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CN102627472A - Laser near net shaping method of low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece - Google Patents

Laser near net shaping method of low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece Download PDF

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CN102627472A
CN102627472A CN 201210114455 CN201210114455A CN102627472A CN 102627472 A CN102627472 A CN 102627472A CN 201210114455 CN201210114455 CN 201210114455 CN 201210114455 A CN201210114455 A CN 201210114455A CN 102627472 A CN102627472 A CN 102627472A
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laser
net
shaping
ceramic
titanium
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CN 201210114455
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CN102627472B (en )
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吴东江
吴楠
康仁科
杨策
马广义
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大连理工大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a laser near net shaping method of a low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece. Laser net shaping is performed on titanium alumina ceramic powder by using a laser processing system. The laser near net shaping method specifically comprises the following steps of: mixing the titanium alumina ceramic powder and SiC powder, drying and then placing in a powder feeder; connecting a laser processing head with a Nd:YAG solid laser through a transmission optical fiber; and realizing the laser net shaping of the low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece by controlling continuous movement of the processing head by taking argon gas as powder feeding and protecting gas. According to the laser near net shaping method, on one hand, the laser net shaping of the low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece can be realized, and on the other hand, the complexity of parameter optimization is simplified; the introduction of other adverse problems is avoided; and thus, a feasibleparameter range is expanded and the production efficiency is increased.

Description

低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法技术领域 The low porosity ceramic member is alumina titanium near net shape laser FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种氧化铝钛陶瓷件的成形技术,特别是低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to an alumina ceramic titanium member forming techniques, in particular a laser of low porosity ceramic member is alumina titanium near net shape method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 随着世界工业水平和先进制造技术的迅猛发展,对结构件在特种环境下的使用寿命要求不断提高,金属材料在高温腐蚀、绝缘以及高磨损环境下的性能已经难以满足要求,比如航空航天发动机的高磨损耐高温叶轮、极端工矿条件用机械手、国防和高新技术领域特种零部件等。 [0002] With the rapid development of the world's industrial level and advanced manufacturing technology, the service life of structural components required in a special environment continues to improve, the high temperature corrosion of metal materials, insulation performance and high wear environment has been difficult to meet the requirements, such as impeller wear high temperature aerospace engines, mining conditions and other extreme manipulator, defense and high-tech field of special parts. 而陶瓷材料由于其来源的广泛性、以及独特的耐磨、耐腐蚀、高硬度以及抗高温性能,在材料家族中备受关注,各个领域均有着十分重要的应用价值。 The ceramic material due to the breadth of its source, and a unique wear and corrosion resistance, high hardness and temperature resistance, the material of concern in the family, in all areas, both have a very important value. 其中Al2O3蕴藏分布丰富、价格低廉,比其他氧化物陶瓷的力学、热和电性能更优异,所以成为微电子工业中最常用的陶瓷材料,适用于制造各种几何形状的电子器件,为改善Al2O3的脆性和熔层性能,通常加入一定量的TiO2,现在氧化铝钛材料已在工业中广泛应用。 Which contains Al2O3 distribution of rich, low price, thermal and electrical performance is more excellent than the other mechanics of oxide ceramics, so the microelectronics industry to become the most commonly used ceramic materials for the manufacture of various geometries of electronic devices, to improve Al2O3 melting properties and brittle layer, usually a certain amount of TiO2, alumina, titanium materials have been now widely used in industry.

