Gas is carried the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel
The present invention relates to organism anaerobic treatment and biogas generation technique field, specifically is that a kind of gas is carried the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel, can be used for the Anaerobic Digestion of organic waste or energy crop and produces biogas.
The anaerobic digestion reaction is that organism is decomposed the process that produces biogas by anerobes at anaerobic condition.Generally contain methane 50～70% in the biogas, can directly act as a fuel, industrial chemicals uses, utilize as Sweet natural gas behind the methane of also can purifying.Because of anaerobic digestion reaction temperature and, transformation efficiency high; Can effectively handle and utilize multiple complicated organism; And in the processing with the industrial or agricultural organic waste of being widely used in living, anaerobic digestion is simultaneously produced biogas as the high efficiency transform mode of biomass energy, more and more receives people's attention.For example Germany will be to the end of the year 2009; Total about 1000 biogas enterprises; The big-and-middle-sized biogas engineering in 5000 places is in production run, and marsh gas power generation accounts for 2.3% of German power consumption, and plans the year two thousand twenty and will build up 12000 biogas engineerings; The installation total amount is 4800MW, makes marsh gas power generation will account for 7.5% of full Germany generating total amount; Just surpassed conventional gas in the amount of Sweden's automobile-used purifying biogas in 2006, the car that drives to purifying biogas in 2007 reaches 1.5 ten thousand; China will have built up big-and-middle-sized biogas 4700 places to the end of the year 2010, build place surplus the biogas purification engineering ten.
Anaerobic digestion reaction vessel is the nucleus equipment of biogas engineering; Its cost, energy consumption and digestive efficiency are the key factors of decision biogas engineering project feasibility; Carrying out the research and the innovation of reactor drum according to the characteristics of anaerobic digestion material, is the emphasis in organism anaerobic digestion field.Multiple complicated organism can be effectively handled and utilized in anaerobic digestion; But institute's fermentation materials is complicated components such as changing food waste, fowl and animal excrement, crop material for example; Its different component proportions are different, biodegradability is different; Need the time of fermentation also different in size,, be easy to cause layering and scum silica frost to crust if particularly mixed the material of high proportion of fibers such as straw in the fermentation materials.Layering shows as usually in the anaerobic reactor, and from top to bottom the first layer is a scum layer successively, is some raw materials that are insoluble in water, and bacterium is few, and organism can not get digestion.If scum silica frost is too thick, dry, can crust, if the fermented product total solid concentration is big, also can produce significant foam when viscosity is high, the both can influence biogas and get into air chamber and have a strong impact on course of fermentation.More effective solution is that scum silica frost is carried out inoculating of fragmentation, moistening and anaerobion; The second layer is a supernatant, and its material concentration is rare, and anerobes is few; The 3rd layer is active coating, contains the bulk fermentation resistates; The 4th layer is the natural pond slag blanket, is the bigger materials of proportion such as sufficient grog of fermentation and silt in the material.In this case anaerobion be only limited at active coating comparatively vigorous, and other layer or lack of material, or, anaerobic digestion efficient is reduced because of the activity of suitable mikrobe of condition because of being utilized.
Be known as and solve fermentation materials layering and scum silica frost crust in anaerobic reactor, people adopt measures such as mechanical stirring, biogas stirring or whole plug-flow to promote contacting of mikrobe and raw material.Common anaerobic digestion reaction vessel has complete mixing reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR) and up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) etc.Fully mixing reactor is to use maximum type of reactor at present, and as about 90% be vertical complete in the big-and-middle-sized biogas engineering of Germany, it stirs through the installation mechanism.This has increased cost; Improved energy consumption; Whipping appts also is easy to generate the resistance to air loss problem through the bearing seal of digestion reactor, and mixes fully and often cause the part active sludge and the material of not fermentation completion together to discharge, and has reduced the turnout of treatment of organic matters of organic rate and biogas.Plug flow reactor is through the mode reinforcing mass transfer effect of the whole plug-flow of feed liquid, and its anti-environmental impact property is strong, and cost and energy consumption are lower, but also exists backflow that (1) need solid and mikrobe as inoculum; (2) reactor areas/volume ratio is bigger, is difficult to the temperature that is consistent in the reactor drum; (3) the easy shortcoming that produces thick aspects such as crust.The biogas that up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has utilized the material anaerobic digestion to produce stirs; But reactor drum top need be provided with gas, solid, liquid triphase separator; Reactor bottom need be provided with the water distribution uniformity system, and higher or SS loads and is prone to loss solid and mikrobe when higher at hydraulic load, so laid down cost is high; Running technology requires high, and the fermentation material is had strict dry substance concentration restriction.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiency of prior art, provide a kind of gas to carry the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel.
