, better to store up.Because harvesting time, the water content of maize straw was higher, the flesh after the separation and leaf are all very moist, be easy to occur alluvial and stop up behind 12 the hole of sifting out, and have had anti-block apparatus 7 can allow the flesh of separator well and leaf fall very smoothly.
Described agricultural harvester also comprises receives stem cutting table auger 8, chain harrow assembly 9, cut flow roller 10, oscillating screen plate 13, distributes screw feeder 14 and fan 15.
Realize the tearing of maize straw, blend and the separating of skin, flesh, leaf that the rotating speed of axial-flow type drum 11 is very crucial, among the present invention, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum 11 is 900~1000r/min, preferred 950~1000r/min.
Obtain good separating effect, according to the crop situation, the gap that regulates between axial-flow type drum 11 and the sieve 12 is very important, the fourth gear gap is arranged for this reason, be 5mm, 10mm, 15mm, 20mm, when crop is moist, use little gap between axial-flow type drum 11 and the sieve 12, when crop is dry, use large gap between cylinder and the sieve.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following advantage:
(1) adopts method of the present invention, by farm work, just can realize maize straw from gathering in to the whole process that stores, thereby greatly save the man power and material;
(2) adopt method of the present invention, can realize tearing, blend, separating of maize straw skin flesh, its separation rate can reach 95%, and sorting net rate can reach 99%;
(3) adopt method of the present invention, the flesh of separated maize straw can directly fall into the field and be used for also field, also can collect and make feed or as the raw material of fermentation lactic acid, ethanol, the skin of the maize straw that separates then can be collected the fibrous raw material of using as papermaking, generating or clothes by bundling after air-dry;
(4) adopt method of the present invention, the skin of the maize straw of separation moisture behind natural drying is lower than 30%, has effectively prevented the generation of going mouldy, rotting.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structure chart of agricultural harvester of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is that maize straw is carried schematic diagram among the present invention;
Fig. 3 is straw skin dispersal device and anti-block apparatus installation site schematic diagram in the corn picker of the present invention;
Wherein:
The defeated stem device of 1---receiving the stem ceding of Taiwan, 2---, 3---maize straw skin flesh leaf separator, 4---the chassis, 5---driver's cabin, 6---the straw skin dispersal device, 7---anti-block apparatus, 8---receive the stem cutting table auger, 9---the chain harrow assembly, 10---cut flow roller, 11---axial-flow type drum, 12---sieve, 13---oscillating screen plate, 14---distribute screw feeder, 15---fan.
Embodiment
Below be the specific embodiment of the present invention, described embodiment is in order to further describe the present invention, rather than restriction the present invention.
Embodiment 1
A kind of method of storing up of maize straw, wherein: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
2) the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator that the maize straw that gathers in arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the corn stalk skin that obtains of upper step in the fields airing or air-dryly collect when being 15~45% to moisture, fibrous raw material that bundling is used as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
Realize that the method reasonable selection corollary equipment of storing up of the present invention is crucial.Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the agricultural harvester that present embodiment adopts comprises chassis 4, power set, electric device, hydraulic system, driver's cabin 5, the receipts stem ceding of Taiwan 1 of harvesting corn stalk, maize straw is torn, blend, and with skin, flesh, the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 that leaf separates, maize straw under the harvesting is transported to maize straw is torn, blend and with skin, flesh, the defeated stem device 2 of the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 that leaf separates, between each structure or each structure directly use securing member to connect with the chassis, guarantee bonding strength, avoid in the process of harvesting corn stalk, accident occurring.
Described maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 comprise be used to the axial-flow type drum 11 of tearing, blend maize straw and separating corn straw skin flesh leaf be used to leak down to separate after flesh and the sieve 12 of leaf.
Described axial-flow type drum 11 is provided with a plurality of teeth be used to tearing, blend maize straw and separating corn straw skin flesh leaf.
Described tooth is one or more in screw-shaped bar tooth, spike tooth or the dull and stereotyped tooth.
Described sieve 12 is provided with a plurality of maize straw fleshes of separation and holes that leaf passes through of supplying.