[0003] 激光近净成形技术(Laser Engineered Net Shaping-LENS™)是一种高能束直接作用粉末材料,通过使粉末熔化再凝固成形目标结构的先进制造方法,具有优质、高效、高精度、轻量化、低成本的特点。 [0003] Laser near net shape technology (Laser Engineered Net Shaping-LENS ™) is a direct effect of high-energy beam powder material, by melting of the powder for producing a target advanced resolidified shaped structure, having a high-quality, high efficiency, high accuracy, light quantify and low cost. 应用在氧化铝钛的成形制造中可以提高陶瓷件组织致密性和成分均匀性,简化制造工艺流程,不仅可以充分发挥氧化铝钛陶瓷材料的优良性能,也为此种材料的结构件直接制造提供一种新方法,实现复杂陶瓷件的制备,在工程应用领域使得特种环境下的氧化铝钛陶瓷件替代复杂金属结构件成为可能。 Application of producing an alumina forming titanium may improve the performance of the ceramic member excellent compactness and uniformity of the tissue components, to simplify the manufacturing process, not only can give full play an alumina ceramic material of titanium, but also for manufacturing such a material structure to provide direct a new method for the preparation of ceramic components of complex to achieve, so that in the field of engineering ceramics alumina titanium member under special environment instead of a complex metal structure becomes possible. 但是由于激光加工能量高、熔凝快的特点,导致成形件内部存在大量气孔。 However, because of the high energy laser processing, fast fusing characteristics, resulting in the presence of a large number of internal pores formed member. 气孔的大量存在会降低结构件的抗热震性、热循环阻力以及耐腐蚀性能之外,还可能在气孔处形成应力集中,致使裂纹、断裂等缺陷,对材料机械强度的削弱十分明显。 The presence of large pores reduce thermal shock resistance of the structure, thermal cycle resistance and corrosion resistance than, possibly stress concentration, resulting in cracks, defects such as fracture porosity, the weakening of the mechanical strength of the material is very obvious. 因此激光近净成形氧化铝钛结构件过程中,有效降低结构件内部气孔率是保证氧化铝钛陶瓷件可靠性的关键。 Thus the laser near-net shape titanium aluminum structures process, effectively reduce the internal porosity of the alumina structure is a key element to ensure the reliability of ceramic titanium. 关于激光加工陶瓷材料过程中的气孔成因以及陶瓷材料气孔改善问题,以下文献均有报道: And a ceramic material on the causes stomatal pores a ceramic material during laser machining to improve the problem, the following documents have been reported:

[0004] 德国学者MF Zawrah,J. Schneider,KH Zum Gahr 激光熔覆氧化铝涂层的微观组织和力学性能”,《材料科学与工程》,2002年332A卷。 [0004] German scholar MF Zawrah, J. Schneider, microstructure and mechanical properties of laser cladding KH Zum Gahr aluminum oxide coating, "and" Materials Science and Engineering ", in 2002 332A volumes.

[0005] 英国学者D.Triantafyllidis,L. Li, FH Stott 激光熔覆陶瓷材料气孔沿固-液界面形成的机制”,《应用表面科学》,2003年208-209卷。 . [0005] British scholars D.Triantafyllidis, L Li, FH Stott pores in the ceramic material by laser cladding a solid - liquid interface formation mechanism "," Applied Surface Science ", Volume in 2003208-209.

[0006]美国学者 AN Samant, SR Paital, NB Dahotre 《激光加工技术杂志》”,2008年203卷。 [0006] American scholar AN Samant, SR Paital, NB Dahotre "laser processing technology magazine", "volume of 2,008,203.

[0007] 王东升、田宗军、沈理达:“激光重熔对等离子喷涂氧化铝钛纳米涂层微观结构的影响”,《应用表面科学》,2009年255卷。 [0007] Ong, Tianzong Jun, Shen Li of: "Influence of microstructure coated titanium nm laser remelting of plasma sprayed aluminum oxide", "Applied Surface Science", 2009, Volume 255.

[0008] 李强、付涛、杨坤:“激光熔覆镍基碳化钨金属陶瓷气孔问题研究”,《激光杂志》,2006 年27 卷。 [0008] Li Qiang, Fu Tao, Yang Kun: "Laser Cladding Ni - based on porosity cermet tungsten carbide", "Laser Journal", 2006 Volume 27.