The realization of the object of the invention is that reactor drum is divided into up-flow district sweathouse and falls stream district's sweathouse, up-flow district sweathouse with fall stream district sweathouse and link to each other with the return flow line through stripping tube.Reactor drum utilize biogas buoyancy, gas to carry effect and gas to carry the pressure difference three of generation collaborative, the up-flow district sweathouse that makes reactor drum with fall stream district sweathouse and form the convection circulation of ascending, descending stream; Fermented feed liquid approaches to mix fully in the up-flow district, approaches plug-typely and fall stream district, and whole reactor has formed to mix fully and connect with the circulation of pulling flow type, thereby realizes that less energy-consumption spares the matter stirring, has improved mass transfer effect and organic loading.Gush and recoil after through stripping tube up-flow district fermentation materials being promoted to reactor head simultaneously; Realize that biogas and feed liquid are separated; Realized that scum silica frost, foamy are broken automatically, drenched with anerobes and inoculate; And anaerobic digestion reaction vessel anaerobic digestion simple and compact for structure is effective, and biogas output is big.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: technical scheme of the present invention is: reactor monolith is the vertical cylindrical tank body, can be cylindrical also can be rectangle; Vertically be divided into up-flow district sweathouse in the said reactor drum and fall stream district sweathouse; Feed-pipe is installed in the bottom of sweathouse in the up-flow district; The end face of up-flow district sweathouse is lower than reactor drum feed liquid face, and the complex root stripping tube upwards is installed, and stripping tube extends upward; Its outlet can be lower than reactor drum feed liquid face 50cm with interior or directly be higher than reactor drum feed liquid face, and the baffling cap is installed or 100 °～180 ° of elbows are installed in the outlet of stripping tube and be used for the recoil of feed liquid; In the middle and lower part that is falling stream district's sweathouse a plurality of return flow lines are installed, in the bottom that is falling stream district sweathouse scum pipe are installed, the inlet of return flow line is higher than and falls stream district sweathouse scum pipe, and the outlet of return flow line connects the bottom of up-flow district sweathouse.
The present invention, its fermentation materials is by feed-pipe injecting reactor up-flow district sweathouse, and fermentation also produces biogas; The feed liquid that drives biogas rises and assembles at end face, through stripping tube the gas material mixture is promoted to and falls sweathouse top, stream district, and material is gushed out from stripping tube; Through baffling cap or the recoil of elbow baffling; Dash and drench the top layer scum silica frost, biogas separates with feed liquid and accomplishes top layer scum silica frost, foamy fragmentation simultaneously, drenches and inoculate, and impels the scum layer organism to reach effective fermentation.Material continues fermentation in falling stream district sweathouse, and under the dual function of gravity and return flow line resorption, moves downward.The entry position, return flow line is higher than and falls stream district's sweathouse scum pipe, and the sufficient grog stability of fermentation is strong in the material, proportion is bigger, is more falling the sweathouse bottom deposit of stream district, and discharges through falling stream district sweathouse scum pipe.Ferment inadequate raw material and active cell density is less, more gets into sweathouse bottom, up-flow district through the return flow line, and impact, stir, inoculation newly advances material.So constantly fermenting produces biogas, up-flow district sweathouse and the convection circulation of falling stream district sweathouse formation ascending, descending stream.
