CN102818566A - Method and device for locating ship - Google Patents

Method and device for locating ship Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102818566A
CN102818566A CN2012101359262A CN201210135926A CN102818566A CN 102818566 A CN102818566 A CN 102818566A CN 2012101359262 A CN2012101359262 A CN 2012101359262A CN 201210135926 A CN201210135926 A CN 201210135926A CN 102818566 A CN102818566 A CN 102818566A
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China
Prior art keywords
ship
mark
fix
scope
accommodation
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Pending
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CN2012101359262A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
魏旭冠
李明
赵柯
时昌金
王则胜
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Zhenjiang Watercraft College of Pla
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Zhenjiang Watercraft College of Pla
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Priority to CN2012101359262A priority Critical patent/CN102818566A/en
Publication of CN102818566A publication Critical patent/CN102818566A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention discloses a method and a device for rapidly and accurately locating a ship. The device comprises a rotary table, an observation device and a computer, wherein the observation device rotates on the rotary table, the computer is connected with the observation device through a signal cable, and the observation device comprises a digital video and an axial angle encoder. According to the method and the device for locating the ship, factors of reference substance directions, distances, included angles and the like can be rapidly measured by means of the observation device, the measured factors are automatically transmitted into the computer, and the current position of the ship is calculated through the computer, so that automation degrees and positioning accuracy of traditional locating methods are improved; and the method and the device don't use radio waves and are free from electromagnetic interference so that the method and the device can regularly work under complicated electromagnetic environments.

