CN102252646B - Dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system - Google Patents

Dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102252646B
CN102252646B CN 201110095163 CN201110095163A CN102252646B CN 102252646 B CN102252646 B CN 102252646B CN 201110095163 CN201110095163 CN 201110095163 CN 201110095163 A CN201110095163 A CN 201110095163A CN 102252646 B CN102252646 B CN 102252646B
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China
Prior art keywords
dam
slope
deformation monitoring
dimensional continuous
continuous deformation
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CN 201110095163
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CN102252646A (en
Inventor
张国新
李炳奇
刘毅
卢正超
冯帆
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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Abstract

The invention discloses a dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system which performs continuous measurement, has a wide measuring range and low cost, and is automatic. The system comprises a measuring device, a signal acquisition and transmission device and a remote reception analysis device, wherein the measuring device comprises a plurality of measuring units; each measuring unit comprises a micro accelerometer or a micro inclinometer which is fixed inside a shell, and a cable; the signal acquisition and transmission device comprises a data acquisition device and a radio transmitter; the remote reception analysis device comprises a signal receiver and a data computing server; and the data acquisition device directly periodically downloads and browses data acquired by the measuring device through a laptop or transmits the data through the radio transmitter and transmits the data to the data computing server through the signal receiver.

Description

Dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of three dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, can be used for measuring the surface of hydraulic structure and the slip distortion of internal modification and side slope different depth.
Background technology
The deformation monitoring of hydraulic structure is an important means of safety management.The inclination and distortion of monitoring side slope and hydraulic structure generally adopts tiltmeter etc. at present.These inclination measurement apparatus generally adopt spot measurement, and measurement range is limited, are difficult to robotization, and cost is very high.Rubble flow, slope instability are at present common geologic hazards.If can before it occurs, monitor, will take measures in advance, thereby loss be dropped to minimum.
Summary of the invention
Technology of the present invention is dealt with problems and is: overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, provide that a kind of continuous coverage, measurement range are large, robotization, lower-cost dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system.
Technical solution of the present invention is: this dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system comprise measurement mechanism, signals collecting and transmitting device and long-range receive and analysis device, measurement mechanism comprises a plurality of measuring units, each measuring unit comprises micro accelerometer or the miniature inclinometer that is fixed in enclosure, and cable; Signals collecting and transmitting device comprise data acquisition unit and transmitting set; Long-range receive and analysis device comprises signal receiver and data calculation server; Data acquisition unit will directly periodically be downloaded and browse by notebook computer from the data of measurement mechanism collection, perhaps send by transmitting set and be sent to the data calculation server through signal receiver.
Measure the angle of inclination of a plurality of positions owing to adopt a plurality of measuring units, so can realize continuous coverage, measurement range is large, because measuring unit uses micro accelerometer (or miniature inclinometer), inclination angle that can the perception shell also is converted into digital signal, realize that by signals collecting and transmitting device signal period property reads and stores, and through the data-signal of transmitting set by long-range receive and analysis device reception and storage emission, and in each measuring unit three-D displacement variation of display screen formation of data calculation server and the figure demonstration of time relationship, this has just realized robotization.In addition, this monitoring system arranges monitor or the tiltmeter of a plurality of single-points, and cost is lower.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 shows the structural representation according to measuring unit of the present invention;
Fig. 2 shows the structural representation according to measurement mechanism of the present invention;
Fig. 3 shows the cross sectional representation according to measuring unit of the present invention;
Fig. 4 shows the structural representation according to dam of the present invention and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system;
Fig. 5 shows the displacement of one section measuring unit and calculates synoptic diagram;
