CN102323073B - Adhesion safety detecting method of tower crane - Google Patents

Adhesion safety detecting method of tower crane Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102323073B
CN102323073B CN201110140685A CN201110140685A CN102323073B CN 102323073 B CN102323073 B CN 102323073B CN 201110140685 A CN201110140685 A CN 201110140685A CN 201110140685 A CN201110140685 A CN 201110140685A CN 102323073 B CN102323073 B CN 102323073B
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tower
static
lifting
lift heavy
crane
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CN102323073A (en
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王蔚佳
刘成毅
李正良
刘昌明
毛辉
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Chongqing University
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Chongqing University
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Abstract

The invention provides an adhesion safety detecting method of a tower crane. The method comprises the following steps of: determining a force transmission relation between a tower roof system of the tower crane and the position of the tower body connected with an adhesion device through establishing a mathematical structural model of the tower crane, wherein the vibration parameter of the tower system is tested in the construction site to obtain a fixed vibration frequency of the tower crane and a maximum vibration amplitude of a hoisting weight in the vertical direction so that the stiffness coefficient of the adhesion system and the stress situation of the position of the tower body connected with the adhesion device can be obtained according to the force transmission relation between the tower roof system of the tower crane and the position of the tower body connected with the adhesion device; thus, the safety of the adhesion device of the tower crane is judged. By using the method provided by the invention, the possible dangerous working condition of the tower can be analyzed to find parts of the tower body and the adhesion device that may exceed the limit value so as to take responsive measures immediately; and effective guaranteeing effect can be generated on the safe use of the tower temporarily designed with the adhesion device.

Description

Tower crane adheres to safety detecting method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the safe discrimination technology field of construction machine, be specifically related to a kind of tower crane attachment device detection method of site safety property in use that is directed against.
Background technology
Tower crane is a vertical transportation machinery commonly used in the building operation, also abbreviates the tower machine usually as.When receive the working-yard condition restriction or built, the structures shape affects, the tower machine need adhere to sometimes.Attachment device can adopt attaching frame or wire rope, the soft attachment systems of wire rope that for example in tower, adopts in the attaching frame in the construction of bridge Sarasota and the cogeneration plant's cooling tower construction.This type attachment device has tangible flexible characteristic, if inefficacy can cause serious tower machine collapse accident.
Along with the high speed development of China's building cause, the super large superelevation is built, structures are more and more, and the working-yard is especially big, the utilization rate of superelevation type tower machine is also increasingly high, runs into the situation that tower machine superelevation, multispan are adhered to through regular meeting.Therefore, the tower machine safety in utilization after adhering to is the problem that presses for solution on the engineering.
According to the relevant regulations of The Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China, MOC 2008 the 166th command " construction hoisting machinery safety supervision management regulation ", after the tower machine installs, should after detecting acceptance(check), can come into operation.According to the project of national standard (GB/T5031-2008) " tower crane " defined, detect the separate state tower machine that is primarily aimed at.When the tower machine adheres to, increase because of attachment device is flexible, detect the security of the limiter of moment of debugging and the tower machine use that the load lifting limiter setting value can not be guaranteed attachment state at separate state.
Find through the working-yard investigation, when the design attachment device, normally (GB/13752-92), only tower machine system is done the statics checking computations behind the introducing dynamic load factor, even have plenty of by rigid attachment and calculate by " design of tower crane standard ".Because this type attachment device is interim design and disposable use; There is not tried checking; If the calculated rigidity coefficient of tower machine attachment device and actual operating position exist than large deviation; During then the tower machine uses quiet, the dynamic internal force of stressed and the tower machine body of the tower of attachment device and distortion all can with the design load grave fault, even possibly surpass the limit value of permission and cause the generation of major accident.
During tower machine Upon Flexible Adhesion, quiet, dynamic perfromance all can change with the change that attachment is put stiffness coefficient.The distortion that is attached structure also will exert an influence to the security that the tower machine uses.Common finite element analysis software (like ANSYS, ADINA, ABAQUS, MSC etc.) has powerful mechanical analysis function; But be used for tower machine structure and need adopt direct method of formation modeling; To the tower machine super-huge, that superelevation is adhered to, need input thousands of rod member and node parameter, not only workload is big, loaded down with trivial details, easy error; And model is in case generate each very difficulty of changing all.Therefore, the tower machine structure for different all needs modeling again at every turn, and the difficulty of promoting the use of at the construction field (site) is bigger.In addition, software ANSYS also is difficult to study and grasps concerning the engineering technical personnel of construction field, and this also is generally not use an in addition major reason of mechanical analysis of finite element analysis software during to the attachment device Transform Type design.