Description

A kind of ship's fix method and device
Technical field
The invention belongs to the ship's fix technical field, relate in particular to a kind of method and device of boats and ships tradition positioning means.
Background technology
Boats and ships ride the sea, and in order to guarantee navigation safety, need to know oneself accommodation accurately at any time.Will on boundless sea, accurately measure the position of oneself, must be benchmark with the object of reference of some known accurate position, through measuring the relative position relation between own and these targets, comes to confirm indirectly own present located position.
Current positioning means the most popular, most convenient is satnav (comprising GPS, the Big Dipper, GLONASS etc.); This is to utilize special-purpose navigating instrument to receive the microwave signal (the inside comprises the accurate position of each satellite of current time) from a plurality of satellites; Extrapolate the distance between own and each satellite through the carrier phase of measuring institute's acknowledge(ment) signal, and utilize the distance method of crossing to confirm the method for own volume coordinate.
The object of reference of known accurate positions such as the beacon that utilizes radar detection boats and ships peripheries, islands and reefs is arranged in addition,, confirm the method for own position through measuring the azimuth-range between boats and ships and these objects of reference.
Though above-mentioned two kinds of method automaticities are higher; Should use more convenient, but since they all be to utilize the principle of radiowave to carry out work, so under complex electromagnetic environment; These location technology means all can receive influence in various degree, even can't use at all.
Except these advanced location technology means; On navigation; Also have some relatively conventional positioning methods, they are to utilize equipment such as magnetic compass, azimuth circle, sextant, the fixed reference of known accurate longitudes and latitudes such as visual observation beacon, islands and reefs, the hilltop; Through measuring these things mark with respect to key elements such as this bearing, angle and distances, final on the papery sea chart craft paint calculate this ship current on sea chart the method for present position.These methods do not receive the influence of electromagnetic environment, do not rely on external power source yet, have stronger vitality, in navigation, have a wide range of applications always.But the automaticity of these methods is not high, and operating process is more loaded down with trivial details, and the single location is consuming time more of a specified duration, also is its intrinsic drawback.
Summary of the invention
To the defective that the above-mentioned background technology exists, the technical matters that the present invention will solve provides a kind of anti-electromagnetic interference (EMI), improves the quick accurate positioning method of boats and ships and the device of boats and ships tradition positioning means automaticity.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention is achieved through following technical scheme:
A kind of method of ship's fix comprises:
1) through scope known substance mark is measured, and is drawn a kind of in the following parameters:
A) a known substance target azimuth-range,
B) two known substance target orientation or distances,
C) three known substance target orientation or distances,
D) three known substances mark angle between any two;
2) be sent to computing machine recording parameter;
3) export current accommodation through the calculating of computing machine.
Can realize a kind of ship's fix device of said method, comprise turntable and the scope that on said turntable, rotates and the computing machine that is connected through signal cable with said scope, said scope comprises DV, shaft-position encoder.
The present invention utilizes scope to accomplish the measurement to key elements such as object of reference orientation, distance, angles fast; And be sent to measured key element in the computing machine automatically; Calculate the current position of this ship through computing machine, thereby improve the automaticity and the bearing accuracy of traditional positioning means, the present invention is unfavorable for radiowave; So under complex electromagnetic environment, also can operate as normal.
Further improve as the present invention; Said scope also comprises laser range finder and/or heading sensor; Under known substance mark condition of limited; Resolve model through two mark orientation, two subject distances or a distance one orientation etc. and equally also can calculate current accommodation, computing machine can directly be exported longitude and latitude, also can graphically mark and draw demonstration through electronic chart.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the profile synoptic diagram of ship's fix device turntable of the present invention, scope;
Fig. 2 is the present invention's two mark orientation positioning calculation illustratons of model;
Fig. 3 is the present invention three mark orientation location model figure;
Fig. 4 is the present invention two subject distance location model figure;
Fig. 5 is two jiaos of location model figure of the present invention's three marks;
Fig. 6 is the present invention one mark azran location model figure.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is made and to further specify.
Turntable 2, scope 1 outward appearance of ship's fix device of the present invention are as shown in Figure 1, are installed in the good position of visibility limit on the ship-handling platform, in order to the mark of the thing around the boats and ships is observed.Scope 1 built-in DV, laser range finder, heading sensor; Carrying out carrying out 360 degree free of discontinuities pitching on 360 degree free of discontinuities rotations 1, the above-below direction under the control of turntable 2 in the horizontal direction, can observe the thing mark of any direction around the boats and ships; Scope 1 is also built-in can measure the shaft-position encoder of the video camera level and the pitching anglec of rotation.Shot by camera to measured angle signal that range information, shaft-position encoder produced and the course signal of vision signal, laser range finder all can be passed to the boat-carrying computing machine through the dedicated signal line cable.
