CN102218261B - Method and equipment for collecting carbon dioxide from fuel gas by using ammonia water fine spraying - Google Patents

Method and equipment for collecting carbon dioxide from fuel gas by using ammonia water fine spraying Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102218261B
CN102218261B CN2011100938386A CN201110093838A CN102218261B CN 102218261 B CN102218261 B CN 102218261B CN 2011100938386 A CN2011100938386 A CN 2011100938386A CN 201110093838 A CN201110093838 A CN 201110093838A CN 102218261 B CN102218261 B CN 102218261B
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China
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ammonia
absorption tower
carbon dioxide
gas
water
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CN102218261A (en
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郭印诚
曾庆
牛振褀
林文漪
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Tsinghua University
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Tsinghua University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02CCAPTURE, STORAGE, SEQUESTRATION OR DISPOSAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG]
    • Y02C20/00Capture or disposal of greenhouse gases
    • Y02C20/40Capture or disposal of greenhouse gases of CO2
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/151Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention provides a method for collecting carbon dioxide from fuel gas by using ammonia water fine spraying. The method comprises the following steps that: step A, flue gas passes through an absorbing tower from bottom to top, and CO2 within the fuel gas is absorbed by sprayed ammonia water; step B, carbon-containing pregnant solution is processed through thermal desorbing in a desorbing tower; step C, NH3 is removed from the desorbed gas in a washing tower, and the resulting gas is processed through a dewatering procedure by a condenser, such that carbon dioxide gas with high density isobtained; step D, weak ammonia water obtained from the above steps is pumped into an ammonia distilling tower to be concentrated; step E, concentrated ammonia water is diluted with water in an ammonia absorbing tower, such that the concentration of the ammonia water for spraying is adjusted. Correspondingly, the invention provides equipment for collecting carbon dioxide from fuel gas by using ammonia water fine spraying. The method and the equipment provided by the present invention are suitable for power stations with conditions of large flue gas flux and low carbon dioxide concentration, and assists in removing carbon dioxide effectively. According to the present invention, ammonia and water are used circularly, such that energy is saved, and cost for operation and maintenance are substantially reduced. Preferably, CO2 gas separated by the equipment is prepared into industrial grade liquid carbon dioxide.

Description

Ammoniacal liquor is carefully sprayed and is captured method and the equipment thereof of carbon dioxide in the flue gas
Technical field
The invention belongs to the carbon dioxide discharge-reduction field, be specifically related to a kind of ammoniacal liquor carefully spray method and the equipment thereof of carbon dioxide in the capturing power plant flue gas.
Background technology
Along with greenhouse effects are more and more serious to the Global climate change influence, control main greenhouse gas-CO 2Discharging become already one international and press for the problem of solution.At present, in quite long period, new forms of energy can't become the human main energy that relies on, and energy-saving and emission-reduction and to improve energy use efficiency limited after all to the contribution of carbon emission reduction, and carbon is caught with the technology of sealing up for safekeeping (CCS-Carbon capture and storage) and is considered to a kind of effective way that realizes carbon emission reduction.About 40% CO in the world 2Produced by fossil fired power plant, then ratio is bigger in China, so the low-carbon emission of fossil fired power plant or zero-emission are to realize CO 2The key that reduces discharging.Simultaneously, carbon dioxide also has been widely used at chemical field, can be used for producing urea or methyl alcohol, also can be used for food fresh keeping, also can be used for improving tar productivity etc.