According to domestic and foreign literature retrieval, the data that studies in great detail of little, dynamic analysis quiet about Upon Flexible Adhesion formula tower machine does not more have the practical approach that can be used for on-the-spot test and tower machine attachment device and body of the tower intensity, rigidity are checked.Use to the provisional attachment device of this type; Be starved of a kind of easyly and can combine on-the-spot safety detecting method, system carries out vibration shape parameter recognition to the tower machine, simultaneously quiet, the dynamic stress of tower machine body of the tower and attachment systems is analyzed; The method that strength and stiffness are checked; So that can in time find the potential safety hazard of existence in the attachment device use, take countermeasure, guarantee the safe in utilization of tower machine.
Summary of the invention
To the above-mentioned deficiency that exists in the prior art; The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of tower crane simple and practical, that can be at the construction field (site) tower crane be carried out safety detection and adhere to safety detecting method, so that can in time find the potential safety hazard that attachment device exists in using.
For realizing above-mentioned purpose, the present invention has adopted following technological means:
Tower crane adheres to safety detecting method, comprises the steps:
A) set up the mathematic(al) structure model of tower crane, confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position through this mathematic(al) structure model;
B) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane lets the lift heavy of jacklift lifting mechanism be m W, m WBe less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, the operation lifting mechanism stops lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate, makes the tower crane vibration, measures its vibration period T W
C) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice lift heavy weight be different m W(1) and m W(2), M W(1) and M W(2) all be less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice lift heavy at the peak swing X of vertical direction W(1) and X W(2);
D) the corresponding amplitude peak position of maximum lift heavy of jacklift to the lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice hoisting weight be different m M(1) and m M(2), M M(1) and M M(2) all be less than or equal to the maximum rated lift heavy m of lifting beam Mmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice the lift heavy thing at the peak swing X of vertical direction M(1) and X M(2);
E) the vibration period T that measures according to step b) W, obtain the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model by following formula operation:
ω = 2 π T W ;
F) try to achieve the stiffness coefficient K of tower crane attachment device according to the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model;
G) by stiffness coefficient K, and the known static load in stacker crane body top, confirm that stacker crane body connects the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position;
H) pass through simultaneous equations:
X W ( 1 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 X W ( 2 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 With X M ( 1 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 X M ( 2 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Try to achieve the vibration coefficient b of lifting beam terminal part position respectively W1And b W2, and the vibration coefficient b of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam position M1And b M2Computing obtains jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part respectively then WmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, that is:
X W max = b W 1 ( m W max + m 0 ) b W 2 , X M max = b M 1 ( m M max + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Wherein, m 0The quality of hanging the suspender of heavy burden on the expression jacklift;
I) according to stiffness coefficient K and vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, be connected the power transitive relation of attachment device position with body of the tower in conjunction with lifting beam, ask for jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Mmax
J) calculate jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Wmax=σ+σ D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the corresponding specified lift heavy m in amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Mmax=σ+σ D, Mmax, if σ WmaxAnd σ MmaxIn any surpasses the bending stress limit value σ in stacker crane body cross section P, judge that then the tower crane security is unreliable.
In the said method; In the mathematic(al) structure model of said tower crane; Body of the tower is fixed on the position, body of the tower top on ground and position that body of the tower connects attachment device all as the support node of body of the tower, and the part between every adjacent two support nodes of body of the tower is as a body of the tower section of striding;
The static displacement y in the support node cross section, bottom of the static displacement y in the apical support node cross section of each body of the tower section of striding, static corner φ, static moment M and static shearing Q and this body of the tower section of striding 0, static corner φ 0, static moment M 0With static shearing Q 0Transitive relation following:
y = y 0 cos kx + ξ φ 0 k sin kx + M 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) + Q 0 N ( ξ sin kx k - x ) ;
φ = - y 0 k sin kx ξ + φ 0 cos kx - M 0 k ξN sin kx + Q 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) ;
M = y 0 N cos kx + φ 0 EIk sin kx + M 0 cos kx + Q 0 ξ k sin kx ;
Q=Q 0
Wherein, x representes the distance of this body of the tower section of striding apical support node and bottom support node; E is the elastic modulus of body of the tower steel; I is the moment of inertia in this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section; N representes the weight that this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section is born; The quality of expression body of the tower unit length; Parameter ξ=1+N γ 0, γ 0The angle of shear of representing this body of the tower section of striding bottom support node cross-sectional unit shearing; Parameter
In the said method, in the said step g), the concrete grammar of " confirming that by stiffness coefficient K stacker crane body connects the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position " is:
G1) try to achieve the static displacement at body of the tower top, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing according to stiffness coefficient K;
G2) because the bottom support node of every body of the tower section of striding is the top end support node of its next body of the tower section of striding, according to the static displacement y in the support node cross section, bottom of static displacement y, static corner φ, static moment M and static shearing Q and this body of the tower section of striding in the apical support node cross section of each body of the tower section of striding 0, static corner φ 0, static moment M 0With static shearing Q 0Transitive relation, promptly obtain the static displacement in each support node cross section, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing;
G3) be connected the static displacement in cross section, attachment device position, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing data according to stacker crane body in static displacement, corner, moment of flexure and the shearing in support node cross section, try to achieve the static buckling stress σ that stacker crane body connects cross section, attachment device position:
σ = M W ;
Wherein, M representes that stacker crane body connects the static moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position, and W representes that stacker crane body connects the composite bending modulus in cross section, attachment device position.