The present invention, said reactor drum can be installed biogas pump and gas-distribution pipe, and it is external that the biogas pump is positioned at reactor tank; Gas-distribution pipe is positioned at sweathouse bottom, up-flow district; When requiring to strengthen convection circulation intensity in the reaction process, can pump into biogas through gas-distribution pipe, improve biogas amount in the up-flow district sweathouse through the biogas pump.
The present invention, said reactor drum for preventing the bigger material alluvial of proportion such as up-flow district sweathouse silt, can be provided with desilting ditch and up-flow district sweathouse scum pipe at reactor bottom when handling the big organic waste of sediment charge such as chicken manure.
The present invention, said reactor drum is the temperature of control fermenting process, mounting temperature sensor and thermal insulation layer on anaerobic digestion reaction vessel are provided with interchanger on ascending, descending stream sweathouse interval, also can heat through gas-distribution pipe injecting steam in reactor drum.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) material is carried convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel up-flow district and is fallen stream district's convection circulation in gas; Approach to mix fully in the up-flow district; Approach pulling flow type and fall the stream district; Whole reactor has formed to mix fully and has connected with the circulation of pulling flow type, thereby improves mass transfer effect and organic loading, overcomes the common back mixing of reactor drum, channeling.The reactor drum organic loading is high, anaerobic digestion is complete, gas production rate is big, the organic anaerobic digestions of high solid such as especially suitable changing food waste, fowl and animal excrement, crop material, sewage plant sludge;
(2) reactor drum has utilized the buoyancy of biogas, has saved mechanical stirring device, has reduced cost, has improved safety and has had energy-conservation effect.Recoil after utilizing stripping tube that fermentation materials is promoted to reactor head, realized separating of gas and feed liquid, realized that scum silica frost, foamy are broken automatically, drenched with anerobes and inoculate, solved layering, scum silica frost crust and the feed liquid problems such as foam that rise;
(3) the reactor drum shock resistance is strong, and is big to the suitable span of institute's fermentation materials total solid concentration, but this had both expanded range of application, was reduced in the menu cost of raw material water ratio in the concrete engineering again.Reactor drum can be realized larger ratio of height to diameter, and simple and compact for structure, and manufacturing, installation, maintenance are conveniently taken up an area of few reduced investment and are fit to large-scale production.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the facade sectional structure synoptic diagram of embodiment; Fig. 2, Fig. 3 are respectively A-A, the B-B sectional views of embodiment tank body Fig. 1 when being right cylinder.Fig. 4, Fig. 5 are respectively A-A, the B-B sectional views of embodiment tank body Fig. 1 when being rectangular cylinder.
Among the figure, 1, feed-pipe 2, cylindricality tank body 3, up-flow district sweathouse 4, stripping tube 5, fall stream district sweathouse 6, return flow line 7, vapor pipe 8, fall stream district sweathouse scum pipe 9, interchanger 10, baffling cap holder 11, baffling cap 12, stripping tube support 13, gas-distribution pipe 14, sediment ditch 15, up-flow district sweathouse scum pipe 16, biogas pump.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is further described:
With reference to Fig. 1-Fig. 5; A kind of gas is carried the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel, by feed-pipe 1, cylindricality tank body 2, up-flow district sweathouse 3, stripping tube 4, fall stream district sweathouse 5, return flow line 6, vapor pipe 7, fall stream district sweathouse scum pipe 8, interchanger 9, baffling cap holder 10, baffling cap 11, stripping tube support 12, gas-distribution pipe 13, sediment ditch 14, up-flow district sweathouse scum pipe 15, biogas pump 16 constitute.
