CN102510011B - Method for realizing the intelligent tour-inspection of power tower based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter - Google Patents

Method for realizing the intelligent tour-inspection of power tower based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter Download PDF

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CN102510011B
CN102510011B CN201110326456.3A CN201110326456A CN102510011B CN 102510011 B CN102510011 B CN 102510011B CN 201110326456 A CN201110326456 A CN 201110326456A CN 102510011 B CN102510011 B CN 102510011B
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miniature
rotor unmanned
unmanned helicopter
tower
data
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CN201110326456.3A
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CN102510011A (en
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吴华
吕敏
柳长安
杨国田
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华北电力大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for realizing the intelligent tour-inspection of a power tower based on a miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and belongs to the technical field of tour-inspection of transmission lines. The method comprises the following steps of: tower modeling, inspection viewpoint planning, autonomous navigation, data acquisition and failure analysis, wherein the tower modeling step comprises a data acquisition process, a tower positioning process, a security zone division process and a security zone evaluation process; the inspection viewpoint planning step refers to a process of solving an optimal observation viewpoint according to related constraint conditions; the autonomous navigation step comprises a basic navigation sub-step and an accurate navigation sub-step; the data acquisition step refers to a process of transmitting related data back to a ground station by using the miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter; and the failure analysis step refers to a process of performing analysis, judgment and diagnosis according to the data transmitted back to the ground station by tour-inspection and decision making personnel. The method has the advantages of high safety, detection accuracy, tour-inspection efficiency and flexibility, low cost and high operability.

Description

Electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter
Technical field
The invention belongs to polling transmission line technical field, particularly the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter.
Background technology
Adopting high pressure and superhigh pressure overhead power transmission line is the long major way apart from transmission & distribution electric power, power line and shaft tower annex long term exposure produce disconnected strand because being subject to the impact of lasting mechanical tension, electric flashover, material aging in the wild, wear and tear, corrode equivalent damage, as repaired and change not in time, small breakage and defect just may expand originally.Finally cause serious accident, cause large-area power failure and huge economic loss, so Utilities Electric Co. progressively increases to the dynamics of the maintenance of circuit and monitoring., to line equipment inspection, be regularly the effective means of preventing in time and fixing a breakdown.Finding in time line impairment and defect and assessed, according to the order of importance and emergency of defect, with rational expense and correct priority, arranging necessary maintenance and reparation, is the effective means of guaranteeing the reliability of power supply.
Traditional routine inspection mode mainly adopts manpower to patrol and examine, and makes with the naked eye or telescope is observed local power line.Due to transmission line distribute multi-point and wide-ranging, geographical conditions are complicated, line walking workman need to cross over mountain after mountain, wades across a river, on foot or drive to patrol and examine, inefficiency, labour intensity is large, operational environment is dangerous.
The routine inspection modes that adopt are that large-scale helicopter or unmanned plane are patrolled and examined more at present.Although the more traditional manpower routine inspection mode of the method has improved and has patrolled and examined efficiency, reduced and patrolled and examined difficulty, because its aircraft bodily form using is huge, in order to ensure the safe operation of transmission line, often can not be effectively near observed object.And because aircraft handling has unsteadiness, often observed object is passed through fast in camera coverage, can not more comprehensively collect reliable data, increased technical difficulty.Using another drawback of big payload helicopter is that cost is higher, in the convenience of operation, has larger restriction.
Miniature multirotor helicopter is a kind of MAV, simple in structure, and rotor is converted into simple power by rigid frame.Landing site is limited little, can VTOL, hovering, flight attitude controllability is strong, for landing site, require low, so be particularly suitable for mountain area.Miniature wing aircraft volume is little, lightweight, and its insulating protection shell can be tolerated its soft collision during flying, and institute carries out hot mission so that Close approach is observed object.Aircraft operation and the relatively large helicopter of maintenance cost are relatively cheap many.Therefore, adopt miniature multirotor helicopter to carry out patrol task and there is the not available advantage of many other method for inspecting.