In the said method, said step I) in, ask for jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, WmaxFormula be:
σ d , W max = M W max W ;
Wherein, M W Max = ( ζ MQ η h - C 3 + η h - C 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ W Max ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X W Max ; Wherein, ζ MQ = - η n - D 4 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 4 η n - D 3 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 3 ;
Ask for the maximum lift heavy specified lift heavy m in position of jacklift lifting beam MmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, MmaxFormula be:
σ d , M max = M M max W ;
Wherein, M M Max = ( ζ MQ η h - C 3 + η h - C 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ M Max ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X M Max ; Wherein, ζ MQ = - η n - D 4 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 4 η n - D 3 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 3 ;
Wherein, W representes that stacker crane body connects the composite bending modulus in cross section, attachment device position; M WmaxFor jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position; M MmaxBe the amplitude peak position specified lift heavy m of jacklift in the maximum lift heavy correspondence of lifting beam MmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position; m 6The weight of bearing for the body of the tower top; η H-C3, η H-C4, η N-B3, η N-B4, η N-D4, η N-A4, η N-D3And η N-A3Be the elastic modulus E according to this body of the tower section of striding apical support node and bottom support node, the moment of inertia I in this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section, the weight N that this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section is born, the quality of body of the tower unit length apart from x, body of the tower steel And the angle of shear γ of this body of the tower section of striding bottom support node cross-sectional unit shearing 0Determined transmission parameter;
ε Wmax=(m Wmax+m 0s2;ε Mmax=(m Mmax+m 0s2
Wherein, m 0The general assembly (TW) of used lifting rope during expression jacklift lift heavy, δ SThe softness factor of the lifting rope unit length of expression jacklift lift heavy, H representes the lifting rope length of jacklift lift heavy, ω representes the natural vibration frequency of tower crane mathematical model.
Than prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the present invention proposes the actual method of adhering to stiffness coefficient of working-yard identification tower machine, the tower machine that satisfied superelevation, multispan, adheres in use needs is found this strong request of accident potential immediately.Use the tower computes model that the present invention proposes; Obtain data through in-site measurement; Can analyze the dangerous operating mode that the tower machine possibly occur; Find body of the tower and the attachment device position of value of possibly transfiniting,, can play effective guaranteeing role the safe handling of the tower machine that uses interim design attachment device so that take counter-measure immediately.
2, according to the present invention first Application in the working-yard safe reliability to the QTZ63 type tower machine that adheres to differentiate.Measured result shows that the attachment device flexibility of tower machine is very big, and the actual measurement stiffness coefficient exists than large deviation with the calculated value of present conventional design method, and it is obviously less than normal that stiffness coefficient is adhered in actual measurement, has very unsafe factor.
3, tower machine model of the present invention goes for the tower machine of plurality of specifications form.Can the normal construction operation of excessive interference when measuring at the scene, the simple back of measuring only needs to record the data entry program computing, can obtain required result.Than adopting CCD noncontact vibration measuring set to carry out tower machine vibration frequency and amplitude measurement economy, CCD noncontact vibration measuring set price is too expensive, and nearly 1,000,000 yuan one, inconvenience is at present promoted the use of.
4, the present invention has bright development prospect.If further that noncontact vibration measuring set, computer and software is integrated, can develop portable tower machine safety detecting system, and can promote the on-the-spot conventional detection of dynamic that is used for all tower machines.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a tower crane mathematic(al) structure simplified models synoptic diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is further described.
Tower crane of the present invention adheres to safety detecting method; Confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position through the mathematic(al) structure model of setting up tower crane; Only need at the construction field (site) tower machine system is carried out the vibration parameters test; Obtain natural vibration frequency and the lift heavy of tower crane peak swing at vertical direction; And then can obtain the stiffness coefficient of attachment device and the stress situation that body of the tower is connected the attachment device position with the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position according to the overhead system of tower crane; Judge the security of tower crane attachment device thus, so as in time to find attachment device because of design error with install and use the improper defective that exists, guidance is to the inspection and the pretension of attachment device; And be that load moment limiter is set in adjustment and load lifting limiter provides foundation, prevent the generation of major accident.