Known substance around the boats and ships in the observation scope indicates three or when above, 1 of scope needs to be equipped with DV and shaft-position encoder, just can mark two jiaos through three and resolve Model Calculation and go out current accommodation.
When scope 1 was aimed at the target of institute's desire observation under the control that drives turntable 2, scope 1 built-in transverse axis angular encoder can be exported the deflection angle (angle on the bow) of this thing mark with respect to the first line of boats and ships in real time; Meanwhile, scope 1 built-in heading sensor can be exported the angle (course angle) between the first line of current boats and ships and the meridian in real time, and the algebraic sum of angle on the bow and course angle is exactly this thing target position angle.
When scope 1 is aimed at the target of institute's desire observation under the control that drives turntable 2, open built-in laser ranging system, can directly obtain the air line distance that this thing is marked this ship.
Scope 1 is successively aimed at some thing marks of institute's desire observation, and notes these thing target angle on the bow values that provided by shaft-position encoder successively, and these angle on the bow values are carried out algebraic operation, can obtain any two things mark with respect to the angle between the survey person.
Above-mentioned all observation information all can be transferred to the boat-carrying computing machine through signal cable; And gather, handle by computing machine; Calculate the position at current boats and ships place at last according to the mathematical model of specialty; Computing machine can directly be exported the longitude and latitude of boats and ships position, also can graphically mark and draw demonstration through electronic chart.
The present invention is specifically related to, and to resolve mathematical model following:
1. two mark orientation positioning calculation models
Two mark orientation Positioning Principle record two thing target orientation of known accurate position on the sea chart simultaneously, the accommodation when finding the solution observation through doing accommodation line equation.
As shown in Figure 2, establish: two thing target coordinate figures do<img file="BDA00001602062600031.GIF" he="53" img-content="drawing" img-format="GIF" inline="yes" orientation="portrait" wi="509" />(for convenience of explanation, establish λ<sub >1</sub><λ<sub >2</sub>), utilize electronic compass to record two thing target orientation observed reading CB<sub >1</sub>And CB<sub >2</sub>, magnetic variation Var value that should the zone on the sea chart utilizes data such as year difference to find the solution out, and autodyne Dev be that argument is looked into and got magnetic compass table (slotting in needing) and ask for the compass course (CC) of observation thing timestamp ships and light boats, utilizes formula Δ C=Var+Dev to try to achieve compass error.Utilize formula TB=CB+ Δ C, the two thing target true bearing that obtain of revising compass error are respectively TB<sub >1</sub>And TB<sub >2</sub>, establish the accommodation that records and be positioned at the P point, need ask for the coordinate that P is ordered.
Solving model:
Line thing mark M1 and M2 obtain △ M 1PM 2, in this triangle on, ∠ P (being abbreviated as P) can be worth through two thing target gun parallaxes, the scope of its value is 0 °~180 °,
If the direction of line M1M2 is Q12, then
∠ PM 2M 1(being abbreviated as M2) does
The scope of its value of M2 is 0 °~180 °.
Can try to achieve limit PM by sine formula 1Length, because of:
PM 1 Sin M 2 = M 1 M 2 Sin P , Then have
PM 1 = M 1 M 2 sin P sin M 2 - - - ( 1 )
In the formula (1), M 1M 2Can try to achieve by the sphere formula.By formula:
D λ=λ wherein 21
Obtain:
With formula (2) substitution formula (1), just can obtain the distance P M between thing mark M1 and accommodation 1
After the distance of having tried to achieve between thing mark M1 and accommodation; According to direction between the two, the meridional difference of utilizing formula can try to achieve between accommodation point and thing mark is poor with warp.
The true bearing of thing mark M1 is that TB1 is observation thing mark gained from the sea, and then some P in accommodation with respect to the value of the position angle T of thing mark M1 is:
Because of obtains
Because the accommodation is nearer apart from the thing mark; The meridional difference between accommodation and thing mark is little; Calculate for simplifying, accommodation capable of using and thing target mean latitude replace the mid latitude in the middle of the formula
Obtaining measured accommodation at last is:
(2)
2. three mark orientation positioning calculation models
As shown in Figure 3, observe the orientation of three things mark A, B, C (being designated as benchmark with B) be respectively TB1 for confirm left side mark and right mark with estimated position and acceptance of the bid, TB2, TB3, three accommodation lines intersect, and form triangle DEF, and this triangle is the mistake triangle.Cocked hat is handled, can be obtained the accommodation of location, three mark orientation.In the cocked hat processing procedure; At first need judge three mark distribution ranges, if three mark distribution ranges can be handled the heart at cocked hat with the accommodation greater than 180 °; If three mark distribution ranges are less than 180 °, the leg-of-mutton circumcircle escenter place that forms at three accommodation points is handled in the most probable position.
Utilize the solving model of two mark orientation location, can obtain D, the E of three intersection points of accommodation, orientation line in twos, the geographic coordinate values D (x of F D, y D), E (x E, y E), F (x F, y F) (converting geographic coordinate values into the rectangular coordinate value earlier here).