The capture recovery method of carbon dioxide mainly contains following several in the power-plant flue gas: chemical absorption method, Physical Absorption method, absorption method, low temperature processing, membrane separation process and biological fixation method.What industrial consideration was more is chemical absorption method and Physical Absorption method, and wherein the Physical Absorption method is more suitable in having high pressure and high CO 2The flue gas of concentration; For the flue gas of fossil fired power plant, its gas concentration lwevel is lower and flue gas flow is high, and reasonably the decarburization mode is to adopt chemical absorption method.The chemical absorbing ratio juris is utilized CO exactly 2Acid characteristics, carbon dioxide and chemical reagent reacted and be absorbed, generate rich solution (liquid that phosphorus content is high).Rich solution enters and adds thermal decomposition in the regenerator and discharge carbon dioxide, reaches the purpose of separation and collection carbon dioxide, and wherein chemical reagent is renewable recycling.Common chemical reagent is alkanolamine solution at present, utilizes absorption tower and regenerator to form the circulatory system and captures CO 2Use the hydramine method to catch the problem that carbon mainly contains the following aspects: at first, hydramine and carbon dioxide reaction speed are lower, and absorption efficiency is not high; Secondly, its rich solution has corrosiveness to system; Again, owing to reasons such as oxidation, thermal degradation, generation irreversible reaction and evaporations, will cause the loss of pure amine solvent and the change of solution property, and hydramine is a kind of relatively more expensive chemical industry articles for use, this will inevitably increase the cost that reclaims carbon dioxide.At last, because the power-plant flue gas flow is big, its gas concentration lwevel not high (being about 10-15%) when using alkanolamine solution to remove carbon dioxide, can cause the absorption tower bulky, construction, operation and overhaul of the equipments difficulty.
Absorb CO with respect to traditional monoethanolamine (MEA) 2, the ammoniacal liquor absorption techniques has that the cost of material is low, the absorption efficiency height, and absorbability is strong, the little and regeneration low power consumption and other advantages to the corrosion on absorption tower.Existing about ammoniacal liquor absorption CO 2Studies show that of removal efficiency, under proper condition, CO in the flue gas 2Removal efficiency can remain between 95% to 99%.As the report that uses ammoniacal liquor to absorb carbon dioxide in the flue gas is arranged in Chinese patent literature CN101423214A and CN201333374Y.In CN201333374Y, describe the equipment that a kind of ammonia process void tower captures carbon dioxide in the generating plant flue gas, comprised absorption tower, regenerator, water scrubber etc.; Wherein the absorption tower is the void tower structure, be provided with porous plate, two-stage ammonia spray device and demister in it, the ammoniacal liquor capturing carbon dioxide generates the carbonic hydroammonium rich solution in the absorption tower, decompose release of carbon dioxide at regenerator intracellular bicarbonate ammonium, ammonia is generated ammoniacal liquor by fresh water (FW) drip washing and follows usefulness in water scrubber; Behind water scrubber, be connected with gas-liquid separator, drier, compressor, condenser and liquid carbon dioxide basin, be used for to become from the carbon dioxide draw that flue gas is separated the liquid articles for use of technical grade.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is: the method and apparatus of CO2 emission in a kind of effective minimizing power-plant flue gas is provided, and it is big that this method and apparatus can adapt in the generating plant flue gas gas flow, the characteristics that gas concentration lwevel is low; And this method and apparatus compared with prior art, and its ammonia and water are the closed circulation utilization, and energy savings reduces operating cost more.
De-carbon technical scheme provided by the invention is that a kind of ammoniacal liquor is carefully sprayed and captured the method for carbon dioxide in the flue gas, it is characterized in that comprising following several steps:
Steps A, ammonia spray absorbs CO 2: flue gas is introduced from below, absorption tower smoke inlet, simultaneously certain density ammonia spirit is sprayed in the absorption tower from cat head with thin atomize, contact with flue gas adverse current, carbon dioxide in the flue gas is absorbed by ammoniacal liquor, the carbonated aqueous ammonia rich solution that generates falls into the bottom, absorption tower, and enter the washing section at top, absorption tower through the flue gas of carbonization treatment, the ammonia that in this flue gas, carries by the clear water wash-out after flue gas enter atmosphere, generate a certain amount of dilute ammonia solution simultaneously in the washing section; The rich solution that falls into the bottom, absorption tower is divided into two-way, and wherein one tunnel process circulating pump recycles in the absorption tower with atomize.The chemical reaction that carries out in this step is as follows:
Step B separates sucking-off CO 2Gas: in the steps A at the bottom of the tower in the rich solution another road enter the desorber top via rich solution pump and heat exchanger, carrying out heating desorption handles, obtain high concentration carbon dioxide, ammonia and steam mist, obtain the carbonated aqueous ammonia lean solution simultaneously and flow downstream into the weak aqua ammonia jar and become dilute ammonia solution.The corresponding chemical equation of this step is:
Step C, washing is except NH 3: the ammonia generation dilute ammonia solution that water-washing step B gained mist in water scrubber, clear water absorb wherein flows downstream into the weak aqua ammonia jar, and unabsorbed gases upwards flows into condenser, isolates carbon dioxide therein, and liquid water stream returns water scrubber.
