CN102564308B - Device for detecting eccentricity of interference type high-density round grating - Google Patents

Device for detecting eccentricity of interference type high-density round grating Download PDF

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CN102564308B
CN102564308B CN 201110451038 CN201110451038A CN102564308B CN 102564308 B CN102564308 B CN 102564308B CN 201110451038 CN201110451038 CN 201110451038 CN 201110451038 A CN201110451038 A CN 201110451038A CN 102564308 B CN102564308 B CN 102564308B
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grating
dish
light grid
key light
laser
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CN102564308A (en
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艾华
曹艳波
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Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS
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Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a device for detecting the eccentricity of an interference type high-density round grating, and relates to the field of precise instruments detection. The detection device comprises a first laser (1), a first collimating lens (2), a secondary grating disk (4), a first photoelectric receiver (5), a second photoelectric receiver (6), a second collimating lens (7), a second laser (8), a main shaft (9), a shaft sleeve (10), a grating connecting seat (11) and an oscilloscope. Single beam of light is diffracted twice and interfered by using the grating disk; the photoelectric receiver receives an interference fringe signal and can obtain a sine signal from the oscilloscope; and according to the synthesis of sine signals of different phases, the eccentric position and theeccentricity of a main grating disk can be detected. According to the device of the invention, a metrological grating disk with a density of greater than 125 line pairs/mm can be detected, an optical-mechanical structure of an encoder can be mechanically mounted and adjusted conveniently, and a grating metering system is reduced in volume and simplified in structure.