The method of judging three mark distribution ranges is following:
1. earlier three thing targets are sorted by the true order by from small to large of side's value, it is following to establish institute's alignment preface: TB1, TB2, TB3.
2. try to achieve the opposite direction TBM (making intermediate variable) of minimum orientation TB1:
TBM=TB1+180°
3. be benchmark then with TBM, other two orientation judged,
If TB 2<TB MAnd TB 3<TB M, perhaps TB 2>TB MAnd TB 3>TB M, then three target distribution ranges are less than 180 °.Ask for the most probable position by following method (1) process errors triangle.
Otherwise three target distribution ranges are asked for the most probable position greater than 180 by following method (2) process errors triangle.
According to three target distribution ranges, ask for the most probable position:
(1) if three target distribution ranges less than 180 °, the observed position of this moment is positioned at the leg-of-mutton circumcircle escenter place of three accommodation points formation,
For remembering that leg-of-mutton 3 summits are D (x D, y D), E (x E, y E), F (x F, y F), the center of circle of this triangle circumscribed circle is P (x p, y p), its coordinate figure is:
x p=((y E-y D)(y F 2-y D 2+x F 2-x D 2)-(y F-y D)(y E 2-y D 2+x E 2-x D 2))/
(2(x F-x D)(y E-y D)-2((x E-x D)(y F-y D)))
y p=((x E-x D)(x F 2-x D 2+y F 2-y E 2)-(x F-x D)(x E 2-x D 2+y E 2-y D 2))/(3)
(2(y F-y D)(x E-x D)-2(y E-y D)(x F-x D)))
(2) if three target distribution ranges greater than 180 °, the observed position of this moment is positioned at the leg-of-mutton heart place of three accommodation points formation, then P (x p, y p) value can ask for as follows:
x p = ax D + bx E + cx F a + b + c y p = ay D + by E + cy F a + b + c - - - ( 4 )
In the formula (4), a, b, c are the length of side on formed leg-of-mutton three limits, three accommodations, wherein,
a = | DE | = ( x E - x D ) 2 + ( y E - y D ) 2 ,
In like manner, b = | EF | = ( x F - x E ) 2 + ( y F - y E ) 2
c = | DF | = ( x F - x D ) 2 + ( y F - y D ) 2
P (x p, y p) be and utilize three mark orientation to locate the accommodation of being tried to achieve.
3. two subject distance positioning calculation models
Two thing target coordinate figures (will convert the pixel value to through the dimension value in advance) are respectively M on the known sea chart 1(x 1, y 1), M 2(x 2, y 2), the distance value that utilizes distance mearuring equipment to record between accommodation and two things mark is respectively a and b.With two things mark M 1(x 1, y 1), M 2(x 2, y 2) be the center of circle, be that radius is made circular arc with a and b respectively, the intersection point P of two circular arcs is observation accommodation constantly, and is as shown in Figure 4.
Known accommodation point P and two thing targets are apart from a and b, require the coordinate figure p that P orders (x, y).
Its method is following:
By system of equations
(x-x 1) 2+(y-y 1) 2=a 2 (5)
(x-x 2) 2+(y-y 2) 2=b 2 (6)
Can obtain
x = ( a 2 - b 2 ) - [ ( x 1 2 - x 2 2 ) + 2 y ( y 2 - y 1 ) + ( y 1 2 - y 2 2 ) ] 2 ( x 2 - x 1 ) - - - ( 7 )
Formula (7) is updated to equation (5), can asks the value of y, then (x y) just can obtain the P coordinate figure P of ordering, and is translated into geographic coordinate values then, directly annotates at the enterprising rower of sea chart.
4. three subject distance positioning calculation models
Three subject distances location is adopted with the identical mode in Three-bearing location and is handled, and because of three distance circle of position also form cocked hat, the processing mode of cocked hat is identical with the leg-of-mutton processing mode of Three-bearing positioning error.
Try to achieve three summits of cocked hat through the solution formula of two subject distances, utilize given model solution in the three mark orientation positioning calculation models after former.
5. three mark two jiaos of positioning calculation models
(thing target longitude is that benchmark is confirmed the left, center, right mark with the longitude to the left, center, right mark of observation in two jiaos of location of three marks not simultaneously, the left side mark that longitude is minimum; If longitude is identical, confirm with latitude value, latitude value be that mark on a left side), shown in A, M, B among Fig. 5, establish its known coordinate and be respectively (x A, y A), (x M, y M), (x B, y B), two horizontal angles (i.e. angle between left side mark A and acceptance of the bid M, acceptance of the bid M and the right mark B) of utilizing angle measuring instrument to measure are respectively α, β, and the P point is ascended the throne and is desired to resolve the accommodation.
Distance between order left side mark A and acceptance of the bid M, acceptance of the bid M and right mark B is respectively AM=a, and BM=b has:
a = ( x M - x A ) 2 + ( y M - y A ) 2 , b = ( x M - x B ) 2 + ( y M - y B ) 2
M is a benchmark with acceptance of the bid, and then mark A in a left side is respectively with respect to the position angle of acceptance of the bid M with right mark B:
Or:
And then can try to achieve the angle γ between right mark and left side mark:
Make
In Δ BMP, have:
In Δ AMP, have:
b sin &alpha; = MP sin &omega; &DoubleRightArrow; sin &omega; = MP sin &alpha; a
Thereby have:
So
&theta; = tan - 1 a sin &beta; b sin &alpha; - - - ( 9 )
Because:
By (9), (10), (11) formula, can get:
Can obtain:
By (11), (12) simultaneous, can get:
Through Δ AMP or Δ BMP are resolved, can solve the coordinate P (x that accommodation P is ordered P, y P):
x P = x B cot &omega; + x A cot &rho; + y B - y A cot &rho; + cot &omega;
y P = y B cot &omega; + y A cot &rho; - x B + x A cot &rho; + cot &omega;
In the formula: ρ=180 °-α-ω
6. locate in a distance one orientation
Known substance target coordinate is M 1(x 1, y 1), accommodation and thing target be apart from a and thing mark M 1True bearing TB, ask P (x, y) as shown in Figure 6.
Be designated as benchmark with thing, with respect to thing target orientation be by the accommodation:
The increment of coordinate at accommodation then
Dx=acosT
Dy=asinT
Then:
x=x 1+Dx=x 1+acosT
(8)
y=y 1+Dy=y 1+asinT