Step D, the ammoniacal liquor concentrate: the dilute ammonia solution that washing section generates in the steps A is pumped to ammonia still, dilute ammonia solution among step B and the C in the weak aqua ammonia jar is also through being pumped to ammonia still, from the steam of ammonia still bottom air lift weak aqua ammonia from bottom to top, thereby obtain the mist of high concentration ammonia and steam, the water after stripping process flow in the cyclic water tank downwards.
Step e, allotment spray ammonia concn: the mist among the step D is fed ammonia absorption tower, and with the water in the cyclic water tank through the cooling of the 4th heat exchanger after, from the spray dilution of ammonia absorption tower top, to prepare certain density ammonia spirit, recycle as carbon-dioxide absorbent.
Preferably in described method, also comprise step F, with purified by the isolated gaseous carbon dioxide of condenser among the step C, the liquid CO of liquefaction back preparation 2Product.For example, earlier to the high concentration CO after the cooling processing 2Carry out gas-liquid separation, remove the moisture that condenses, obtain purity up to 99% CO 2Gas; After the further drying of this gas, become the liquid finished product of technical grade carbon dioxide through compression condensation again.So operation makes the station boiler tail flue gas turn waste into wealth, and obtains the technical grade liquid carbon dioxide when effectively reducing the greenhouse gases CO2 emission.
Preferably the mass concentration of spray ammoniacal liquor is 6%~15% in the steps A of described method, and spray particle diameter is 30~100 microns, and the carbon dioxide mol ratio is greater than 2 in the ammonia in the spray ammoniacal liquor and the flue gas, and 10~50 ℃ of reaction temperatures, reaction pressure are 1atm~10atm.Further preferred ammonia spirit mass concentration is 8%, and reaction temperature is about 35 ℃, and reaction pressure is normal pressure.
Preferably the temperature of thermal desorption is 100~150 ℃ in the step B of described method; Under this desorption temperature, carbonic hydroammonium can decompose fully rapidly and discharges carbon dioxide.Washing is except NH among the preferred described step C 3Temperature be 60~90 ℃; Under this temperature, shower water can well absorb ammonia, and the ammoniacal liquor of generation is difficult for again reacting with carbon dioxide, namely has good selective absorption under this condition.Preferred condenser is cooled to 25~35 ℃ with described unabsorbed gases, more preferably 25 ℃; So most water vapor condensation is that water is removed.The temperature of ammoniacal liquor concentrate is 90~120 ℃ among the preferred steps D.Preferably will allocating extremely in described step e, certain density ammoniacal liquor is cooled to 10~40 ℃.