Fig. 6 a and 6b show the deformation analysis synoptic diagram that the present invention is applied to gravity dam;
Fig. 7 shows the deformation analysis synoptic diagram that the present invention is applied to arch dam;
Fig. 8 a and 8b show the deformation analysis synoptic diagram that the present invention is applied to rock;
Fig. 9 shows the analysis synoptic diagram that the present invention is applied to slope failure.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, 2, the measurement mechanism 10 of this monitoring system comprises a plurality of measuring units 4, and each measuring unit 4 comprises the micro accelerometer 2 (or miniature inclinometer) that is fixed in the shell, and cable 3.Certainly, also can include only a measuring unit 4.The micro accelerometer based on MEMS of recommendation (based on the inclinometer of MEMS micro accelerometer), inclination angle that can the perception shell also is converted into digital signal, realize that by data acquisition unit 12 signal period property reads and stores, cable comprises 2 signal wires and 2 power leads (as shown in Figure 3).MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical System), be exactly the small mechanism of integrated machinery and electronic devices and components on a silicon substrate in fact, by to electronic section with semiconductor technology and mechanical part with micromechanical process or increase new structural sheet and make the MEMS product.MEMS mainly comprises several parts such as micro mechanism, microsensor, miniature actuator and corresponding treatment circuit, and it is to merge multiple Micrometer-Nanometer Processing Technology, and the high-tech front subject that grows up on the basis of the newest fruits of application modern information technologies.A brand-new technical field and industry have been opened up in the development of MEMS technology, and the microsensor of employing MEMS fabrication techniques, microactrator, micro parts, Micromechanical Optics device, vacuum microelectronic device, power electronic devices etc. have very wide application prospect in Aero-Space, automobile, biomedicine, environmental monitoring, military affairs and other a lot of fields.The micro accelerometer based on MEMS of recommendation (or inclinometer) any one very little application branch wherein just among the present invention.
Preferably, described shell is high strength rigid tubular structure 1.
Preferably, a plurality of measuring unit 4 series connection, measuring unit connects by universal ball joint 5 in twos, the termination sun joint universal ball joint of each measuring unit, the cloudy joint of another termination universal ball joint, the end of sun joint universal ball joint are provided with the hole that power lead and signal wire for cable 3 pass through.
Preferably, micro accelerometer 2 or miniature inclinometer are positioned at high strength rigid tubular structure 1 inside, more preferably the MEMS micro accelerometer 2 of recommendation (or miniature inclinometer) is positioned at the center of rigid tubular structure 1, because what adopt is high strength rigid tubular structure 1, can think that namely it can not be out of shape, sensor is placed on the center of rigid tubular structure, can record accurately the inclination angle of rigid tubular structure on two orthogonal directionss; Can avoid simultaneously inner micro accelerometer (or inclinometer) 2 to be interfered or destroy, if be put into 5 li of spherical universal knots, when two rod members herein during connection of rotating, be easy to the measuring accuracy of disturb sensor.
Preferably, consider the protection of power lead and signal wire, the hard-over of universal ball joint 5 is and 30 ° of the axis runouts of high strength rigid tubular structure 1.
Preferably, as shown in Figure 3, be provided with the resilient protection sleeve pipe 6 of waterproof anti-corrosion in the outside of high strength rigid tubular structure 1.In addition, be filled with flexible high molecular material 7 between the resilient protection sleeve pipe 6 of cable 3 and waterproof anti-corrosion.
Fig. 4 shows the structural representation according to dam of the present invention and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system.MEMS micro accelerometer 2 (or miniature inclinometer) by measurement mechanism 10 of the present invention just can the perception shell the inclination angle and be converted into digital signal, realize that by data acquisition unit 12 periodicity of digital signal reads and stores, can be directly by notebook computer 11 periodic downloads and browsing data, also can digital signal be sent to data calculation server 14 by transmitting set 8, utilize signal receiver 13 to receive and store the data-signal of emission, after the computational analysis through the server computer corresponding software, can form at display screen the figure demonstration of each measuring unit three-D displacement variation and time relationship.The power supply of signal data acquisition device 12 can be used solar cell 9, public generating or large-capacity battery.Measurement mechanism 10 is powered by power lead by data acquisition unit 12.