The integrated operation step that tower crane of the present invention adheres to safety detecting method is following:
A) set up the mathematic(al) structure model of tower crane, confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position through this mathematic(al) structure model;
B) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane lets the lift heavy of jacklift lifting mechanism be m W, m WBe less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, the operation lifting mechanism stops lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate, makes the tower crane vibration, measures its vibration period T W
C) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice lift heavy weight be different m W(1) and m W(2), M W(1) and M W(2) all be less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice lift heavy at the peak swing X of vertical direction W(1) and X W(2);
D) the corresponding amplitude peak position of maximum lift heavy of jacklift to the lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice hoisting weight be different m M(1) and m M(2), M M(1) and M M(2) all be less than or equal to the maximum rated lift heavy m of lifting beam Mmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice the lift heavy thing at the peak swing X of vertical direction M(1) and X M(2);
E) the vibration period T that measures according to step b) W, obtain the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model by following formula operation:
ω = 2 π T W ;
F) try to achieve the stiffness coefficient K of tower crane attachment device according to the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model;
G) by stiffness coefficient K, and the known static load in stacker crane body top, confirm that stacker crane body connects the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position;
H) pass through simultaneous equations:
X W ( 1 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 X W ( 2 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 With X M ( 1 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 X M ( 2 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Try to achieve the vibration coefficient b of lifting beam terminal part position respectively W1And b W2, and the vibration coefficient b of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam position M1And b M2Computing obtains jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part respectively then WmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, that is:
X W max = b W 1 ( m W max + m 0 ) b W 2 , X M max = b M 1 ( m M max + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Wherein, m 0The quality of hanging the suspender of heavy burden on the expression jacklift;
I) according to stiffness coefficient K and vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, be connected the power transitive relation of attachment device position with body of the tower in conjunction with lifting beam, ask for jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Mmax
J) calculate jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Wmax=σ+σ D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the corresponding specified lift heavy m in amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Mmax=σ+σ D, Mmax, if σ WmaxAnd σ MmaxIn any surpasses the bending stress limit value σ in stacker crane body cross section P, judge that then the tower crane security is unreliable.
Through a modeling embodiment the inventive method is further explained below.
Embodiment:
(1) sets up tower machine system vibration mathematical model
The present invention sets up body of the tower and the vibration mathematical model of overhead system minor structure in the lifting amplitude-change plane with transfer matrix method and flexibility method respectively; Utilize the motion of minor structure combination interface and the frequency equation that the power compatibility conditions are set up the tower machine.Tower crane mathematic(al) structure simplified models synoptic diagram is seen Fig. 1.Through this mathematic(al) structure model, can confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position.
1-1, set up body of the tower minor structure vibration mathematical model with transfer matrix method:
The body of the tower minor structure keeps lattice press-bending structure constant, uses transfer matrix method and sets up the vibration mathematical model, obtains the body of the tower vibration shape and interior force function, so that accurately reflect the mode characteristic of body of the tower and satisfy the needs of analyzing.Among Fig. 1, matter piece quality m 6Get square structure all-mass sum on its that the body of the tower top cross-section born, the moment of inertia of tower head, jacking frame, slew gear equivalent-simplification is matter piece moment of inertia J 6Position O, body of the tower top n and body of the tower that body of the tower is fixed on ground connect attachment device k 1, k 2..., k H-1, k h..., k N-1The position all as the support node of body of the tower, the part between every adjacent two support nodes of body of the tower is as a body of the tower section of striding, therefore promptly have the section of striding 1, the section of striding 2 ..., the section of striding h ..., the section of striding n-1, the section of striding n.Adopt the separation of variable can get the transport function equation of axis amount of deflection, sectional twisting angle, moment of flexure and the shearing of each body of the tower section of striding:
{ S } x h = [ U ] h { S } h - 1 h - - - ( 2 )
In the formula, It is the state matrix that h adheres to the section of striding x sectional position; [U] hIt is the field matrix that h adheres to the section of striding; It is the h-1 rod end state matrix that h adheres to the section of striding.
When there is stiffness coefficient in Fig. 1 body of the tower at the h-1 node is K H-1Resiliency supported the time, dot matrix is:
[ D ] h - 1 = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 K h - 1 0 0 1 - - - ( 3 )
The state parameter of the h-2 node that h-1 strides is through K H-1The h-1 end of striding to h transmits, and is expressed as:
{ S } h - 1 h = [ D ] h - 1 [ U ] h - 1 { S } h - 2 h - 1 - - - ( 4 )
In the formula, It is the state matrix that h adheres to the section of striding h-1 end; [U] H-1It is the field matrix that h-1 adheres to the section of striding; It is the h-2 rod end state matrix that h-1 adheres to the section of striding.
The detrusion factor that each coefficient calculations of equation of transfer has adopted body of the tower master limb, sewed material to the different material arrangement forms of sewing, only need be used the relevant shear distortion factor instead, and equation of transfer is constant.If n end in body of the tower top is the body of the tower top that reaches through transmission, above equation will be participated in the foundation of tower machine Structural Dynamics frequency equation this moment.