Summary of the invention
The invention discloses the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on many rotor wing unmanned aerial vehicles.It is divided into following steps:
1) shaft tower modeling: use computer and GPS navigation system to carry out modeling to overhead transmission line shaft tower, obtain miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter safe flight region, and safe flight region is assessed;
2) inspect viewpoint planning: the safe flight region and all feasible observation viewpoints that by the grid of having set up, pre-determine miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, take flight efficiency, observation quality and patrol task as constraints, use optimal method to solve the optimal viewing viewpoint at effective covering position to be inspected;
Near each observes viewpoint, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is different according to self-position and the equipment observing, and observation angle is finely tuned, and guarantees in this observation viewpoint, the transmission facility that can observe to be caught fully;
3) self-contained navigation: ground station carries out communication by the wireless communication data link with miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and adopt basic navigation and precision navigation to control movement locus and the attitude of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
4) data acquisition: miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter obtains GPS and the state of flight information of view data, infrared thermal-image data and this observation place by vision sensor in predetermined observation place, then by the wireless communication data link of ground station and miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, by above data back ground station;
5) accident analysis: patrol and examine and decision-maker according to visible ray and infrared thermal imagery image data, visible ray and infrared thermal imagery video data, GPS positional information and the state of flight information material of passing ground station back, under the modules such as ground station's image processing, video analysis and failure diagnosis auxiliary, analyze targetedly, differentiate and diagnose, thereby determine the health status of overhead transmission line Lifting Method in Pole Tower Integral Hoisting, assist Maintenance of Electric Transmission Line department to implement maintenance and the malfunction elimination of overhead transmission line shaft tower.
Described miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is equipped with following assembly: lithium battery, transducer, data storage cell, wireless communication module and intelligent control module;
Transducer comprises visible light camera, thermal camera, 6 axle attitudes and 3 axle magnetic field sensors, barometer, GPS navigation system and vision measurement system; Transducer possesses multi-angle anti-jitter shoot function; Visible light camera can carry out 360 ° of rotary takings of two-freedom, and has the characteristic of autozoom; Thermal camera is for detection of the heating situation of shaft tower equipment; 6 axle attitudes and 3 axle magnetic field sensors can obtain the flight status parameter of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter; The navigator fix of the auxiliary miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter of GPS navigation system and vision measurement system, for obtaining the geographical position coordinates of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Data storage cell is for storing flight status parameter and the sensing data of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Wireless communication module is for realizing the two-way communication of image, data and instruction between miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter and ground;
Intelligent control module is used for realizing flight directive conversion and transmission, Autonomous attitude control, multisensor scheduling and patrols and examines Data Management Analysis.
Described shaft tower modeling is divided into data acquisition, tower spotting process, safety zone partition process and safety zone evaluation process;
Data acquisition is: the engineering drawing providing by Transmission Line Design person obtains the basic structure of shaft tower, obtains more detailed tower structure feature on this basis by vision or laser testing, completes three-dimensional reconstruction process;
Tower spotting process is: according to map and GPS navigation system, each shaft tower of transmission line to be detected is carried out to accurate location location;
Safety zone partition process is: according to (the power industry standard < < of People's Republic of China (PRC) overhead transmission line helicopter tour technology guide rule > >), in a safe flight region of the peripheral delimitation in advance of each shaft tower, by this region discrete according to the granularity of shaft tower three-dimensional reconstruction be the lattice of throwing the net, each summit on grid represents the accessibility observation viewpoint of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and the arc between summit represents the flight path that miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is possible;
Safety zone evaluation process is: according to frequency and intrinsic useful life that in safe flight region, each equipment breaks down the safe flight region of gained further being assessed, thus the different weights in definite safe flight region.
Described basic navigation refers to: by GPS navigation system and vision measurement system joint estimate miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter and planned the relative position of observing between viewpoint, thereby control the flight path of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Described precision navigation refers to: according to the spatial relationship between the position of Tower Model, vision measurement system and miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter GPS navigation system, and in conjunction with the measured value of GPS navigation system, further the observation viewpoint of calibration miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, guarantees its accurately predetermined observation place of access.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
1) fail safe of this intelligent polling method is good.Owing in advance electric tower is carried out to modeling before miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter flight, at shaft tower, cook up aircraft around and can catch smoothly image in patrolling and examining process and can not touch again the reliable range of observation of power transmission line element.While patrolling and examining, within the scope of this, find flight path, guaranteed the fail safe of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter and overhead transmission line simultaneously.