The described receipts stem ceding of Taiwan 1 is provided with cutter A, the downward-sloping certain angle of described cutter A along continuous straight runs, the maize straw that can avoid like this being cut off by cutter A is not cut by cutter when also not entering grain header again, can not enter grain header and blends so that one section stalk drops to ground.
Described agricultural harvester also comprises receives stem cutting table auger 8, chain harrow assembly 9, cut flow roller 10, oscillating screen plate 13, distributes screw feeder 14 and fan 15.
Realize the tearing of maize straw, blend and the separating of skin, flesh, leaf that the rotating speed of axial-flow type drum d is very crucial, in the present embodiment, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum 11 is 950r/min.
Obtain good separating effect, according to the crop situation, the gap that regulates between axial-flow type drum and the sieve is very important, the fourth gear gap is arranged for this reason, be 5mm, 10mm, 15mm, 20mm, when crop is moist, use little gap between axial-flow type drum and the sieve, when crop is dry, use large gap between cylinder and the sieve.
Operation process is: be grown in the maize straw in the farmland, behind corn stage of wax ripeness harvesting corn, stalk is cut off by the receipts stem ceding of Taiwan 1 of agricultural harvester and enters into defeated stem device 2 by the receipts stem cutting table auger 8 in the ceding of Taiwan, stalk is delivered to cut flow roller 10 by the chain harrow assembly 9 in the defeated stem device 2 with the stalk that cuts off, stalk is thrown into maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 by cut flow roller 10, by the axial-flow type drum 11 of maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 and the effect of sieve 12 maize straw is torn, be divided into the stalk crust of strip, irregular block flesh and scutellate blade.Because the degree that maize straw is torn in being torn process is different, it is very wide that the stalk crust of strip has, and forms the maize straw skin graft; What have is then very thin, forms the maize straw skin silk.And in the maize straw skin silk, what have is combined with skin graft, and what have is not combined with skin graft; In conjunction with the skin silk at least in stalk tubercle part in conjunction with forming tow or being incorporated into the straw skin silk of the partial continuous on the skin, what be not combined with skin graft then forms the filament shape skin silk that one by one disengaging its length in skin outside is not more than the knot length of maize straw.The slight crack of the continuous straw skin silk of the slight crack of high-visible formation straw skin silk or forming section on the skin graft.Simultaneously, because the degree that is torn is different, the flesh on the maize straw skin partly is stripped from formation and is broken away from free flesh in skin graft, and part be not stripped from formation be attached on the skin graft in conjunction with flesh.Irregular block flesh and scutellate blade fall by the hole that the maize straw flesh that Gong separates and leaf pass through is set on the sieve 12, by distributing screw feeder 14 that it is delivered to the shake sieve plate 13 at grain header rear, flesh and blade act on the discharge of agricultural harvester rear by the shake of fan 15 and shake sieve plate 13, the stalk crust of strip is broken up rear discharge by straw skin dispersal device 6, fulfils assignment.
With stalk crust airing in the farmland of irregular block flesh, scutellate blade and strip, in the airing process, irregular block flesh partly becomes graininess, and scutellate blade also part becomes chip; When sampling detection moisture is 15% the stalk crust of strip is collected bundling.
Gained maize straw skin in the quality percentage composition of water-soluble sugar be 10.0%, the quality percentage composition of holocellulose is 71.26%, the quality percentage composition of lignin is 12.91%; The degree of crystallinity of described maize straw skin is 47.72%.Described maize straw skin comprises stalk skin graft and straw skin silk, and remaining on the described stalk skin graft have a flesh, and the remaining quantity of described flesh on the stalk skin graft is 0.5%.
Embodiment 2
A kind of method of storing up of maize straw, wherein: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
2) the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator that the maize straw that gathers in arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the corn stalk skin that obtains of upper step in the fields airing or air-dryly collect when being 15~45% to moisture, fibrous raw material that bundling is used as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
The employed agricultural harvester of present embodiment has further been set up straw skin dispersal device 6 and anti-block apparatus 7 on the basis of embodiment 1, referring to Fig. 3, its operation process is with embodiment 1.