Present embodiment; In reactor drum cylindricality tank body 2, vertically be divided into up-flow district sweathouse 3 and fall stream district sweathouse 5; Sweathouse 3 bottoms, up-flow district are installed feed-pipe 1, gas-distribution pipe 13 and desilting ditch 14 are set; Gas-distribution pipe 13 connects the outer biogas pump 16 of tank body, and desilting ditch 14 ports are installed up-flow district sweathouse scum pipe 15.The end face of up-flow district sweathouse 3 is lower than reactor drum feed liquid face, and complex root stripping tube 4 upwards is installed, and stripping tube 4 extends upward; Its outlet is higher than reactor drum feed liquid face, and baffling cap holder 10 and baffling cap 11 are installed in the outlet of stripping tube 4, are used for the recoil of feed liquid; In other embodiment; Baffling cap 11 also can be replaced by 100 °～180 ° elbows, in the middle and lower part that falls stream district sweathouse 5 a plurality of return flow lines 6 is installed, and in the bottom that falls stream district sweathouse 5 scum pipe 8 is installed; The inlet of return flow line 6 is higher than to fall to flow distinguishes sweathouse scum pipe 8, and the outlet of return flow line 6 connects the bottom of up-flow district sweathouse 3.The section of reactor drum tank body is cylindrical or rectangle, and present embodiment does not limit.
Its principle of work is: will need fermentation materials to inject up-flow district sweathouse 3 fermentations of cylindricality tank body 2 and produce biogas from feed-pipe 1; The feed liquid that drives biogas rises and assembles at end face, and the end face of up-flow district sweathouse 3 is lower than the feed liquid face of reactor drum, and the gas material mixture further is promoted to through stripping tube 4 and falls sweathouse 5 tops, stream district; Material is gushed out from stripping tube; Through baffling cap 11 or the recoil of elbow baffling, dash and drench the top layer scum silica frost, biogas separates with feed liquid; And accomplish simultaneously the top layer scum silica frost fragmentation, drench with anerobes and inoculate, impel the scum layer organism effectively to ferment.Material continues fermentation in falling stream district sweathouse, and under the resorption dual function of gravity and return flow line 6, moves downward.The return flow line enters the mouth to be higher than and falls stream district sweathouse scum pipe 8, and proportion is bigger by force for the sufficient grog stability of fermentation in the material, is more falling the sweathouse bottom deposit of stream district, and through falling sweathouse scum pipe 8 discharges of stream district.Inadequate raw material and the living microorganism volume density of fermenting is less, more gets into sweathouse 3 bottoms, up-flow district through return flow line 6, and impacts, stirs, inoculates and newly advance material.So back and forth form up-flow sweathouse and the convection circulation of falling the stream sweathouse, constantly produce biogas.Biogas is utilized by vapor pipe 7 outputs in the reactor head gathering.
The fermentation materials biodegradability is poor when institute, total solid concentration high, when requiring to strengthen convection agitation intensity in the reaction process, can pump into biogas through gas-distribution pipe 13 through biogas pump 16, improves biogas amount in the up-flow district sweathouse 3, strengthens and stirs.
When the bigger inorganics of proportions such as silt in the fermentation materials can't drive rising through biogas, can be deposited in the reactor drum up-flow district sweathouse 3 bottom desilting ditches 14, can pass through up-flow district sweathouse scum pipe 15,, silt discharges when depositing.
In order to control the temperature of fermenting process, mounting temperature sensor and thermal insulation layer on reactor drum are provided with interchanger 9 at reactor drum up-flow sweathouse 3 with falling on the interval of flowing sweathouse 5.
Though gas is carried the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel and fallen stream district's sweathouse 5 and be symmetrical two among the said embodiment, do not limit gas and carry the convection circulation anaerobic digestion reaction vessel and fall stream district sweathouse 5 and be symmetrical two.
The above is merely specific embodiment of the present invention; Be not so limit claim of the present invention; Every equivalent structure or equivalent flow process conversion that utilizes specification sheets of the present invention and accompanying drawing content to be done; Or directly or indirectly be used in other relevant technical fields, all in like manner be included in the scope of patent protection of the present invention.