Description

Interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector
Technical field
The invention belongs to exact instrument detection technique field, particularly a kind of interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector.
Background technology
Because the development of industrial technology, more and more higher to the accuracy requirement of detecting instrument, this just has higher requirement to processing and the detection method of exact instrument.Optical electric axial angle encoder has been widely used in all places control and detection range as accurate angle measuring instrument.The crucial detecting element of scrambler is Fringe of metrological Radial Gratings, and the setting-up eccentricity that it is fastened at axle directly influences the angle measurement accuracy of scrambler.At present, traditional metrological grating can reach accuracy requirement by the method that microscopic visual measurement detects.High-precision metrological grating can be by producing Moire fringe extracts displacement information by the photelectric receiver of two diameters placements detection method between the optical grating pair, and there is limitation in this detection method, spacing when grating dish density increases between the optical grating pair reduces, therefore scrambler machinery is debug difficulty, the photosignal poor contrast, the metrological grating line density of detection is not higher than 125 lines right/mm.Therefore, provide a kind of can detect be higher than 125 lines right/the simple detection method of mm metrological grating is imperative.
Summary of the invention
For the scrambler machinery that solves existing high dencity grating detection method existence is debug difficulty, the photosignal poor contrast, the problem of the metrological grating line density is not higher than 125 lines right/mm, the invention provides a kind of interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector, can be installed in the scrambler axle fasten thousands of lines right/the round grating off-centre of mm density detects.
The technical scheme that technical solution problem of the present invention is taked is as follows:
Interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector comprises laser instrument, collimating mirror, secondary grating dish, a photelectric receiver, No. two photelectric receivers, No. two collimating mirrors, No. two laser instruments, main shaft, axle sleeve, grating Connection Block and oscillographs; Key light grid dish to be detected is fixed on the platform of main shaft, and secondary grating dish is fixed on the grating Connection Block; The grating Connection Block is fixed on the axle sleeve, and the grating Connection Block is coaxial with axle sleeve; Axle sleeve is coaxial with main shaft, is dynamically connected by bearing; Secondary grating dish is realized coaxial with main shaft by grating Connection Block and axle sleeve; Laser instrument and No. two laser instruments and collimating mirror and No. two collimating mirrors diameter respectively are installed on axle sleeve position below the key light grid dish, and are the axle center symmetry; Photelectric receiver and No. two photelectric receivers place the top of secondary grating dish respectively; Oscillograph is connected with No. two photelectric receivers with a photelectric receiver respectively; The laser that laser instrument sends becomes directional light after through a collimating mirror, impinge perpendicularly in the key light grid dish, behind the secondary diffraction through diffraction of key light grid dish and secondary grating dish, produce interference fringe, after interference fringe is converted to electric signal through a photelectric receiver, received by oscillograph, obtain the displacement sinusoidal signal of key light grid dish; The laser that No. two laser instruments send becomes directional light after through No. two collimating mirrors, impinge perpendicularly in the key light grid dish, behind the secondary diffraction through diffraction of key light grid dish and secondary grating dish, produce interference fringe, after interference fringe is converted to electric signal through No. two photelectric receivers, received by oscillograph, obtain the displacement sinusoidal signal of key light grid dish; According to synthesizing of out of phase sinusoidal signal in the oscillograph, can detect eccentric position and the offset of key light grid dish.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: this pick-up unit has improved resolution, and signal contrast is big, because the signal extraction principle is different from existing Moire fringe principle, does not need the distance between the grating dish too little, is convenient to Installation and Debugging.And the condition of diffraction satisfies the detection of High Frequency Grating line grating dish, can realize that the grating measurement system bulk reduces, and simplifies the structure, can detection line density be higher than 125 lines right/the metrological grating dish of mm.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is that the dynamic interferometric fringe signal among the present invention detects schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is the signal graph that the photelectric receiver of diameter installation among the present invention obtains.
Fig. 4 is the lee sajous graphics that the present invention synthesizes in oscillograph according to Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is the six kind view of lee sajous graphics in a cycle period among Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram of interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is the installation site synoptic diagram of two photelectric receivers among the present invention.
Fig. 8 is the geometric relationship figure of offset of the present invention and grating grid gap.
Fig. 9 is the geometric relationship figure of the eccentric extreme position of the present invention and receiver position.
Among the figure: 1, laser instrument, 2, collimating mirrors, 3, key light grid dish, 4, secondary grating dish, 5, photelectric receiver, 6, No. two photelectric receivers, 7, No. two collimating mirrors, 8, No. two laser instruments, 9, main shaft, 10, axle sleeve, 11, the grating Connection Block, PD1 represents photelectric receiver 5 No. one, and PD2 represents photelectric receiver 6 No. two.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is described in further details.