Claims (5)

1. the method for a ship's fix is characterized in that comprising the steps:
1) through scope known substance mark is measured, and is drawn a kind of in the following parameters:
A) a known substance target azimuth-range,
B) two known substance target orientation or distances,
C) three known substance target orientation or distances,
D) three known substances mark angle between any two;
2) be sent to computing machine recording parameter;
3) export current accommodation through COMPUTER CALCULATION.
2. application rights requires a kind of ship's fix device of 1 said ship's fix method; It is characterized in that: said ship's fix device comprises turntable and the scope that on said turntable, rotates and the computing machine that is connected through signal cable with said scope, and said scope comprises DV, shaft-position encoder.
3. a kind of ship's fix device according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: said scope also comprises laser range finder and/or heading sensor.
4. according to claim 2 or 3 described a kind of ship's fix devices, it is characterized in that: said scope carries out 360 degree free of discontinuities rotations in the horizontal direction with on the above-below direction under said turntable control.
5. according to claim 2 or 3 described a kind of ship's fix devices, it is characterized in that: said ship's fix device comprises electronic chart, and the accommodation of said computing machine output directly is presented on the electronic chart.
CN2012101359262A 2012-05-04 2012-05-04 Method and device for locating ship Pending CN102818566A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104391272A (en) * 2014-10-27 2015-03-04 深圳大学 Method and system for target positioning by using direction finding data
CN105222777A (en) * 2015-09-29 2016-01-06 李清林 By the method for hypothesis longitude and latitude method observation celestial body location
CN105760688A (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-07-13 李清林 Method for determining celestial body position or spherical target position by longitude and latitude assumption method
CN107317999A (en) * 2017-05-24 2017-11-03 天津市亚安科技有限公司 It is a kind of that the method and system that geographic name is identified automatically are realized on turntable
WO2021160209A1 (en) * 2020-02-11 2021-08-19 Raytheon Anschütz Gmbh Method for determining the position of a watercraft by means of optical bearing

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CN101726316A (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-06-09 中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所 Element of interior orientation and distortion tester
JP2011083160A (en) * 2009-10-09 2011-04-21 New Japan Radio Co Ltd Switching power supply apparatus
CN202013195U (en) * 2011-03-24 2011-10-19 中国人民解放军海军潜艇学院 Multi-functional self-contained navigator
CN202693786U (en) * 2012-05-04 2013-01-23 中国人民解放军镇江船艇学院 Ship locating device

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2475050Y (en) * 2000-12-18 2002-01-30 中国科学院光电技术研究所 Camera shooting device
CN101726316A (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-06-09 中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所 Element of interior orientation and distortion tester
JP2011083160A (en) * 2009-10-09 2011-04-21 New Japan Radio Co Ltd Switching power supply apparatus
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CN202693786U (en) * 2012-05-04 2013-01-23 中国人民解放军镇江船艇学院 Ship locating device

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104391272A (en) * 2014-10-27 2015-03-04 深圳大学 Method and system for target positioning by using direction finding data
CN104391272B (en) * 2014-10-27 2017-08-04 深圳大学 The method and system of target positioning is carried out using direction finding data
CN105222777A (en) * 2015-09-29 2016-01-06 李清林 By the method for hypothesis longitude and latitude method observation celestial body location
CN105760688A (en) * 2016-03-04 2016-07-13 李清林 Method for determining celestial body position or spherical target position by longitude and latitude assumption method
CN105760688B (en) * 2016-03-04 2018-07-10 李清林 The method for measuring position of heavenly body or spherical surface target location with longitude and latitude method is assumed
CN107317999A (en) * 2017-05-24 2017-11-03 天津市亚安科技有限公司 It is a kind of that the method and system that geographic name is identified automatically are realized on turntable
WO2021160209A1 (en) * 2020-02-11 2021-08-19 Raytheon Anschütz Gmbh Method for determining the position of a watercraft by means of optical bearing

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Application publication date: 20121212