[0009] 通过文献调研了解到,激光加工陶瓷材料过程中的高能量、快速熔凝、疾冷收缩以及陶瓷粉末本身的特点都会诱发材料内部产生气孔,这导致激光近净成形陶瓷材料在世界范围内开展并不广泛。 [0009] learned through the research literature, a high energy laser machining process of the ceramic material, internal fast fusing, cold shrink and disease characteristics of the ceramic powder material itself will induce pinholes, which results in near net shape ceramic laser worldwide in the conduct not widespread. 因此解决加工过程中的气孔问题成为激光近净成形技术得以推广的关键因素。 Therefore, to solve the problem of porosity in the process of becoming a key factor in laser technology to promote near-net shape. 虽然上述文献提出可通过调节功率、扫描速度、送粉量等参数和重熔措施来改善,但存在以下不足: While the above document proposes can be improved by adjusting the power, scanning speed, powder feed rate and other parameters and remelting steps, but the following deficiencies:

[0010] 首先,激光加工参数对气孔的影响是参数的综合作用并非相互独立,且各参数之间存在紧密联系,因此针对气孔问题调整激光加工参数是相当复杂甚至十分苛刻的。 [0010] First, the impact of process parameters on stomatal is the combined effect of the parameters are not independent of each other, and there is a close link between the various parameters, adjust the laser processing parameters for the stomata problem is quite complicated even very harsh.

[0011] 其次,大多研究结果表明,虽然通过激光重熔可以改善结构件内部的气孔问题,但是效果并不理想,仍有大量气孔残留。 [0011] Secondly, most of the research results show that although the problem can be improved pores inside the structure by laser remelting, but the effect is not ideal, there is still a lot of residual pores. 另外,由于成形结构件层数较多,逐层重熔将大大增加过程控制的复杂性,严重影响加工效率,并且重熔过程极易增大结构件内部应力,而加剧裂纹等其他缺陷,非常不利于结构件的性能。 Further, since the structural member forming more layers, layer by layer remelting will greatly increase the complexity of the control process, seriously affecting the processing efficiency, and can easily increase the internal stress during reflow structure, exacerbated other defects such as cracks, very It is not conducive to the performance of structures.

[0012] 最后,无论是调整加工参数还是激光重熔,都将对结构件本身的宏观形貌、微观结构、结合强度、元素烧蚀等有重大影响。 [0012] Finally, to adjust the processing parameters, or whether laser remelting, structure itself will have macro-morphology, microstructure, bond strength, ablation elements have a significant impact. 因此想通过工艺手段来改善气孔往往会弓I出其他问题,甚至失去结构件原有的使用价值。 So we want to improve the process by means of stomata I tend to bow out other problems, or even lose their use value structure.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0013] 本发明为解决激光近净成形氧化铝钛陶瓷件过程中的气孔问题,并避免现有方法中存在的缺陷,在成形中通过调整参数使氧化铝钛粉末熔化而保留SiC粉末未熔状态。 [0013] The present invention solves the problem of laser hole near net shape titanium-alumina ceramic pieces process, and to avoid the drawbacks present in the conventional method, by adjusting the parameters in the molding of alumina titanium powder melting the unmelted powder retained SiC status. 可以降低激光近净成形氧化铝钛陶瓷件中气孔率的原因是: Cause laser can be reduced titanium near net shape ceramic member alumina porosity is:

[0014] I、在快速熔凝过程中,未熔SiC颗粒热膨胀系数小于氧化铝钛,因此可以抑制氧化铝钛晶粒的受热生长和冷却收缩程度,避免冷却过程中收缩所造成的大空穴; [0014] I, the fast fusing process, unmelted SiC particles smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of alumina titanium, titanium-aluminum heat can be suppressed grain growth and shrinkage of the degree of cooling, to avoid the large shrinkage during cooling holes caused;

[0015] 2、第二相未熔添加物的引入,可使激光近净成形过程中产生的气体由晶界排出; [0015] 2, the second phase is not introduced into the melt additive, it allows the gas generated during the laser near-net shape is discharged from the grain boundaries;

[0016] 3、未熔颗粒进入熔池中会对熔池产生的搅动加剧,利于气体排出气体; [0016] 3, unmelted particles into the molten bath generated in the bath would be increased agitation, facilitate gas exhaust gas;

[0017] 4、存在一定的化学反应,可以将气态物质消耗掉。 [0017] 4, there is a certain chemical reaction, the gaseous substance may be consumed.