Correspondingly, the present invention also provides a kind of ammoniacal liquor carefully to spray and captures the equipment of carbon dioxide in the flue gas, and this partial content describes specific embodiment part hereinafter in detail by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Method and apparatus provided by the invention has following beneficial effect: one, the carbon dioxide in the flue gas is effectively captured, and be conducive to realize the flue gas recycling, reduce the discharging of greenhouse gases.The second, absorb CO with respect to traditional-monoethanolamine (MEA) method 2, the ammonia scrubbing technology has that the cost of material is low, the advantage such as little and energy savings to the corrosion on absorption tower, and ammoniacal liquor can be up to more than 95% to the removal efficiency of carbon dioxide.The 3rd, with respect to packed tower, form 30~100 microns mist after the ammonia atomization in the spray tower, the gas-liquid contact area is increased sharply, simultaneously droplet rotatablely moves and has strengthened the less turbulence at gas-liquid two-phase interface, help and the reaction that strengthens the ammoniacal liquor absorbing carbon dioxide, improve the removal efficiency of carbon dioxide, can avoid again causing obstruction because filler is set.The 4th, the whole system closed circulation, install the optimum organization of connection and operating parameter by absorption tower, desorber, water scrubber, weak aqua ammonia jar, ammonia still, cyclic water tank, ammonia absorption tower, reboiler etc., ammonia and water are realized recycling, energy savings more, and reduce the expense of operation maintenance greatly.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 carefully sprays for ammoniacal liquor in the embodiment of the invention and captures the equipment flowsheet of carbon dioxide in the flue gas; Below be the explanation in the Reference numeral:
1: 9: the second heat exchangers 20 of smoke inlet: weak aqua ammonia jar
2: 10: the three heat exchangers 21 in absorption tower: desorber
2a: porous plate 11: ammonia absorption tower 22: condenser
2b: 12: the second water pumps 23 of ammonia spraying section: water scrubber
2c: 13: the first weak aqua ammonia pumps 24 of demister: reboiler
Water pump 14 in 3: the first: ammonia still 25: gas-liquid separator
4: 15: the second weak aqua ammonia pumps 26 of washing section: drier
5: aqua ammonia pump 16: steam inlet 27: compressor
Heat exchanger 17 in 6: the first: cyclic water tank 28: condenser
7: circulating pump: 18: the four heat exchangers 29: liquid CO 2Holding vessel
8: 19: the three water pumps 30 of rich solution pump: exhanst gas outlet
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments the present invention is described in further detail.Be preferred embodiment of the present invention only below, protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any those skilled in the art can be easy to the change of carrying out or change be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention in technical scope disclosed by the invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claims.
Figure 1 shows that a kind of ammoniacal liquor is carefully sprayed captures the equipment of carbon dioxide in the flue gas, and it comprises through the absorption tower 2 that is used for capturing carbon dioxide that pipeline links to each other, be used for separating sucking-off CO 2The desorber 21 of gas, be used for the water scrubber 23 except ammonia, the reboiler 24 that is used for heat supply, weak aqua ammonia jar 20, cyclic water tank 17, be used for the concentrate weak aqua ammonia ammonia still 14, be used for the ammonia absorption tower 11 of ammonia concn preparation and be used for removing the condenser 22 of moisture; Wherein, be useful on the porous plate 2a that disperse flue gas from bottom gas approach 1 to setting gradually between the top exhanst gas outlet 30 from bottom to top in the described absorption tower 2, ammonia spraying section 2b, be used for washing except washing section 4 and the demister 2c of ammonia; The first via of 2 bottoms, described absorption tower is connected to porous plate 2a top through circulating pump 7 and forms the peripheral passage, another road of 2 bottoms, absorption tower links to each other with desorber 21 upper inlet through rich solution pump 8, the 3rd heat exchanger 10 and the 4th heat exchanger 18, and rich solution is delivered to desorber 21; Desorber 21 bottom bypass circuit are connected with reboiler 24, be that the outlet of desorber 21 lower liquid links to each other with reboiler 24 lower liquid imports, the gas vent on reboiler 24 tops links to each other with the lower gas entrance of desorber 21, and reboiler 24 outlet at bottoms are communicated with 20 imports of weak aqua ammonia jar; The upper gas outlet of desorber 21 links to each other with the lower inlet of water scrubber 23; Water scrubber 23 tops are connected with condenser 22, and the outlet of water scrubber 23 bottom liquids also links to each other with 20 imports of weak aqua ammonia jar; 20 outlets of weak aqua ammonia jar link to each other with ammonia still 14 top liquid-inlets through the second weak aqua ammonia pump 15, other has, and washing section 4 below liquid outlets also link to each other with ammonia still 14 top liquid-inlets with the first weak aqua ammonia pump 13 through first heat exchanger 6 in the absorption tower 2, ammonia still 14 below liquid outlets link to each other with cyclic water tank 17, and ammonia still 14 top gas vents link to each other with gas access, ammonia absorption tower 11 below; The outlet of ammonia absorption tower 11 bottom liquids links to each other with the ammonia spraying section 2b on 2 tops, absorption tower with aqua ammonia pump 5 through first heat exchanger 6; The outlet of cyclic water tank 17 belows divides three the tunnel to connect through the 4th heat exchanger 18 backs: the first via links to each other with water scrubber 23 top liquid-inlets through the 3rd water pump 19, the second the tunnel links to each other with liquid inlet, ammonia absorption tower 11 top through second water pump 12, and Third Road links to each other with the liquid inlet of washing section 4 tops in the absorption tower 2 through the 3rd heat exchanger 10, second heat exchanger 9 and first water pump 3.