2) this intelligent polling method accuracy in detection is good.Be different from tradition and patrol and examine the method for using large aircraft, this method adopts miniature multirotor helicopter, can be under the premise that security is guaranteed more closely, multi-angle, in all directions observed object in image is accurately gathered, for power circuit polling failure diagnosis provides high-quality information.
3) to patrol and examine efficiency high for this intelligent polling method.Being different from traditional roaming type patrols and examines, first this method carries out safety zone planning, be separated on this basis the lattice of throwing the net, by being weighted to observing viewpoint the overall merit that obtains this observation viewpoint in the evaluation aspect position, observation effect, in conjunction with flight time constraint, aircraft power consumption constraint, according to Optimum Theory, solve, can make aircraft find the optimal path of whole patrol task, avoided unnecessary time loss and aircraft energy consumption.
4) flexibility of this intelligent polling method is high.The method, by the abstract form for net in the safety zone of electric tower modeling gained, makes aircraft all can carry out flexible modeling when the vegetal cover situation along the line of the electric tower structure in the face of different, complexity.Therefore, in the face of different overhead transmission line environment the method all has good adaptability.
5) this intelligent polling method cost is low, workable.The miniature multirotor helicopter that this method is used is patrolled and examined used large aircraft than tradition and aspect aircraft price, cost of equipment maintenance, is all being had absolute predominance.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is miniature multirotor helicopter electric force pole tower intelligent patrol detection flow chart;
Fig. 2 a is that miniature multirotor helicopter is patrolled and examined flight safety region front view;
Fig. 2 b is that miniature multirotor helicopter is patrolled and examined flight safety region left view;
Fig. 2 c is that miniature multirotor helicopter is patrolled and examined flight safety region vertical view;
Fig. 3 a is miniature multirotor helicopter viewpoint planning and optimal route selection front view;
Fig. 3 b is miniature multirotor helicopter viewpoint planning and optimal route selection left view;
Number in the figure: 1-safe flight region 1; 2-safe flight region 2; 3-safe flight region 3; 4-safe flight region 4; 5-safe flight region 5; 6-safe flight region 6; 7-safe flight region 7.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in more detail:
As shown in Figure 1, the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on many rotor wing unmanned aerial vehicles.It is divided into following steps: shaft tower modeling, inspect viewpoint planning, self-contained navigation, data acquisition and accident analysis.
Shaft tower modeling is divided into data acquisition, tower spotting process, safety zone partition process and safety zone evaluation process;
Data acquisition is: the engineering drawing providing by Transmission Line Design person obtains the basic structure of shaft tower, obtains more detailed tower structure feature on this basis by vision or laser testing, completes three-dimensional reconstruction process;
Tower spotting process is: according to map and GPS navigation system, each shaft tower of transmission line to be detected is carried out to accurate location location;
Safety zone partition process is: according to the power industry standard < < of People's Republic of China (PRC) overhead transmission line helicopter tour technology guide rule > >, in a safe flight region of the peripheral delimitation in advance of each shaft tower, (be during aircraft is patrolled and examined process, can catch smoothly image can not touch again the reliable range of observation of power transmission line element, when miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter flies within the scope of this, must not hang and encounter any power transmission tower element and electric wire, must not cause harmful effect to the normal work of power transmission line, within the scope of this, target is observed and had good observation visual angle).
As shown in Fig. 2 a, Fig. 2 b, Fig. 2 c, be the three-view diagram in safe flight region, in safe flight region 1 and 7, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter can observe shaft tower, wire, earthing device and infrastructure; In safe flight region 2,3,5,6, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter can observe insulator, gold utensil, affiliated facility and wire.According to frequency statistics result and intrinsic useful life that in each safe flight region, transmission facility breaks down giving the different weights of patrolling and examining to the safe flight region of gained.For example, mark off emphasis and patrol and examine region (safe flight region 2,3,5,6) and the common region (safe flight region 1,4,7) of patrolling and examining.Regard the safe flight region in Fig. 2 a, Fig. 2 b, Fig. 2 c as a curved surface in space, to after its discretization, can obtain the lattice of throwing the net, summit represents the accessibility observation viewpoint of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, arc represents the flight path that miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is possible, as shown in Figure 3 a, 3 b.