1-2. set up overhead system minor structure vibration mathematical model with flexibility method:
Tower machine top structure has movable arm type, horizontal arm carriage amplitude varying formula, and different types such as folding arm carriage amplitude varying formula adopt the lumped mass model that it is simplified.With Fig. 1 is example, matter piece quality m 6Get the above structure all-mass of body of the tower top cross-section sum, the moment of inertia of tower head, jacking frame, slew gear equivalent-simplification is matter piece moment of inertia J 6Particle m 1Get each half sum of arm a, b section quality; Particle m 2Get the half the and overhanging c section all-mass sum of arm b section quality; Balance arm and top installed device quality are pressed equivalence principle to m 3Distribute, counterweight all counts m 3Particle m 4Get half quality of hoist rope and dolly quality sum; Particle m 5Get half quality of hoist rope and suspender quality m 0And lift heavy quality m wSum.Particle m 4And m 5Can do the luffing motion.
Establish the discrete lumped mass vibration mathematical model of tower head carriage amplitude varying formula tower machine overhead system minor structure with flexibility method.The foundation of tower machine top structure lumped mass vibration mathematical model does not comprise matter piece m 6
In Fig. 1 model, because of:
x 5 = x 4 1 - ϵ - - - ( 11 )
ε=m 5δ s2 (12)
In the formula, m 5It is lift heavy particle reduced mass; δ SBeing wire rope calculates every meter length softness factor of whole radicals by multiplying power, and H representes the length of suspension hook to dolly hoist rope, and ω is a tower machine system natural vibration frequency.
The formula that need use when (two) detecting:
2-1. the natural vibration frequency of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model:
Can let tower crane vibrate through the jacklift and the lifting mechanism thereof of operation tower crane.Method of operating is: the terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane lets the lift heavy of jacklift lifting mechanism be m W, m WBe less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, the operation lifting mechanism stops lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate, makes the tower crane vibration.At this moment, can measure its vibration period T WAccording to the vibration period T that measures W, obtain the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model by following formula operation:
ω = 2 π T W ;
2-2. the tower crane security detects station:
Tower crane is to occur security incident the most easily at two stations, and promptly jacklift is when lifting beam terminal part station carries out specified lift heavy, and jacklift is when carrying out specified lift heavy in the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam.For this reason, the maximum vibration situation in the time of can confirming these two station operations through experiment.
The terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice lift heavy weight be different m W(1) and m W(2), M W(1) and M W(2) all be less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice lift heavy at the peak swing X of vertical direction W(1) and X W(2);
The corresponding amplitude peak position of maximum lift heavy of jacklift to the lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice hoisting weight be different m M(1) and m M(2), M M(1) and M M(2) all be less than or equal to the maximum rated lift heavy m of lifting beam Mmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice the lift heavy thing at the peak swing X of vertical direction M(1) and X M(2);
Then, through simultaneous equations:
X W ( 1 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 X W ( 2 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 With X M ( 1 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 X M ( 2 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Try to achieve the vibration coefficient b of lifting beam terminal part position respectively W1And b W2, and the vibration coefficient b of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam position M1And b M2Computing obtains jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part respectively then WmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, that is:
X W max = b W 1 ( m W max + m 0 ) b W 2 , X M max = b M 1 ( m M max + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Wherein, m 0The quality of hanging the suspender of heavy burden on the expression jacklift.
2-3. body of the tower amplitude ratio formula:
X 5 = Φ n C 4 1 - ϵ = C 4 1 - ϵ ( η n - B 3 ζ MQ + η n - B 4 ) Q 0 - - - ( 24 )
X 5Its lift heavy is at the vertical direction peak swing during vibration of expression tower crane.After the natural vibration frequency ω of tower machine system confirms, use the state parameter that transfer matrix can be analyzed cross section h.It is following to take out amplitude and moment of flexure functional equation:
Y h=η h-A3M(0)+η h-A4Q(0) (e)
M h=η h-C3M(0)+η h-C4Q(0) (f)
Formula (e) and (f) be rewritten into (e1) and (f1) respectively:
Y h=(η h-A3ζ MQh-A4)Q(0)(e1)
M h=(η h-C3ζ MQh-C4)Q(0)(f1)
Application formula (24) and (e1), the vibration displacement Y of body of the tower cross section h hCalculating formula:
Y h = ( ζ MQ η h - A 3 + η h - A 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X 5 - - - ( 25 a )
Application formula (24) and (f1), the vibration moment M of body of the tower cross section h hCalculating formula:
M h = ( ζ MQ η h - C 3 + η h - C 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X 5 - - - ( 25 b )
In the formula, η H-A3, η H-A4, η H-C3And η H-C4Be to adhere to situation with body of the tower, and and γ 0, EI, The design factor in the body of the tower h cross section that N is relevant with natural vibration frequency ω.When obtain lift heavy particle m through on-the-spot test 5Amplitude X 5Afterwards, can obtain tower machine body of the tower h cross section vibration shape displacement Y by formula (25a) hCan obtain tower machine body of the tower h cross section vibration moment M by formula (25b) hCan calculate the moving bending stress in h cross section based on following formula.
σ d = M h W ;
In the formula, σ dBe the moving bending stress in h cross section; W is a h cross section composite bending modulus.