Described straw skin dispersal device 6 is fixedly connected on the discharging opening of axial-flow type drum 11.Stalk crust by maize straw skin flesh leaf separator 3 isolated strips can present irregular arranging when being discharged on the ground, may be subject to rolling of rear wheel for harvester, because straw skin is hard and the fiber connectivity is good, phenomenon in heaps may occur simultaneously, be not easy to airing.So install straw skin dispersal device 6 additional, this device, is broken up straw skin and is had the guiding of device case that straw skin is broken up the ground of grain header one side uniformly by make the blade rotation in it with the kind of drive by cylinder, and is convenient to airing and bundling.
Described anti-block apparatus 7 is located at the bottom of sieve 12.If the leaf of the maize straw of harvesting and flesh are moist, water content is high, then stalk is after the irregular block flesh that produces under the effect of axial-flow type drum and sieve and scutellate blade are leaking down sieve, may adhere on the inwall of grain header, along with its continuous accumulation can make the sieve hole plug, cause the separating effect of stalk to weaken.So install this anti-block apparatus additional, by distributing screw feeder as main transmission, the mode by chain gear transmission drives anti-block apparatus, at anti-block apparatus constantly under the effect, the flesh that sticks on the inwall and leaf is entered smoothly distribute in the screw feeder, finishes detached job.
In the paper grade (stock) fibrous raw material of gained, relative over dry raw material, the quality percentage composition of water-soluble sugar is 17.5% in the described maize straw skin, and the quality percentage composition of holocellulose is 67.57%, and the quality percentage composition of lignin is 15.85%; The degree of crystallinity of described maize straw skin is 48.50%.Described maize straw skin comprises stalk skin graft and straw skin silk, and remaining on the described stalk skin graft have a flesh, and the remaining quantity of described flesh on the stalk skin graft is 2.5%.
In the present embodiment, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum 11 is 1000r/min.
Embodiment 3
A kind of method of storing up of maize straw, wherein: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
2) the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator that the maize straw that gathers in arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the corn stalk skin that obtains of upper step in the fields airing or air-dryly collect when being 15~45% to moisture, fibrous raw material that bundling is used as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
Described agricultural harvester is with embodiment 1.
In the paper grade (stock) fibrous raw material of gained, relative over dry raw material, the quality percentage composition of water-soluble sugar is 12.15% in the described maize straw skin, and the quality percentage composition of holocellulose is 68.32%, and the quality percentage composition of lignin is 13.85%; The degree of crystallinity of described maize straw skin is 47.96%.Described maize straw skin comprises straw skin and the straw skin silk of strip, and remaining on the described stalk skin graft have a flesh, and the remaining quantity of described flesh on the stalk skin graft is 0.5%.
In the present embodiment, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum 11 is 980r/minmin.
Embodiment 4
A kind of method of storing up of maize straw, wherein: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
2) the maize straw skin flesh leaf separator that the maize straw that gathers in arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the corn stalk skin that obtains of upper step in the fields airing or air-dryly collect when being 15~45% to moisture, fibrous raw material that bundling is used as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
Described agricultural harvester is with embodiment 2.
In the paper grade (stock) fibrous raw material of gained, relative over dry raw material, the quality percentage composition of water-soluble sugar is 13.28% in the described maize straw skin, and the quality percentage composition of holocellulose is 70.16%, and the quality percentage composition of lignin is 14.15%; The degree of crystallinity of described maize straw skin is 48.23%.Described maize straw skin comprises stalk skin graft and straw skin silk, and remaining on the described stalk skin graft have a flesh, and the remaining quantity of described flesh on the stalk skin graft is 1.0%.
In the present embodiment, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum 11 is 960r/min.
Test example 1
Copy the paper comparative trial
1, slurrying
Maize straw skin (being called for short contrast 2) the employing caustic soda-anthraquinone method pulping way of the sarconeme shape structure of the corn stalk skin (being called for short test) that the method for storing up of the embodiment of the invention 1 is obtained, the maize straw skin (being called for short contrast 1) of " the maize straw skin flesh separates and pulp-making test " and " design of corn combine stalks rubbing baler for bank and emulation ", in the 15L revolving digester, carry out, heating-up time is since 25 ℃ of meters, 100 ℃ of little steam bleedings, alkali charge 16%(is with Na 2The O meter), liquor ratio 1:5,160 ℃ of maximum temperatures, heating-up time 90min, temperature retention time 60min, anthraquinone consumption 0.05%.