Safety zone evaluation process is: according to frequency and intrinsic useful life that in safe flight region, each equipment breaks down the safe flight region of gained further being assessed, thus the different weights (as emphasis is patrolled and examined region, the common region etc. of patrolling and examining) in definite safe flight region.
The described viewpoint of inspecting is planned the process that refers to preferred view viewpoint in above-mentioned safe flight region;
Observe viewpoint and refer to miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter residing observation place and visual angle in space, be the position coordinates of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter self and vision sensor towards, specifically, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is in the process of patrolling and examining, need have access to successively each region according to order and complete (the visible images collection of patrolling and examining to whole shaft tower, infrared image acquisition, the collection of electricity tower and surrounding enviroment information), in region, to observe the transmission facility of this district inclusion, but intra-zone is observed viewpoint and is selected to have flexibility, How to choose is observed viewpoint accordingly, guarantee the quality of observation and the time of flight, it is the problem that viewpoint planning will solve.By the connected graph of having set up, pre-determine safe flight region and all feasible observation viewpoints of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, take flight efficiency, observation quality and patrol task as constraints, use optimal method to solve the optimal viewing viewpoint at effective covering position to be inspected;
Miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is planned its movement locus and observation visual angle according to the result of shaft tower modeling.As shown in Fig. 2 a, Fig. 2 b, Fig. 2 c, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, in the process of patrolling and examining, travels through safe flight region 1 to safe flight region 7 successively according to the order of the safety zone of dividing, and each intra-zone has many different observation viewpoints.According to the data to shaft tower modeling gained, each observes viewpoint the different transmission facilities that can observe and different observation angles.
As shown in Figure 3 a, 3 b, viewpoint is observed in the representative of black triangle, while patrolling and examining, the observation viewpoint of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter from region 1, in transit in the process in region 2 to 7, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter flies on an optimal path, as shown in Fig. 3 a, Fig. 3 b middle polyline, to realize the best effect of patrolling and examining.Broken line signal connects these critical observation viewpoints and forms an optimal path.Around each observes viewpoint, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter also needs, according to self and observed object relative position, observation angle to be finely tuned, and guarantees in this observation viewpoint, the transmission facility that can observe to be caught fully.
Now miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter starts to patrol and examine, owing to having carried out safety zone assessment, so the flight course of patrolling and examining now has possessed higher fail safe.Miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is controlled algorithm in conjunction with sensor feedback data such as flying speed, angular speed, height by flying of moving on processor, and completes the control to miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter flight attitude.First, by GPS navigation system, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is estimated flight position and has been planned the relative position of observing between viewpoint, adjusts flight path.Due to the limitation of GPS navigation system accuracy, still there is certain error in observation place now and predetermined observation place, therefore also needs further precision navigation.When miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter flies near predetermined observation viewpoint, now main according to the spatial relationship between Tower Model and the position of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and in conjunction with the measured value of GPS navigation system, further the observation viewpoint of calibration miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, guarantees its accurately predetermined observation place of access.
Miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is according to above-mentioned steps, from safe flight region 1, start to carry out self-contained navigation, combined sensor feedback data, constantly estimation self and the predetermined relative position of observing viewpoint and shaft tower, access security flight range 1 to all optimums of having planned in safe flight region 7 are observed viewpoints successively.
Miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter passes through visible light camera and thermal camera acquisition of image data in predetermined observation place, and the environmental information of each task point, state of flight are carried out to record.When miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is patrolled and examined, by wireless data link by gathered data back ground station.Ground is patrolled and examined and decision-maker can be equipped with an imaging device (such as display or portable handheld terminal etc.) that can receive wireless signal and observes in real time the situation on shaft tower.
Accident analysis refers to: patrol and examine and decision-maker according to visible ray and infrared thermal imagery image data, visible ray and infrared thermal imagery video data, GPS positional information and the state of flight information material of passing ground station back, under the modules such as ground station's image processing, video analysis and failure diagnosis auxiliary, analyze targetedly, differentiate and diagnose, thereby determine the health status of overhead transmission line Lifting Method in Pole Tower Integral Hoisting, assist Maintenance of Electric Transmission Line department effectively to implement maintenance and the malfunction elimination of overhead transmission line shaft tower.