According to top derivation, just can draw:
Ask for jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, WmaxFormula be:
σ d , W max = M W max W ;
Wherein, M W Max = ( ζ MQ η h - C 3 + η h - C 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ W Max ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X W Max ; Wherein, ζ MQ = - η n - D 4 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 4 η n - D 3 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 3 ;
Ask for the maximum lift heavy specified lift heavy m in position of jacklift lifting beam MmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, MmaxFormula be:
σ d , M max = M M max W ;
Wherein, M M Max = ( ζ MQ η h - C 3 + η h - C 4 ) ( 1 - ϵ M Max ) C 4 ( ζ MQ η n - B 3 + η n - B 4 ) X M Max ; Wherein, ζ MQ = - η n - D 4 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 4 η n - D 3 - ω 2 m 6 η n - A 3 ;
Wherein, W representes that stacker crane body connects the composite bending modulus in cross section, attachment device position; M WmaxFor jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position; M MmaxBe the amplitude peak position specified lift heavy m of jacklift in the maximum lift heavy correspondence of lifting beam MmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum dynamic moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position; m 6The weight of bearing for the body of the tower top; η H-C3η H-C4, η N-B3, η N-B4, η N-D4, η N-A4, η N-D3And η H-A3Be the elastic modulus E according to this body of the tower section of striding apical support node and bottom support node, the moment of inertia I in this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section, the weight N that this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section is born, the quality of body of the tower unit length apart from x, body of the tower steel And the angle of shear γ of this body of the tower section of striding bottom support node cross-sectional unit shearing 0Determined transmission parameter;
ε Wmax=(m Wmax+m 0s2;ε Mmmax=(m Mmax+m 0s2
Wherein, m 0The general assembly (TW) of used lifting rope during expression jacklift lift heavy, δ SThe softness factor of the lifting rope unit length of expression jacklift lift heavy, H representes the lifting rope length of jacklift lift heavy, ω representes the natural vibration frequency of tower crane mathematical model.
(3) set up the statics mathematical model:
Axle pressure, moment of flexure, the shearing of static each operating mode in body of the tower top are all known.Body of the tower is adopted the transfer matrix method modeling equally, and establishment statics zooming program.Be used for computational analysis tower machine body of the tower system's static strength and rigidity; Be used for body of the tower axis amount of deflection, sectional twisting angle, moment of flexure and the shearing equation of transfer matrix, model formation is following:
y = y 0 cos kx + ξ φ 0 k sin kx + M 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) + Q 0 N ( ξ sin kx k - x ) - - - ( 28 )
φ = - y 0 k sin kx ξ + φ 0 cos kx - M 0 k ξN sin kx + Q 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) - - - ( 29 )
M = y 0 N cos kx + φ 0 EIk sin kx + M 0 cos kx + Q 0 ξ k sin kx - - - ( 30 )
Q=Q 0 (31)
Wherein, x representes the distance of this body of the tower section of striding apical support node and bottom support node; E is the elastic modulus of body of the tower steel; I is the moment of inertia in this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section; N representes the weight that this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section is born; The quality of expression body of the tower unit length; Parameter ξ=1+N γ 0, γ 0The angle of shear of representing this body of the tower section of striding bottom support node cross-sectional unit shearing; Parameter
Be connected the static displacement in cross section, attachment device position, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing data according to stacker crane body in static displacement, corner, moment of flexure and the shearing in support node cross section, can connect the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position in the hope of stacker crane body; Its detailed process is:
1) tries to achieve the static displacement at body of the tower top, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing according to stiffness coefficient K;
2) because the bottom support node of every body of the tower section of striding is the top end support node of its next body of the tower section of striding, according to the static displacement y in the support node cross section, bottom of static displacement y, static corner φ, static moment M and static shearing Q and this body of the tower section of striding in the apical support node cross section of each body of the tower section of striding 0, static corner φ 0, static moment M 0With static shearing Q 0Transitive relation, promptly obtain the static displacement in each support node cross section, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing;
3) be connected the static displacement in cross section, attachment device position, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing data according to stacker crane body in static displacement, corner, moment of flexure and the shearing in support node cross section, try to achieve the static buckling stress σ that stacker crane body connects cross section, attachment device position:
σ = M W ;
Wherein, M representes that stacker crane body connects the static moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position, and W representes that stacker crane body connects the composite bending modulus in cross section, attachment device position.
Certainly; The inventive method is not limited to above-mentioned modeling embodiment; Also can adopt other method to set up the mathematic(al) structure model of tower crane, as long as can confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position through this mathematic(al) structure model.