[0018] 本发明的目的在于提供低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法,不但可以十分明显地改善氧化铝钛结构件的气孔问题,而且避免了其他缺陷的引入,简化了过程控制和加工参数调整的复杂性,提高生产效率。 [0018] The object of the present invention to provide a low-porosity alumina ceramic piece laser titanium near net shape method, not only can be very significantly improved on porosity titanium aluminum structural member, but also avoids the introduction of additional defects, it simplifies the process complexity of the control and adjustment of processing parameters, improve production efficiency.

[0019] 为实现上述目的,低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法,具体的技术方案包括以下步骤: [0019] To achieve the above object, the laser of low porosity ceramic member is alumina titanium near net shape method, specific technical solution comprising the steps of:

[0020] A、为提高成形结合质量和粉末在送粉器中的流动性,选择20〜90 μ m的球形氧化铝钛粉末,添加5〜25wt. %同种粒度和形状的SiC粉末,利用球磨机混合均匀后在烘干箱进行干燥处理。 [0020] A, to improve the quality and flowability of molding binding powder in the powder feeder, select spherical alumina titanium powder 20~90 μ m is added 5~25wt.% Isoforms size and shape of SiC powder, using dried at a drying oven uniformly mixing a ball mill.

[0021] B、将处理好的复合粉末放入送粉器中,调整激光加工头最底端相对基板表面的工作距离为9〜12_,使激光焦点可以覆盖粉末流的焦点,粉末得以充分利用。 [0021] B, sends the processed composite powder was placed in a powder feeder, adjust the laser processing head relative to the bottom of the substrate surface 9~12_ working distance, the focus of the laser focus may cover the flow of powder, the powder can be fully utilized .

[0022] C、加工中为保证氧化铝钛粉末熔化而保留SiC粉末未熔状态,调整激光参数:激光功率为150〜270 W,扫描速度为200〜500mm/min,送粉量为O. 99〜2. 14g/min。 [0022] C, in order to ensure the processing of alumina titanium powder melted to retain the SiC powders is not molten state, to adjust the laser parameters: laser power 150~270 W, the scanning speed was 200~500mm / min, powder feed rate is O. 99 ~2. 14g / min.

[0023] D、打开惰性气体,为成形加工提供送粉动力和气体保护,先后启动送粉器和激光器对添加了SiC粉末的氧化铝钛陶瓷粉末进行成形加工,在基板上制造出满足尺寸要求的成形件,完成加工。 [0023] D, open an inert gas, to provide power and powder feed gas protection molding, powder feeder has started and the laser on the titanium added alumina ceramic powder of SiC powder by molding, manufactured to meet the size requirements on the substrate shaped member to complete the processing.

[0024] 其中,步骤D所述的惰性气体可以采用氩气,其纯度一般不小于99. 9%,可以为送粉提供足够的动力也可为成形制造提供气体保护氛围,防止氧化。 [0024] wherein said step D of inert gas may be argon gas, which is generally a purity of not less than 99.9%, can provide sufficient power to provide a gas feed powder can also be molded for producing protective atmosphere to prevent oxidation. [0025] 本发明所述的固体连续激光器采用Nd:YAG固体连续激光器。 Solid continuous laser according to [0025] of the present invention employs Nd: YAG solid-state laser continuously.

[0026] 与现有技术相比,本发明具有以下有益效果: [0026] Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following advantages:

[0027] I、本发明中所采用的工艺流程与以往报道的方案相比,可以更加彻底的解决了激光近净成形陶瓷件中的气孔问题,效果特别明显,实现了低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形; [0027] I, the process of the present invention employed in the embodiment as compared with the previously reported can be more completely solved the problem of laser hole near net shape ceramic member, the effect was particularly evident, to achieve a low-porosity alumina, titanium laser beam near net shape ceramic member;