2, bleaching
This test adopts traditional CEH tri-stage bleaching mode that the corn stalk latex that above-mentioned raw materials obtains is bleached.---washing---alkaline treatment (E)---washing---hypochlorite bleaching (H)---washing that technological process is: chlorination (C).Totally applied chlorine is 8%, and other technological parameters see Table 1.
Table 1, corn stalk latex bleaching process parameter
3, handsheet
The corn stalk latex that above-mentioned raw materials is obtained carries out the handsheet experiment with the automatic handsheet machine of PTI, quantitatively is 60g/m 2, quantitatively fluctuation is for ± 3.5%.
Measure whiteness, opacity, YI yellow index and pattern physical strength by the related standards method, measure and see Table 2.
Table 2, corn stalk skin bleach pulp performance test results
1 compare with contrast, of the present inventionly store up the prepared opacity of paper grade (stock) maize straw raw material that method obtains certain decline is arranged, the paper YI yellow index improves, but tensile index, burst index, tear index and folding endurance are improved; Contrast 2 then since flesh do not remove, contain a large amount of fleshes in the raw material so that the tensile index of paper, burst index and tear index not as good as the present invention, may be because the effect of flesh self fragility, and the brightness reversion phenomenon is more serious.Therefore, the Papermaking Performance of paper grade (stock) maize straw raw material of the present invention be better than contrasting 1 and the contrast 2.
Paper grade (stock) maize straw raw material to the method for the storing up gained of other embodiments of the invention has also carried out above-mentioned test, and the result of its acquisition is similar.
Test example 2
Store up experiment
The corn stalk skin that adopts the method for storing up of experimental example 1 of the present invention to store up is stored up comparative test with the paper grade (stock) maize straw raw material of prior art preparation under identical condition:
The maize straw skin that obtains by the method for storing up of embodiment 1 divides 3 batches (batch 1, batches 2 and batch 3), the maize straw skin silk that the method for storing up of prior art obtains divides 2 batches (contrast 1 and contrasts 2), and the equal bundling of above-mentioned stalk straw skin is become 330kg/m 3Bundle, then test:
1. hot conditions test
The above-mentioned stalk for preparing and is stored in the warehouse of clean, sealing, is 40 ℃ with the Temperature Setting in warehouse, and relative moisture is to place 15 days under 40 temperature, in sampling in the 5th day, the 10th day, the 15th day, detects the whether rotten of stalk sample.The results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3
2. super-humid conditions experiment
The above-mentioned stalk for preparing, with store in the warehouse of clean, sealing, be 25 ± 2 ℃ with the Temperature Setting in warehouse, placed 15 days under the condition of relative moisture 90 ± 5%, in sampling in the 5th day, the 10th day, the 15th day, detect the whether rotten of stalk sample.The results are shown in Table 4:
Table 4
3. hot and humid condition experiment
The above-mentioned stalk for preparing, with store in the warehouse of clean, sealing, be 35 ± 2 ℃ with the Temperature Setting in warehouse, placed 30 days under the condition of relative moisture 70 ± 5%, at duration of test respectively at sampling in 5,10,20,30 days once, detect the whether rotten of stalk sample.The results are shown in Table 5:
Table 5

Claims (10)

1. the method for storing up of a maize straw, it is characterized in that: the described method of storing up comprises the steps:
1) utilizes maize straw in the agricultural harvester harvesting farmland;
When 2) gathering in, the maize straw of harvesting separates the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin through the mechanical means that silk was rubbed, tears, blends or rubbed to extruding, stone roller with the hands; The separator for agricultural crop straw is separated that preferably arranges in agricultural harvester is torn, blends, is separated, the corn stalk flesh that obtains separating, leaf and corn stalk skin;
3) the upper corn stalk skin that obtains that goes on foot treats to collect when moisture is 15~45% the fibrous raw material of using as papermaking, generating or fiber; And corn stalk flesh and leaf reclaim capable of using as feed or pass through fermenting lactic acid or ethanol.