As shown in Figure 1, interfere type high density of the present invention circle grating Accentric detector comprises laser instrument 1, collimating mirror 2, secondary grating dish 4, a photelectric receiver 5, No. two photelectric receivers 6, No. two collimating mirrors 7, No. two laser instruments 8, main shaft 9, axle sleeve 10, grating Connection Block 11 and oscillographs; Key light grid dish 3 to be detected is fixed on the platform of main shaft 9, and secondary grating dish 4 is fixed on the grating Connection Block 11; Grating Connection Block 11 is fixed on the axle sleeve 10, and grating Connection Block 11 is coaxial with axle sleeve 10; Axle sleeve 10 is coaxial with main shaft 9, is dynamically connected by bearing; Secondary grating dish 4 is realized coaxial with main shaft 9 by grating Connection Block 11 and axle sleeve 10; Laser instrument 1 and No. two laser instruments 8 and collimating mirror 2 and No. two collimating mirrors 7 diameter respectively are installed on axle sleeve position below the key light grid dish 3, and are the axle center symmetry; Photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receivers 6 place the top of secondary grating dish 4 respectively; Oscillograph is connected with No. two photelectric receivers 6 with a photelectric receiver 5 respectively.
A laser instrument 1 and No. two laser instruments 8 have monochromaticity preferably, and wave band is visible-range, i.e. wavelength coverage 380nm~800nm, and volume is little, and power is relatively large, generally more than the mW level, the laser wavelength of using among the embodiment is 780nm, and power is 5mW.
Spacing between key light grid dish 3 and the secondary grating dish 4 does not have specific (special) requirements, can suitably adjust the position, swipes when preventing key light grid dish 3 motion, the moire grids density of two grating dishes is higher than 125 lines right/mm.
As shown in Figure 2, the dynamic interferometric fringe signal among the present invention detects principle and is: a diffraction takes place through key light grid dish in the monochromatic light that laser instrument sends, and gets respectively 0 grade time and+1 grade time, two bundle diffraction lights get (0 through secondary grating dish generation second-order diffraction, + 1) level is inferior inferior with (+1,0) level, and emergent ray is because the movement of key light grid dish, (+1,0) level time produces frequency displacement, and frequency displacement time does not then take place (0 ,+1) level, the two exit direction unanimity produces interference fringe.Photelectric receiver can obtain sinusoidal signal after receiving and interfering the light and shade striped light signal that produces in oscillograph, according to synthesizing of out of phase sinusoidal signal, can detect eccentric position and the offset of key light grid dish.
According to grating equation
d×sinψ=mλ(m=0,±1,±2,K) (1)
In the formula, d is grating pitch, and ψ is angle of diffraction, and m is that the order of diffraction is inferior, and λ is the diffraction light wavelength.
Suppose that the diffraction pattern diameter is 2r, level is inferior to be that diffraction lights are restrainted in order to produce interference in (0,1) and (1,0) two, and diffraction pattern must have lap, namely requires two-beam centre distance L<2r, can get according to Fig. 2
L=δ×tgψ×cosψ=δ×λ/d (2)
In the formula, δ is the spacing of key light grid dish 3 and secondary grating dish 4, for the ease of installing and protection grating ruling face, should to make δ 〉=0.1mm, but in order interfering, must to satisfy
δ<2r×d/λ (3)
For example, be the diffraction light of 2mm for wavelength X=785nm, spot diameter 2r, the code-disc of grating pitch d=2.4 μ m, the spacing δ of major and minor grating dish<6.12mm, actual in the photelectric receiver detection, the hot spot lap is increased, corresponding grating dish spacing δ reduces.
After the interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector of the present invention installation, will be to a laser instrument 1 and No. two laser instrument 8 energisings of path position, in a corresponding photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receivers 6, extract interferometric fringe signal, and signal wire connected oscillograph, finely tune the position of two photelectric receivers by signal in the oscillograph, that is, make the visual field of two photelectric receivers be positioned at the single order angle of diffraction position of light.After path position obtained steady and audible static stripe signal, even rotating spindle 9 shows by oscillograph and can see that sinusoidal signal is moved, and slight change took place in the cycle of signal.A photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receivers 6 are centered by main shaft 9, with 0 ° and 180 ° of diameters installations; Because the off-centre of key light grid dish 3 relative main shafts 9, cause a photelectric receiver 5 different with the raster count of No. two photelectric receivers 6 process in the identical time, the detectable signal that namely obtains there are differences in frequency and phase place, can calculate the phase differential that motion one all diameter position signallings produce by contrast, according to the relation between signal and the grating parameter, can calculate offset by phasometer again.Computation process is as follows:
The signal that photelectric receiver 5 that diameter is installed and No. two photelectric receivers 6 obtain as shown in Figure 3, signal is respectively X, Y establishes initialize signal and is
X=A sin(ω 1t+θ 1) (4)
Y=B sin(ω 2t+θ 2)) (5)
If off-centre is 0, signal X, the angular frequency of Y equates, ω 0=2 π x/d, x are the displacement of the lines of key light grid dish 3 motions, and d is the pitch of key light grid dish 3;
If off-centre is e, signal X, the angular frequency of Y is unequal, wherein ω 1=2 π x 1/ d, ω 2=2 π x 2/ d, x1 are the displacement of the lines of key light grid dish 3 one lateral movements, and x2 is the displacement of the lines of grating pair path position motion, and then the phase difference θ that produces owing to eccentric frequency displacement is
Δθ=2π(x 2-x 1)/d (6)
And according to geometric relationship e ≈ (x 2-x 1)/2, so can get relation between eccentric amount e and the phase difference θ:
e=Δθ×d/(4π) (7)
Δ θ can be by signal X in the oscillograph, the synthetic Li Sarutu variation of Y is read, as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5, read corresponding phase difference value (requiring sinusoidal signal frequency to equate) from lee sajous graphics, the distance z that figure passes for twice between the transverse axis is made as w with figure at the ratio of transverse axis projection total length z0, then phase difference θ=arc sin (w) in conjunction with the figure sense of rotation, can obtain phasing degree truth table (result after the normalization) shown in subordinate list 1: subordinate list 1
Phase difference θ w The figure sense of rotation The transverse direction
0 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
15° 0.2587 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
30° 0.5 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
45° 0.707 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
60° 0.866 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
75° 0.9657 Counterclockwise 1,3 quadrants
90° 1 Counterclockwise Circle
105° 0.9657 Counterclockwise 2,4 quadrants
120° 0.866 Counterclockwise 2,4 quadrants
135° 0.707 Counterclockwise 2,4 quadrants
150° 0.5 Counterclockwise 2,4 quadrants
165° 0.2587 Counterclockwise 2,4 quadrants
180° 0 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
195° 0.2587 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
210° 0.5 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
225° 0.707 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
240° 0.866 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
255° 0.9657 Clockwise 2,4 quadrants
270° 1 Clockwise Circle
285° 0.9657 Clockwise 1,3 quadrants
300° 0.866 Clockwise 1,3 quadrants
315° 0.707 Clockwise 1,3 quadrants
330° 0.5 Clockwise 1,3 quadrants
345° 0.2587 Clockwise 1,3 quadrants
As shown in Figure 6, key light grid dish 3 is installed on the main shaft 9, and secondary grating dish 4 is installed on the Connection Block 11 of axle sleeve 10, and key light grid dish 3 is identical with secondary grating dish 4 parameters, and spacing is δ, and main shaft 9 is done the precision rotating motion with respect to axle sleeve 10; The laser that laser instrument 1 and No. two laser instruments 8 send becomes directional light respectively behind a collimating mirror 2 and No. two collimating mirrors 7, laser instrument 1, collimating mirror 2 and No. two laser instruments 8, No. two collimating mirrors 7 diameter respectively are installed on axle sleeve position under the key light grid dish 3, distance is D, the axle center symmetry; Distance H place above secondary grating dish 4 places a photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receivers 6 respectively, the distance be D, the installation site as shown in Figure 7, the distance center line is a (a/H=tg ψ, ψ are the first-order diffraction angle).
The testing process of interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector of the present invention is as follows:
1, the laser that sends of laser instrument 1 becomes directional light behind a collimating mirror 2, impinge perpendicularly in the key light grid dish 3, through optical grating diffraction, get it-1 grade and 0 order diffraction light (1 order diffraction angle is ψ), through secondary grating dish 4 the secondary diffraction takes place, wherein-1 order diffraction light is got its (1,0) order diffraction light behind secondary grating dish 4,0 order diffraction light is got its (0 ,-1) order diffraction light behind secondary grating dish 4.This two bundles diffraction light direction is identical, energy equates, can produce the high-contrast interference fringe, interference region as shown in Figure 1, a photelectric receiver 5 is placed at the H place above the secondary grating dish 4 of this region distance, through a photelectric receiver 5 the optical interference striped is converted to the telecommunications breath, owing at key light grid dish 30 of diffraction takes place, equate with grating cycle variable quantity-1 grade of sinusoidal wave period, obtain the displacement sinusoidal signal X signal of key light grid dish 3;
2, the principle identical according to step 1, No. two laser instruments 8 are sent laser and are become directional light after through No. two collimating mirrors 7, after the described diffraction interference process of step 1, are converted into the displacement sinusoidal signal Y-signal of key light grid dish 3 at No. two photelectric receivers 6;
3, because there is setting-up eccentricity in key light grid dish 3 at main shaft 9, and offset is e, as shown in Figure 8, the photoelectricity sinusoidal signal phase place of a photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receivers 6 changes with the rotation of main shaft 9.Among the figure, O DBe the center of circle of key light grid dish 3, O MBe the mechanical axle center of main shaft 9, because the existence of eccentric amount e, the signal that reads at photelectric receiver 5 location point A in the distance of No. two photelectric receivers 6 of stop position A ' distance of diameter is Wherein e direction (being eccentric position) with PD1, PD2 line angular separation is
4, reading of phase differential: at first carry out the judgement of eccentric extreme value place, main shaft 9 rotates all the time in the same direction, a photelectric receiver 5 and No. two photelectric receiver 6 electrical signal converted can be synthesized lee sajous graphics by oscillographic two passages, observe the movement locus of lee sajous graphics, when when certain position direction of motion changes, the minimum extreme point that obtains recording, and be Δ θ by truth table subordinate list 1 record phase differential Min, continue to cross 180 ° of positions along rotating spindle 9 in the same way, as shown in Figure 9, can obtain maximum extreme point, and be Δ θ by truth table subordinate list 1 record phase differential MaxAfter obtaining extreme point, according to (Fig. 5 is 6 kinds of states in the circulation, surpasses circulation and goes round and begins again) shown in Figure 5, the cycle index that Li Sarutu changes in the record rotation process, be the complete cycle issue n in the phase differential, by above record, can calculate eccentric amount e according to following formula:
Figure BDA0000126544110000071
In the formula, d is the grating pitch of key light grid dish.