In a preferred embodiment, behind described condenser 22, also be serially connected with gas-liquid separator 25, drier 26, compressor 27, condenser 28 and liquid carbon dioxide holding vessel 29 successively; Wherein, gas links to each other with the import of gas-liquid separator 25 from the upper gas outlet by the condenser 22 of water scrubber 23 tops.Further preferred, the condensate water outlet of described gas-liquid separator 25 also links to each other with the technology entrance on water scrubber 23 tops.
In another preferred embodiment, the gas vent at described ammonia absorption tower 11 tops links to each other with the technology mouth of absorption tower ammonia spraying section 2b below.The ammonia that contains higher concentration in this road gas, the ammonia spraying that further is absorbed in its up process in absorption tower 2 in the tower absorbs, and is used for the reaction that removes of carbon dioxide.
The workflow of the said equipment correspondence is as follows:
Absorb: after the boiler tail flue gas conventional dedusting of process and desulfurization (and denitration) are handled, in the gas approach 1 input tower by the bottom, absorption tower, it is up to pass porous plate, and the downward mist of ammonia spirit sprays simultaneously, and its mass concentration is selected in about 8%, preferred 25~40 ℃ of the temperature of reaction, reaction pressure is normal pressure, and the spray particle diameter of ammonia spirit is 30~100 microns, and the gas-liquid contact area is big, chemical reaction fast takes place in carbon dioxide and ammoniacal liquor, and carbon dioxide is absorbed rapidly.Continued upwards to flow by the flue gas behind the ammoniacal liquor absorption de-carbon, through the washing section 4 of absorption tower top, water down contacts with spray on the washing section 4, the ammonia that carries in the absorption flue gas, after removing droplet through the demister 2c at top again, the flue gas of cleaning directly enters atmosphere.A rich solution part that has absorbed carbon dioxide sprays into absorption tower 2 with recycling with Sprayable again through circulating pump 7, and another part is entered by desorber 21 tops by rich solution pump 8, the 3rd heat exchanger 10 and the 4th heat exchanger 18.
Desorb: desorber is packed tower, be furnished with nozzle and packing layer in the tower, the carbonic hydroammonium rich solution is sprayed onto on the packing layer of desorber, the steam air lift that is risen, and be heated to 100-150 ℃ through reboiler, parse carbon dioxide, ammonia and steam mist, the carbonic hydroammonium rich solution is reduced to has removed CO 2The ammoniacal liquor lean solution.The ammoniacal liquor lean solution is introduced downwards in the weak aqua ammonia jar 20.
Washing: the high concentration mist that will come out from the desorber top feeds the water scrubber below, and simultaneously, fresh water (FW) evenly is sprayed on the water scrubber sieve plate, and ammonia is absorbed by water and generates the low concentration ammonia aqueous solution in the mist, flows into weak aqua ammonia jar 20 from the water scrubber below.The carbon dioxide of high concentration enters water scrubber overhead condenser 22, and air-flow is condensed into 25~35 ℃, and wherein most steam are condensed into water, the water scrubber 23 below flowing into.