2. the method for storing up according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, step 2) separator that is used for agricultural crop straw is separated described in is for blending agricultural crop straw, and the stalk separator that straw skin, flesh, leaf are separated, described stalk separator comprises that a rotary periphery is with the structure that maize straw can be blended and flesh and a leaf structure with the porose stalk that can leak down to blend of a plurality of teeth.
3. the method for storing up according to claim 2 is characterized in that, described separator for agricultural crop straw is separated is maize straw skin flesh leaf separator (3).
4. the method for storing up according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, described maize straw skin flesh leaf separator (3) comprises charging aperture, discharging opening, be used for tearing, blending maize straw, the axial-flow type drum (11) of separating corn straw skin flesh leaf be used to leak down to separate after flesh and the sieve (12) of leaf, between axial-flow type drum (11) and the sieve (12) certain interval is arranged.
5. the method for storing up according to claim 4 is characterized in that, the rotating speed of described axial-flow type drum is 900-1000r/min, preferred 950-1000r/min; Gap between described axial-flow type drum (11) and the sieve (12) is 5mm-20mm, preferred 5mm, 10mm, 15mm or 20mm.
6. the method for storing up according to claim 1 is characterized in that step 2) described in the corn stalk suitcase draw together straw skin and the straw skin silk of strip, remaining on the straw skin of described strip have a flesh.
7. the method for storing up according to claim 6 is characterized in that, the remaining quantity of described flesh on the straw skin of strip is not higher than 5%, preferably is not higher than 3%, more preferably 0.5~2.5%.
8. the method for storing up according to claim 6 is characterized in that, described straw skin silk comprises the straw skin silk one by one and the straw skin tow that is incorporated on the skin after skin flesh leaf separates; The length of the straw skin of described strip is not more than 45cm; Described straw skin tow is included in the straw skin tow that tubercle position and leather block close or the straw skin silk that is incorporated into the partial continuous on the skin; On the described skin along the slight crack that the straw skin silk that forms partial continuous is arranged on the stalk longitudinal direction.
9. the described method of storing up of any one according to claim 1-8 is characterized in that: step 3) is described treats that moisture is collected as in the fields airing or the air-dry bundling of collecting when being 15~45% to moisture when being 15~45%.
10. the method for storing up according to claim 9 is characterized in that, described airing or when air-dry, the initial aqueous rate in the corn stalk skin is 50%~75%, stops airing or air-dry when moisture is 15~45% to the end.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104885689A (en) * 2014-03-05 2015-09-09 山东泉林纸业有限责任公司 Multipurpose agricultural harvesting machine
CN105638120A (en) * 2016-02-02 2016-06-08 农业部规划设计研究院 Straw safety storage method under natural air-dry condition

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1729325A1 (en) * 1990-04-04 1992-04-30 Научно-Производственное Объединение "Северное Зауралье" Method of corn harvesting for silage
CN201234470Y (en) * 2008-06-13 2009-05-13 刘一清 Apparatus for separating corn stalk hull and pulp, leaf by roller compaction
CN101811316A (en) * 2009-12-15 2010-08-25 大连工业大学 Automatic separator for husks, flesh and leaves of maize straws
CN201690802U (en) * 2010-05-11 2011-01-05 河北华勤机械股份有限公司 Millet thresher

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1729325A1 (en) * 1990-04-04 1992-04-30 Научно-Производственное Объединение "Северное Зауралье" Method of corn harvesting for silage
CN201234470Y (en) * 2008-06-13 2009-05-13 刘一清 Apparatus for separating corn stalk hull and pulp, leaf by roller compaction
CN101811316A (en) * 2009-12-15 2010-08-25 大连工业大学 Automatic separator for husks, flesh and leaves of maize straws
CN201690802U (en) * 2010-05-11 2011-01-05 河北华勤机械股份有限公司 Millet thresher

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104885689A (en) * 2014-03-05 2015-09-09 山东泉林纸业有限责任公司 Multipurpose agricultural harvesting machine
CN105638120A (en) * 2016-02-02 2016-06-08 农业部规划设计研究院 Straw safety storage method under natural air-dry condition

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