Claims (3)

1. the interfere type high density is justified the grating Accentric detector, it is characterized in that this pick-up unit comprises a laser instrument (1), a collimating mirror (2), secondary grating dish (4), a photelectric receiver (5), No. two photelectric receivers (6), No. two collimating mirrors (7), No. two laser instruments (8), main shaft (9), axle sleeve (10), grating Connection Block (11) and oscillograph; Key light grid dish (3) to be detected is fixed on the platform of main shaft (9), and secondary grating dish (4) is fixed on the grating Connection Block (11); Grating Connection Block (11) is fixed on the axle sleeve (10), and grating Connection Block (11) is coaxial with axle sleeve (10); Axle sleeve (10) is coaxial with main shaft (9), is dynamically connected by bearing; Secondary grating dish (4) is realized coaxial with main shaft (9) by grating Connection Block (11), axle sleeve (10); A laser instrument (1) and No. two laser instruments (8) and a collimating mirror (2) and No. two collimating mirrors (7) diameter respectively are installed on the following axle sleeve position of key light grid dish (3), and are the axle center symmetry; A photelectric receiver (5) and No. two photelectric receivers (6) place the top of secondary grating dish (4) respectively; Oscillograph is connected with No. two photelectric receivers (6) with a photelectric receiver (5) respectively; The laser that a laser instrument (1) sends becomes directional light after through a collimating mirror (2), impinge perpendicularly in the key light grid dish (3), behind the secondary diffraction through diffraction of key light grid dishes (3) and secondary grating dish (4), produce interference fringe, after interference fringe is converted to electric signal through a photelectric receiver (5), received by oscillograph, obtain the displacement sinusoidal signal of key light grid dish (3); The laser that No. two laser instruments (8) send becomes directional light after through No. two collimating mirrors (7), impinge perpendicularly in the key light grid dish (3), behind the secondary diffraction through diffraction of key light grid dishes (3) and secondary grating dish (4), produce interference fringe, after interference fringe is converted to electric signal through No. two photelectric receivers (6), received by oscillograph, obtain the displacement sinusoidal signal of key light grid dish (3); According to synthesizing of out of phase sinusoidal signal in the oscillograph, can draw eccentric position and the offset of key light grid dish (3).
2. interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that described key light grid dish (3) is identical with the grating pitch of secondary grating dish (4), and the installing space δ of the two is the millimeter magnitude.
3. interfere type high density circle grating Accentric detector as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that a described laser instrument (1) is monochromatic light with the laser that No. two laser instruments (8) send, and its wavelength is 380nm~800nm.
CN 201110451038 2011-12-29 2011-12-29 Device for detecting eccentricity of interference type high-density round grating Expired - Fee Related CN102564308B (en)

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CN106643846A (en) * 2017-03-10 2017-05-10 哈尔滨理工大学 Grating expansion device for encoder circular grating eccentric adjustment
CN108106646B (en) * 2017-12-11 2020-04-10 连云港杰瑞电子有限公司 Reflection type absolute value photoelectric encoder
CN108983242B (en) * 2018-08-28 2021-02-23 山东师范大学 Ultrasonic wave nanometer precision measuring device and measuring method based on dynamic Lissajous figure
CN113074672B (en) * 2021-04-09 2022-08-30 哈尔滨理工大学 Method for calculating eccentric position of grating disc in encoder eccentric adjustment system

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5291026A (en) * 1992-01-29 1994-03-01 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Method for measuring eccentricity
CN1731101A (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-02-08 中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所 The eccentric code channel scrambler of a kind of small-sized absolute type individual pen
CN101081482A (en) * 2007-06-29 2007-12-05 成都工具研究所 Positioning accuracy quick measuring mechanism of numerically controlled revolving dial

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5291026A (en) * 1992-01-29 1994-03-01 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Method for measuring eccentricity
CN1731101A (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-02-08 中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所 The eccentric code channel scrambler of a kind of small-sized absolute type individual pen
CN101081482A (en) * 2007-06-29 2007-12-05 成都工具研究所 Positioning accuracy quick measuring mechanism of numerically controlled revolving dial

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