[0028] 2、本发明中所采用的工艺流程与以往报道的方案相比,只需在成形前掺入SiC粉末,省去激光加工参数优化的过程,简化参数优化的复杂性,不仅扩大了成形过程中的可行参数范围,还提高了激光近净成形的生产效率; [0028] 2, the process employed in the present invention compared with the previously reported embodiment, just prior to incorporation of SiC powder molding, laser processing is omitted parameter optimization process, simplify the complexity of the parameter optimization, not only expanded forming viable process parameters, but also improve the production efficiency of the laser near net shape;

[0029] 3、本发明中所采用的工艺流程与以往报道的方案相比,气孔问题得到解决的同时,还避免由此而引发的其他影响。 [0029] 3, the process of the present invention employed in the embodiment as compared with the previously reported, while addressing the problem porosity, but also to avoid other effects caused thereby.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0030] 图I是低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形装置示意图。 [0030] FIG. I is a laser of low porosity ceramic member is alumina titanium near net shape device schematic.

[0031] 图中:1固体连续激光器,2传输光纤,3激光加工头,4激光束,5成形件,6基板,7送粉器,8惰性气体。 [0031] FIG: 1 solid continuous laser transmission fiber 2, the laser processing head 3, the laser beam 4, forming member 5, 6 the substrate, powder feeder 7, 8 an inert gas.

[0032] 图2(a)是未添加SiC粉末的氧化铝钛陶瓷件内部气孔图。 [0032] FIG. 2 (a) is an alumina ceramic pieces titanium SiC powder was not added in the internal pores of FIG.

[0033] 图中:深色为气孔,浅色为氧化铝钛; [0033] FIG: dark as pores, alumina titanium light;

[0034] 图2(b)是添加SiC粉末的氧化铝钛陶瓷件内部气孔图。 [0034] FIG. 2 (b) adding the SiC powder is alumina ceramic pieces titanium internal porosity FIG.

[0035] 图中:白色为SiC未熔颗粒,黑色为氧化铝钛。 [0035] FIG: White unmelted particles of SiC, alumina titanium black.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0036] 下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进行进一步说明:如图I所示,低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法,本发明的实施例要求:氧化铝钛陶瓷件的长为17mm,宽为2mm,高为6mm,采用JK1002型Nd = YAG固体连续激光器对氧化铝钛粉末进行激光近净成形,具体成形步骤如下: Drawings and embodiments of the present invention will be further described [0036] below with reference to: FIG. I, the laser low porosity ceramic member alumina titanium near net shape method, embodiments of the present invention requires: alumina ceramic pieces of titanium = YAG laser alumina solid continuous laser titanium powder length 17mm, width of 2mm, a height of 6mm, JK1002 type using Nd near net shape, forming the specific steps are as follows:

[0037] A、按照要求选择42〜90 μ m的近球形氧化铝钛,添加IOwt. %的SiC,将配比好的粉末在行星球磨机中混合24h后,在电热式鼓风干燥箱中100°C下干燥4h ; [0037] A, selected according to the requirements of 42~90 μ m subglobose alumina, titanium added IOwt.% Of SiC, the good ratio of the mixed powder in a planetary ball mill 24h, a hot blast oven Formula 100 4H dried under ° C;

[0038] B、加工前将成形基板6用砂纸打磨,并用酒精清洗; [0038] B, the molding substrate 6 before processing sanded and washed with ethanol;

[0039] C、将预处理好的复合粉末放入送粉器7中,调整激光加工头3最底端相对基板6表面的工作距离调整为9mm; [0039] C, the composite powder was placed in the pretreated powder feeder 7, the laser processing head 3 is adjusted relative to the bottommost surface 6 of substrate working distance is adjusted to 9mm;

[0040] D、调整激光加工参数:激光功率为186W,扫描速度为300mm/min,送粉量为I. 78g/min ; [0040] D, adjustment of process parameters: the laser power is 186W, the scanning speed was 300mm / min, the feeding rate of I. 78g / min;