Ammonia still process concentrate: comprise the ammonia spirit that flows down from desorber and water scrubber in the weak aqua ammonia jar; Ammonia concn wherein is lower, can not satisfy the concentration requirement of the spray ammoniacal liquor in the absorption tower, thereby it is fed ammonia still liquid upper liquid entrance.Other has the weak aqua ammonia from 4 belows of washing section in the absorption tower also to be pumped to ammonia still.From bottom to top steam heats air lift to the weak aqua ammonia that sprays in the ammonia still, and ammonia removes from ammonia spirit, forms the mist of high strength ammonia G﹠W steam.Simultaneously, the water that weak aqua ammonia removes behind the ammonia flows into cyclic water tank 17, and is recycling.
The ammoniacal liquor of preparation suitable concn: the mist of ammonia and steam is gone out from the ammonia still cat head, enters the gas access below the ammonia absorption tower.Drench cold water and the mist of going in the ammonia absorption tower from top to bottom and be mixed with the ammonia spirit that satisfies concentration requirement.Carry out heat exchange through the ammonia cleaning solution with the top, absorption tower again, condense to 20~35 ℃, enter the spraying absorbing carbon dioxide from the top, absorption tower at last.
Prepare liquid CO 2: through the high concentration carbon dioxide gas of condensation process, enter gas-liquid separator 25, by centrifugal action the liquid of carrying secretly in the carbon dioxide is separated fully, obtain purity and be 99% carbon dioxide, the condensate liquid that flows out from gas-liquid separator returns the fresh water (FW) import of water scrubber, recycles.High-pureness carbon dioxide gas through super-dry, compress, be condensed into the liquid carbon dioxide finished product, be stored in liquid CO 2In the holding vessel.

Claims (10)

1. an ammoniacal liquor is carefully sprayed and is captured the method for carbon dioxide in the flue gas, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
Steps A, ammonia spray absorbs CO 2: flue gas is (2) below smoke inlets (1) introducing from the absorption tower, simultaneously certain density ammonia spirit is sprayed in the absorption tower (2) from cat head with thin atomize, contact with flue gas adverse current, carbon dioxide in the flue gas is absorbed by ammoniacal liquor, the carbonated aqueous ammonia rich solution that generates falls into bottom, absorption tower (2), and the flue gas of process carbonization treatment enters the washing section (4) at top, absorption tower, the ammonia that in this flue gas, carries by the clear water wash-out after flue gas enter atmosphere, generate simultaneously a certain amount of dilute ammonia solution in the washing section; The rich solution that falls into bottom, absorption tower (2) is divided into two-way, and wherein one tunnel process circulating pump (7) recycles in the absorption tower with atomize;
Step B separates sucking-off CO 2Gas: in the steps A at the bottom of the tower in the rich solution another road enter desorber (21) top via rich solution pump (8) and heat exchanger, carrying out heating desorption handles, obtain high concentration carbon dioxide, ammonia and steam mist, obtain the carbonated aqueous ammonia lean solution simultaneously and flow downstream into weak aqua ammonia jar (20) and become dilute ammonia solution;
Step C, washing is except NH 3: water-washing step B gained mist in water scrubber (23), the ammonia generation dilute ammonia solution that clear water absorbs wherein flows downstream into weak aqua ammonia jar (20), unabsorbed gases upwards flows into condenser (22), isolates carbon dioxide therein, and liquid water stream returns water scrubber;
Step D, the ammoniacal liquor concentrate: the dilute ammonia solution that washing section generates in the steps A is pumped to ammonia still (14), dilute ammonia solution among step B and the C in the weak aqua ammonia jar (20) is also through being pumped to ammonia still (14), from the steam of ammonia still (14) bottom air lift weak aqua ammonia from bottom to top, thereby obtain the mist of high concentration ammonia and steam, the water after stripping process flow to downwards in the cyclic water tank (17);
Step e, allotment spray ammonia concn: the mist among the step D is fed ammonia absorption tower (11), and with the water in the cyclic water tank (17) through after the 4th heat exchanger (18) cooling, from the spray dilution of ammonia absorption tower (11) top, to prepare certain density ammonia spirit, recycle as carbon-dioxide absorbent.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, also comprises step F, with purified by the isolated gaseous carbon dioxide of condenser (22) among the step C, the liquid CO of liquefaction back preparation 2Product.