The following describes and adopt measuring unit of the present invention to measure the principle of displacement:
1. the displacement of single hop measuring unit is calculated:
Get one section measuring unit such as Fig. 3, suppose that original AB axle is vertical, set up rectangular coordinate system in space take rod piece A B as Z axis, among the definition plane X AY, take the X-axis positive dirction as N, the Y-axis positive dirction is E.If the A point is displacement " 0 " point, behind elapsed-time standards Δ t, the change of pitch angle of actual measurement rod member is Δ θ NWith Δ θ E, wherein: B ' is the B end position after changing, B 1Be the projection of B ' on plane X AZ, B 2Be the projection of B ' in the YAZ of plane, B 3For B ' at plane B 1B ' B 2Intersection point with the AB axle; Δ θ NBe variable angle (the ∠ BAB along North and South direction 1), Δ θ EBe variable angle (the ∠ BAB along east-west direction 2); In the XAZ plane, B 1B 3For B holds along the displacement on the North and South direction, be designated as Δ B NIn the YAZ plane, B 2B 3For the displacement of B end along east-west direction, be designated as Δ B E, BB 3For after B end changes to B ', the displacement on the vertical height is designated as Δ B H, more than displacement on three directions can try to achieve with following formula:
ΔB N = l 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ N ) - - - ( 1 )
ΔB E = l 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ E ) - - - ( 2 )
ΔB H = l [ 1 - 1 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) ] - - - ( 3 )
L is that the bar of measuring unit is long
2. the displacement of continuous multi-stage measuring unit is calculated:
Suppose that whole survey line is comprised of N measuring unit, the end points of i unit is respectively i A, i B, change of pitch angle is Δ θ IN, Δ θ IE, the displacement of A end is Δ IAN, Δ IAEAnd Δ IAH, then the B displacement of ordering is:
Δ iBN = Δ iAN + l 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ N ) - - - ( 4 )
Δ iBE = Δ iAE + l 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ E ) - - - ( 5 )
Δ iBH = Δ iAH + l [ 1 - 1 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) ] - - - ( 6 )
3. along the accumulation displacement of survey line:
Δ 0N=0???????????????????????????????(7)
Δ 0E=0???????????????????????????????(8)
Δ 0H=0???????????????????????????????(9)
Δ iBN = Σ j = 0 i - 1 Δ jBN + l i 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ N ) ( i = 0,1,2 · · · N ) - - - ( 10 )
Δ iBE = Σ j = 0 i - 1 Δ jBE + l i 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) · tan ( Δθ E ) ( i = 0,1,2 · · · N ) - - - ( 11 )
Δ iBH = Σ j = 0 i - 1 Δ jBH + l i [ 1 1 + tan 2 ( Δ θ N ) + tan 2 ( Δθ E ) ] ( i = 0,1,2 · · · N ) - - - ( 12 )
Provide now several Application Examples of the present invention.
Application Example 1
Such as Fig. 6 a, a gravity dam 15, its upstream is subjected to Water Pressure, distortion at the pre-buried measurement mechanism of the upstream face of dam, can Real-Time Monitoring gravity dam retaining process be subjected to the distortion of Water Pressure as shown in the figure, the distortion of A end movement is ignored, the B end of supposing the dam crest measuring unit is indexed to B ' end, and then the displacement of all measuring unit Nodes all can calculate, and its displacement can be calculated with reference to formula (10)~(12).
Such as Fig. 6 b, gravity dam 15, in construction time during casting concrete, at its pre-buried measurement mechanism in dam body bottom, can the Real-Time Monitoring gravity dam construction time and the displacement of runtime, can record dam owing to bedrock deformation or the sedimentation of conducting oneself with dignity or other reason causes, the displacement of all measuring unit Nodes (comprising that minor details measuring unit C end is indexed to C ' end) all can calculate, and its displacement can be calculated with reference to public (10)~(12).
Application Example 2
Such as Fig. 7, an arch dam 16, the dam construction phase at its upstream or the surface in downstream install and measure device, can the Real-Time Monitoring arch dam construction phase and the displacement situation of runtime, the A end of supposing the dam crest upstream face is indexed to A ' end, the B end of dam crest downstream face is indexed to B ' end, and the displacement at all measuring unit places all can calculate, and its displacement can be calculated with reference to public (10)~(12).Its displacement can be calculated with reference to public (10)~(12).
Application Example 3
Such as Fig. 8 a, a rock 17, wherein 18 is concrete slab, during dam construction is built, pre-buried measurement mechanism in the bed course below concrete slab (as far as possible being close to panel), can the Real-Time Monitoring panel in the displacement situation of construction time and runtime, the displacement at all measuring unit places (comprising that minor details measuring unit B end is indexed to B ' end) all can calculate, its displacement can be with reference to the calculating of public (10)~(12).