Claims (3)

1. the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, is characterized in that, is divided into following steps:
1) shaft tower modeling: use computer and GPS navigation system to carry out modeling to overhead transmission line shaft tower, obtain miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter safe flight region, and safe flight region is assessed;
Described shaft tower modeling is divided into data acquisition, tower spotting process, safety zone partition process and safety zone evaluation process;
Data acquisition is: the engineering drawing providing by Transmission Line Design person obtains the basic structure of shaft tower, obtains more detailed tower structure feature on this basis by vision or laser testing, completes three-dimensional reconstruction process;
Tower spotting process is: according to map and GPS navigation system, each shaft tower of transmission line to be detected is carried out to accurate location location;
Safety zone partition process is: in a safe flight region of the peripheral delimitation in advance of each shaft tower, by safe flight region discrete according to the granularity of shaft tower three-dimensional reconstruction be the lattice of throwing the net, obtain safety zone, each summit on the grid of safety zone represents the accessibility observation viewpoint of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and the arc between summit represents the flight path that miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is possible;
Safety zone evaluation process is: according to frequency and intrinsic useful life that in safe flight region, each equipment breaks down the safe flight region of gained further being assessed, thus the different weights in definite safe flight region;
2) inspect viewpoint planning: the safety zone and all feasible observation viewpoints that by the grid of having set up, pre-determine miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, take flight efficiency, observation quality and patrol task as constraints, use optimal method to solve the optimal viewing viewpoint at effective covering position to be inspected;
Near each observes viewpoint, miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is different according to self-position and the equipment observing, and observation angle is finely tuned, and guarantees in this observation viewpoint, the transmission facility that can observe to be caught fully;
3) self-contained navigation: ground station carries out communication by the wireless communication data link with miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, and adopt basic navigation and precision navigation to control movement locus and the attitude of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
4) data acquisition: miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter obtains GPS and the state of flight information of view data, infrared thermal-image data and this observation place by transducer in predetermined observation place, then by the wireless communication data link of ground station and miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, by above data back ground station;
5) accident analysis: patrol and examine and decision-maker according to visible ray and infrared thermal imagery image data, visible ray and infrared thermal imagery video data, GPS positional information and the state of flight information material of passing ground station back, under ground station's image processing, video analysis and fault diagnosis module auxiliary, analyze targetedly, differentiate and diagnose, thereby determine the health status of overhead transmission line Lifting Method in Pole Tower Integral Hoisting, assist Maintenance of Electric Transmission Line department to implement maintenance and the malfunction elimination of overhead transmission line shaft tower.
2. the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter is equipped with following assembly: lithium battery, transducer, data storage cell, wireless communication module and intelligent control module;
Transducer comprises visible light camera, thermal camera, 6 axle attitudes and 3 axle magnetic field sensors, barometer, GPS navigation system and vision measurement system; Transducer possesses multi-angle anti-jitter shoot function; Visible light camera carries out 360 ° of rotary takings of two-freedom, and has the characteristic of autozoom; Thermal camera is for detection of the heating situation of shaft tower equipment; 6 axle attitudes and 3 axle magnetic field sensors can obtain the state of flight information of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter; The navigator fix of the auxiliary miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter of GPS navigation system and vision measurement system, for obtaining the geographical position coordinates of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Data storage cell is for storing state of flight information and the sensing data of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Wireless communication module is for realizing the two-way communication of image, data and instruction between miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter and ground;
Intelligent control module is used for realizing flight directive conversion and transmission, Autonomous attitude control, multisensor scheduling and patrols and examines Data Management Analysis.
3. the electric force pole tower intelligent polling method based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described basic navigation refers to: by GPS navigation system and vision measurement system joint estimate miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter and planned the relative position of observing between viewpoint, thereby control the flight path of miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter;
Described precision navigation refers to: according to the spatial relationship between the position of Tower Model, vision measurement system and miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter GPS navigation system, and in conjunction with the measured value of GPS navigation system, further the observation viewpoint of calibration miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter, guarantees its accurately predetermined observation place of access.
CN201110326456.3A 2011-10-24 2011-10-24 Method for realizing the intelligent tour-inspection of power tower based on miniature multi-rotor unmanned helicopter CN102510011B (en)

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