The experimental data checking:
QTZ5013 type tower machine is in the silver-colored aluminothermy boiler of power plant installation work of Guangxi China, because of attachment distance uses the lengthening attached bar near 8m.Factors such as consideration boiler steel shelf structure rigidity is more weak, end span is reduced into 18m, and second strides 23m.Because the body of the tower maximum overhangs and highly still reaches 30m before adhering to for the 2nd time, and is safe in utilization for guaranteeing the tower machine, after adhering to for the first time; Body of the tower overhangs when highly rising to 30m; When letting dolly be positioned at arm end 50m place, at low level decline braking exciting, use the vibration period mean value of two stopwatch duplicate measurementss records to be 4.343s with 602Kg test mass (closing of lift heavy and suspender weight); Be converted into behind the natural vibration frequency ω stiffness coefficient K to attachment device and scan and look for one's roots, solving stiffness coefficient K is 8.39 * 10 6N/m.
Simultaneously, when recording test mass 372Kg by the middling speed retarding braking at 50m amplitude place, amplitude X 5Mean value be 0.102m; During test mass 602Kg, amplitude 0.211m.The laterally moving displacement at body of the tower top when calculating 602Kg with the stiffness coefficient K that discerns.Do same test at amplitude 13.72m place then, during test mass 372Kg, amplitude 0.031m; During test mass 602Kg, amplitude 0.053m.
In the body of the tower top cross Steel Ruler is installed, with the laterally moving shift value of transit observation Steel Ruler.
The laterally moving moving average of moving displacement calculated value of body of the tower top cross and theodolite observation sees Table 1.
Table 1 body of the tower top identification displacement calculating and measured displacements are relatively
The explanation of table 1 comparative result, through actual measurement lift heavy amplitude, moving displacement of the body of the tower top cross of utilizing amplitude ratio to calculate and measured result are approaching, and precision can engineering demands.If directly with the laterally moving displacement of transit observation cat head, then can't reading when the body of the tower height of attachment is higher.
From security consideration, before distinguishing the motor-driven strength characteristics of tower, can not heavy duty not survey, but capable of using with its maximum moving displacement of twice light duty test prediction of result of amplitude.When calculating amplitude 50m, lift heavy 1300Kg, amplitude is 0.476m, at this moment amplitude ratio ξ N-5=0.370, predict to such an extent that the moving displacement of body of the tower top cross is 0.176m; When calculating amplitude 13.72m, lift heavy 6000Kg, amplitude is 0.344m, at this moment amplitude ratio ξ N-5=1.472, predict to such an extent that the moving displacement of body of the tower top cross is 0.506m.
Below only with the tower machine rise, force analysis is surveyed in brake load combination.According to " design of tower crane standard " (GB/13752-92), lift heavy is got dynamic load factor 119, tower machine structural impact coefficient is bigger than normal gets 11, and table 2 is body of the tower top amount of deflection and body of the tower cross section, attaching frame place bending stresses of calculating by the statics method.
Table 2 is introduced the body of the tower displacement and the stress of dynamic load and coefficient of impact
Table 3 static(al) and power identification and the body of the tower displacement of predicting
Table 4 static(al) and power identification and the body of the tower stress of predicting
QTZ5013 tower machine body of the tower material is No. 20 steel, and safety coefficient gets 1.48, permissible stress [σ]=160MPa.Only just find that body of the tower because of the maximum stress that operational vibration produces is during heavy duty through intensive analysis to body of the tower:
σ max=198.21MPa>160Mpa;
Judge that promptly the body of the tower maximum stress has surpassed permissible stress, show that there is potential safety hazard in the tower machine, need adjust adhering to.Actual detected learns that above-mentioned judgement conclusion is consistent with actual conditions.Through determining behind the site-test analysis, the height that overhangs of the maximum secondary adheres to before should be that the lifting capacity family curve of 3t carries out tower machine practical operation ability safety with maximum rated lifting capacity.