3. method according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, the mass concentration of spray ammoniacal liquor is 6%~15% in the described steps A, spray particle diameter is 30~100 microns, ammonia in the spray ammoniacal liquor and the carbon dioxide mol ratio in the flue gas are greater than 2,10~50 ℃ of reaction temperatures, reaction pressure are 1atm~10atm.
4. method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that, the temperature of thermal desorption is 100~150 ℃ among the described step B; Washing is except NH among the described step C 3Temperature be 60~90 ℃, condenser is cooled to 25~35 ℃ with described unabsorbed gases.
5. method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that, the temperature of ammoniacal liquor concentrate is 90~120 ℃ among the described step D.
6. method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that, will allocating extremely in described step e, certain density ammoniacal liquor is cooled to 10~40 ℃.
7. an ammoniacal liquor is carefully sprayed and is captured the equipment of carbon dioxide in the flue gas, and it comprises absorption tower (2), desorber (21), water scrubber (23), reboiler (24), weak aqua ammonia jar (20), cyclic water tank (17), ammonia still (14), ammonia absorption tower (11) and the condenser (22) that links to each other through pipeline; Wherein, be disposed with porous plate (2a) from bottom gas approach (1) from bottom to top between the top exhanst gas outlet (30) in described absorption tower (2), ammonia spraying section (2b), washing section (4) and demister (2c); The first via of bottom, described absorption tower (2) is connected to porous plate (2a) top through circulating pump (7) and forms the peripheral passage, another road of bottom, absorption tower (2) links to each other with desorber (21) upper inlet through rich solution pump (8), the 3rd heat exchanger (10) and the 4th heat exchanger (18), and rich solution is delivered to desorber (21); Desorber (21) bottom bypass circuit is connected with reboiler (24), and reboiler (24) outlet at bottom is communicated with weak aqua ammonia jar (20) import; The upper gas outlet of desorber (21) links to each other with the lower inlet of water scrubber (23); Water scrubber (23) top is connected with condenser (22), and the outlet of water scrubber (23) bottom liquid also links to each other with weak aqua ammonia jar (20) import; Weak aqua ammonia jar (20) outlet links to each other with ammonia still (14) top liquid-inlet through the second weak aqua ammonia pump (15), other has, and washing section (4) below liquid outlet also links to each other with ammonia still (14) top liquid-inlet with the first weak aqua ammonia pump (13) through first heat exchanger (6) in the absorption tower (2), ammonia still (14) below liquid outlet links to each other with cyclic water tank (17), and ammonia still (14) top gas vent links to each other with gas access, ammonia absorption tower (11) below; The outlet of ammonia absorption tower (11) bottom liquid links to each other with the ammonia spraying section (2b) of aqua ammonia pump (5) with top, absorption tower (2) through first heat exchanger (6); The outlet of cyclic water tank (17) below divides three the tunnel to connect through the 4th heat exchanger (18) back: the first via links to each other with water scrubber (23) top liquid-inlet through the 3rd water pump (19), the second the tunnel links to each other through liquid inlet, second water pump (12) and ammonia absorption tower (11) top, and Third Road links to each other through the liquid inlet above the 3rd heat exchanger (10), second heat exchanger (9) and first water pump (3) and absorption tower (2) middle washing section (4).
8. equipment according to claim 7 is characterized in that, also is serially connected with gas-liquid separator (25), drier (26), compressor (27), condenser (28), liquid carbon dioxide holding vessel (29) behind described condenser (22) successively.
9. equipment according to claim 7 is characterized in that, the condensate water outlet of described gas-liquid separator (25) also links to each other with the technology entrance on water scrubber (23) top.
10. according to any described equipment in the claim 7 to 9, it is characterized in that the gas vent at described ammonia absorption tower (11) top links to each other with the technology mouth of absorption tower ammonia spraying section (2b) below.
CN2011100938386A 2011-04-14 2011-04-14 Method and equipment for collecting carbon dioxide from fuel gas by using ammonia water fine spraying Expired - Fee Related CN102218261B (en)

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