Such as Fig. 8 b, during dam construction is built, rockfill area at rock, pre-buried measurement mechanism, can Real-Time Monitoring dam rockfill area inside in the displacement situation of construction time and runtime, the displacement at all measuring unit places (comprising that minor details measuring unit D end is indexed to D ' end) all can calculate, and its displacement can be calculated with reference to public (10)~(12).
Application Example 4
Such as Fig. 9, one side slope 19, the being damaged deformation of side slope as shown in the figure, pre-buried measurement mechanism inside, just can the Real-Time Monitoring slope deforming, destruction to side slope is played forewarning function, and the displacement at all measuring unit places just all can calculate (comprising that minor details measuring unit A end is indexed to A ' end), and its displacement can be calculated with reference to formula (10)~(12).
The above; it only is preferred embodiment of the present invention; be not that the present invention is done any pro forma restriction, any simple modification, equivalent variations and modification that every foundation technical spirit of the present invention is done above embodiment all still belong to the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, comprise: measurement mechanism, signals collecting and transmitting device, long-range receive and analysis device, it is characterized in that: measurement mechanism comprises a plurality of measuring units (4), each measuring unit (4) comprises micro accelerometer (2) or the miniature inclinometer that is fixed in enclosure, and cable (3); Signals collecting and transmitting device comprise data acquisition unit (12) and transmitting set (8); Long-range receive and analysis device comprises signal receiver (13) and data calculation server (14); Data acquisition unit (12) will directly periodically be downloaded and browse by notebook computer (11) from the data that measurement mechanism gathers, and perhaps send by transmitting set (8) and be sent to data calculation server (14) through signal receiver (13).
2. dam according to claim 1 and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, it is characterized in that: described shell is high strength rigid tubular structure (1).
3. dam according to claim 2 and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, it is characterized in that: a plurality of measuring units (4) series connection, measuring unit connects by universal ball joint (5) in twos, the one termination sun joint universal ball joint of each measuring unit, the cloudy joint of another termination universal ball joint, the end of sun joint universal ball joint are provided with the hole that power lead and signal wire for cable (3) pass through.
4. dam according to claim 3 and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, it is characterized in that: micro accelerometer (2) or miniature inclinometer are positioned at high strength rigid tubular structure (1) inside.
5. dam according to claim 4 and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, it is characterized in that: micro accelerometer (2) or miniature inclinometer are positioned at the center of high strength rigid tubular structure (1).
6. it is characterized in that: 30 ° of the axis runouts of the hard-over of universal ball joint (5) and high strength rigid tubular structure (1) according to claim 4 or 5 described dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring systems.
7. dam according to claim 6 and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system, it is characterized in that: the outside of high strength rigid tubular structure (1) is provided with the resilient protection sleeve pipe (6) of waterproof anti-corrosion.
CN 201110095163 2011-04-15 2011-04-15 Dam and side slope three-dimensional continuous deformation monitoring system Expired - Fee Related CN102252646B (en)

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CN103498665A (en) * 2013-10-22 2014-01-08 中铁西北科学研究院有限公司深圳南方分院 Linear fixed type wireless deep hole clinometer and deep hole inclination measurement system
CN104101325B (en) * 2014-06-24 2017-02-08 同济大学 Neuron model displacement or deformation monitoring method of electric transducer embedded with microcomputer
CN104567646B (en) * 2015-01-18 2015-12-02 蒋梦 A kind of link-type displacement monitor
CN105004314A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-10-28 郑州双杰科技有限公司 Continuous observation method and continuous observation device for dam deformation based on MEMS array
CN105300343B (en) * 2015-12-04 2018-05-22 郑州双杰科技股份有限公司 Tandem sequence section deformation monitoring sensing device
CN105957311A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-09-21 中国水利水电科学研究院 Adaptive expansion slope stability intelligent monitoring early warning system
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CN109495557A (en) * 2018-11-02 2019-03-19 广州益牛科技有限公司 Arch dam quality intelligent real-time monitoring system
CN110836654A (en) * 2019-11-22 2020-02-25 江苏南水科技有限公司 Automatic monitoring device and method for underground three-dimensional deformation

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