Explanation is at last; Above embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described; Although with reference to preferred embodiment the present invention is specified, those of ordinary skill in the art should be appreciated that and can make amendment or be equal to replacement technical scheme of the present invention; And not breaking away from the aim and the scope of technical scheme of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of the claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. tower crane adheres to safety detecting method, it is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
A) set up the mathematic(al) structure model of tower crane, confirm the overhead system of tower crane and the power transitive relation of body of the tower and attachment device position through this mathematic(al) structure model;
B) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane lets the lift heavy of jacklift lifting mechanism be m W, m WBe less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, the operation lifting mechanism stops lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate, makes the tower crane vibration, measures its vibration period T W
C) terminal part of jacklift to lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice lift heavy weight be different m W(1) and m W(2), M W(1) and M W(2) all be less than or equal to the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part Wmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice lift heavy at the peak swing X of vertical direction W(1) and X W(2);
D) the corresponding amplitude peak position of maximum lift heavy of jacklift to the lifting beam of operation tower crane, let jacklift lifting mechanism at twice hoisting weight be different m M(1) and m M(2), M M(1) and M M(2) all be less than or equal to the maximum rated lift heavy m of lifting beam Mmax1/2, operate lifting mechanism respectively lift heavy braking when dropping to apart from ground 1~1.2 meter height apart from 3~5 meters height in ground with operating rate stopped, making the tower crane vibration, measures when vibrating for twice the lift heavy thing at the peak swing X of vertical direction M(1) and X M(2);
E) the vibration period T that measures according to step b) W, obtain the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model by following formula operation:
ω = 2 π T W ;
F) try to achieve the stiffness coefficient K of tower crane attachment device according to the natural vibration frequency ω of tower crane mathematic(al) structure model;
G) by stiffness coefficient K, and the known static load in stacker crane body top, confirm that stacker crane body connects the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position;
H) pass through simultaneous equations:
X W ( 1 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 X W ( 2 ) = b W 1 ( m W ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b W 2 With X M ( 1 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 1 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 X M ( 2 ) = b M 1 ( m M ( 2 ) + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Try to achieve the vibration coefficient b of lifting beam terminal part position respectively W1And b W2, and the vibration coefficient b of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam position M1And b M2Computing obtains jacklift at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part respectively then WmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, the braking that descends is at vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, that is:
X W max = b W 1 ( m W max + m 0 ) b W 2 , X M max = b M 1 ( m M max + m 0 ) b M 2 ;
Wherein, m 0The quality of hanging the suspender of heavy burden on the expression jacklift;
I) according to stiffness coefficient K and vertical direction peak swing X Wmax, vertical direction peak swing X Mmax, be connected the power transitive relation of attachment device position with body of the tower in conjunction with lifting beam, ask for jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the specified lift heavy m of the corresponding amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum dynamic bending stress σ in cross section, attachment device position D, Mmax
J) calculate jacklift respectively at the specified lift heavy m of lifting beam terminal part WmaxThe time stacker crane body connect the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Wmax=σ+σ D, Wmax, and jacklift is at the corresponding specified lift heavy m in amplitude peak position of the maximum lift heavy of lifting beam MmaxThe time, stacker crane body connects the maximum stress in bend σ in cross section, attachment device position Mmax=σ+σ D, Mmax, if σ WmaxAnd σ MmaxIn any surpasses the bending stress limit value σ in stacker crane body cross section P, judge that then the tower crane security is unreliable.
2. tower crane according to claim 1 adheres to safety detecting method; It is characterized in that; In the mathematic(al) structure model of said tower crane; Body of the tower is fixed on the position, body of the tower top on ground and position that body of the tower connects attachment device all as the support node of body of the tower, and the part between every adjacent two support nodes of body of the tower is as a body of the tower section of striding;
The static displacement y in the support node cross section, bottom of the static displacement y in the apical support node cross section of each body of the tower section of striding, static corner φ, static moment M and static shearing Q and this body of the tower section of striding 0, static corner φ 0, static moment M 0With static shearing Q 0Transitive relation following:
y = y 0 cos kx + ξ φ 0 k sin kx + M 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) + Q 0 N ( ξ sin kx k - x ) ;
φ = - y 0 k sin kx ξ + φ 0 cos kx - M 0 k ξN sin kx + Q 0 N ( cos kx - 1 ) ;
M = y 0 N cos kx + φ 0 EIk sin kx + M 0 cos kx + Q 0 ξ k sin kx ;
Q=Q 0
Wherein, x representes the distance of this body of the tower section of striding apical support node and bottom support node; E is the elastic modulus of body of the tower steel; I is the moment of inertia in this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section; N representes the weight that this body of the tower section of striding apical support node cross section is born; Parameter ξ=1+N γ 0, γ 0The angle of shear of representing this body of the tower section of striding bottom support node cross-sectional unit shearing; Parameter k = ξ N EI .
3. tower crane according to claim 2 adheres to safety detecting method, it is characterized in that, in the said step g), the concrete grammar of " confirming that by stiffness coefficient K stacker crane body connects the static buckling stress σ in cross section, attachment device position " is:
G1) try to achieve the static displacement at body of the tower top, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing according to stiffness coefficient K;
G2) because the bottom support node of every body of the tower section of striding is the top end support node of its next body of the tower section of striding, according to the static displacement y in the support node cross section, bottom of static displacement y, static corner φ, static moment M and static shearing Q and this body of the tower section of striding in the apical support node cross section of each body of the tower section of striding 0, static corner φ 0, static moment M 0With static shearing Q 0Transitive relation, promptly obtain the static displacement in each support node cross section, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing;
G3) be connected the static displacement in cross section, attachment device position, static corner, static moment of flexure and static shearing data according to stacker crane body in static displacement, corner, moment of flexure and the shearing in support node cross section, try to achieve the static buckling stress σ that stacker crane body connects cross section, attachment device position:
σ = M W ;
Wherein, M representes that stacker crane body connects the static moment of flexure in cross section, attachment device position, and W representes that stacker crane body connects the composite bending modulus in cross section, attachment device position.
CN201110140685A 2011-05-27 2011-05-27 Adhesion safety detecting method of tower crane Expired - Fee Related CN102323073B (en)

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