[0041] E、打开惰性气体8,调整送粉气压为O. 2MPa,流量为5L/min,保护气压为O. IMPa,流量为15L/min。 [0041] E, an inert gas 8 is opened, powder feeding gas pressure was adjusted O. 2MPa, a flow rate of 5L / min, protective air pressure is O. IMPa, flow rate 15L / min. 先后启动送粉器7和激光器I对添加了IOwt. %的SiC的氧化铝钛陶瓷粉末进行成形加工,激光加工头3按照预先编程的路径自动移动,在基板6上制造出长为17mm,宽为2mm,高为6_的薄壁成形件5,完成加工。 Powder feeder 7 has started and added to the laser I IOwt.% Of alumina titanium SiC ceramic powder molding, laser processing head 3 is moved automatically according to pre-programmed path, producing a length of 17mm on the substrate 6, width to 2mm, a thin-walled high 6_ shaped member 5, to complete the processing.

[0042] 本发明步骤D所述的基板材料为Ti-6A1_4V合金。 Substrate Material [0042] The present invention is described in step D is Ti-6A1_4V alloy.

Claims (3)

1. 一种低气孔率氧化铝钛陶瓷件的激光近净成形方法,其特征在于该方法包括以下步骤: A、选择20〜90 μ m的球形氧化铝钛粉末,添加5〜25wt. %同样粒度和形状的SiC粉末,混合均匀并干燥处理; B、将预处理好的复合粉末放入送粉器中,调整激光加工头最底端相对基板表面的工作距离为9〜12mm,使激光焦点覆盖粉末流的焦点,粉末得以充分利用; C、加工中为保证氧化铝钛粉末熔化而保留SiC粉末未熔状态,调整激光参数:激光功率为150〜270W,扫描速度为200〜500mm/min,送粉量为O. 99〜2. 14g/min ; D、打开惰性气体,先后启动送粉器和激光器对添加了 SiC粉末的氧化铝钛陶瓷粉末进行成形加工,在基板上制造出满足尺寸要求的成形件,完成加工。 A low porosity laser alumina titanium near net shape ceramic member, characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:. A, select alumina 20~90 μ m, spherical titanium powder, adding the same 5~25wt% SiC powder size and shape, and uniformly mixing dried; B, the pretreated composite powder was placed in the powder feeder, the adjustment of the laser processing head relative to the substrate surface of the bottom of the working distance 9~12mm of the laser focus point over the powder flow, powder can be fully utilized; C, in order to ensure processing of alumina titanium powder melted to retain the SiC powders is not molten state, to adjust the laser parameters: laser power 150~270W, the scanning speed was 200~500mm / min, powder feed amount is O. 99~2 14g / min;. D, open the inert gas, and a powder feeder has started lasers titanium alumina ceramic powder added SiC powder by molding, manufactured to meet the size requirements on the substrate shaped member to complete the processing.
2.根据权利要求I所述的激光近净成形方法,其特征在于:所述惰性气体为氩气,其纯度不小于99. 9%。 2. A laser according to claim I of the near net shape, characterized in that: said inert gas is argon with a purity of not less than 99.9%.
3.根据权利要求I所述的激光近净成形方法,其特征在于:所述的固体连续激光器采用Nd = YAG固体连续激光器。 3. A laser according to claim I of the near net shape method, wherein: said solid-state laser using Nd = YAG continuous solid continuous laser.
CN 201210114455 2012-04-18 2012-04-18 Laser near net shaping method of low-porosity titanium alumina ceramic piece CN102627472B (en)

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CN103159484A (en) * 2013-03-01 2013-06-19 大连理工大学 Laser near-net forming method for ZrO2 and SiC compound mixed toughening Al2O3 base ceramic piece
CN103159484B (en) 2013-03-01 2014-08-27 大连理工大学 Laser near-net forming method for ZrO2 and SiC compound mixed toughening Al2O3 base ceramic piece
CN103204683A (en) * 2013-03-18 2013-07-17 大连理工大学 Laser near-net forming method for Al2O3 ceramic parts different in colors
CN103204683B (en) 2013-03-18 2014-06-25 大连理工大学 Laser near-net forming method for Al2O3 ceramic parts different in colors

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