CN102185514B - Single-phase three-level inverter - Google Patents

Single-phase three-level inverter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102185514B
CN102185514B CN2011100572878A CN201110057287A CN102185514B CN 102185514 B CN102185514 B CN 102185514B CN 2011100572878 A CN2011100572878 A CN 2011100572878A CN 201110057287 A CN201110057287 A CN 201110057287A CN 102185514 B CN102185514 B CN 102185514B
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power switch
diode
switching transistor
inverter
phase
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CN102185514A (en
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杨波
何湘宁
崔文峰
梅烨
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Hangzhou Hemai Power Electronics Co.,Ltd.
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/483Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M1/0095Hybrid converter topologies, e.g. NPC mixed with flying capacitor, thyristor converter mixed with MMC or charge pump mixed with buck
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M1/12Arrangements for reducing harmonics from ac input or output
    • H02M1/123Suppression of common mode voltage or current
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/483Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels
    • H02M7/487Neutral point clamped inverters

Abstract

The invention discloses a single-phase three-level inverter, which comprises an input capacitor, six power switches, two freewheel diodes and a single-phase output filter. The inverter performs switch motion by utilizing the six power switches and the two freewheel diodes cooperatively, so that when the output voltage of the inverter is a zero level, an output alternating current (AC) side and an input direct current (DC) side of the inverter are positioned in a decoupling state; therefore, the output voltage of the inverter realizes three levels, the common-mode voltage of the inverter is a constant, and common-mode current is completely eliminated. The problem of imbalanced capacitor voltage caused by parasitic capacitance of a power switching device is solved in the circuit; therefore, a working mechanism without leakage current cannot be damaged, and the control means is simple; moreover, the circuit and a dead-zone working mechanism are reliable, and the working stability of the circuit is high. Due to the adoption of a unipolar pulse width modulation mode, the output current ripple of the inverter is low, copper loss and magnetic loss on a filtering inductor are low, and the quality of the output electric energy is high.

Description

A kind of single-phase three-level inverter
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of inverter in power electronic technology direct-current-alternating-current converter field, especially relate to a kind of single-phase three level transless type inverters.
Background technology
One of significant problem that serious day by day along with world energy sources shortage and problem of environmental pollution, the energy and environment have become that the 21st century mankind face, the development of the regenerative resource of cleaning and application more and more are subjected to the extensive concern of countries in the world.What a large amount of regenerative resources was sent all is direct current, and need be transformed into industrial-frequency alternating current to it by inverter could widely apply.Therefore, inversion transformation technique has crucial effects in the development and utilization field of regenerative resource.
Inverter refers to the effect that turns on and off by semiconductor power switch device, direct current energy is converted to a kind of converters of AC energy.Early stage inverter circuit is generally circuit and square-wave, because the successful Application of pulse width modulation (PWM) technology in power electronics, development has produced the PWM inverter circuit that has the pressure regulation frequency conversion function concurrently.The inverter circuit topology of common employing PWM modulation comprises full-bridge circuit, half-bridge circuit, half-bridge mid point clamp circuit and various multi-level circuits etc.
According to the difference of output level, PWM inverter circuit system can be divided into two level circuits, tri-level circuit and multi-level circuit.Two level circuits refer under PWM modulation control mode, the level of both positive and negative polarity can appear in output voltage waveforms in each main circuit switch cycle, compare with traditional square wave inversion or phase-shift voltage regulating full bridge inverter, two level inverter circuit output voltages are easy to adjust, the output harmonic wave better performances.Tri-level circuit refers to that inverter output voltage has only a gentle plus or minus level at zero point in each switch periods, compare with two level circuits, performance is better on tri-level inversion circuit output voltage and the current harmonics performance, simultaneously because the variation of each switch periods inverter output voltage is half of two level circuits, therefore the parameter of its output filter will obviously reduce, and the volume and weight of entire circuit device is also obviously reduced.Multi-level circuit then is mainly used in the high-power occasion, because voltage blocking ability and the electric current fan-out capability of device for power switching are limited, it is just more suitable that the multi-level circuit of modes such as the parallel extended diffusion of utilization power device series is used in the high-power occasion.
Different with control mode according to the inverter applications occasion, inverter system can be divided into self inverter and grid type inverter; According to transformer configuration difference in the inverter, inverter system can be divided into band Industrial Frequency Transformer type inverter, band high frequency transformer type inverter and transless type inverter.The inverter of band Industrial Frequency Transformer or high frequency transformer all can be realized the function of boosting and isolating, yet band Industrial Frequency Transformer type inverter is bulky, and weight increases, and price is more expensive, and inconvenience is installed by system; Though band high frequency transformer type inverter volume and weight reduces greatly, this class inverter system often is made up of multistage, causes the system configuration complexity, and system effectiveness reduces.And transless type inverter is simple owing to system configuration, the efficient height, and volume is little, and low cost and other advantages has worldwide obtained development fast.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of simple in structurely, can when eliminating common mode current, adopt the single-phase three-level inverter of transless type of unipolar pulse width modulation mode.
A kind of single-phase three-level inverter of the present invention comprises input capacitance, first power switch, second power switch, the 3rd power switch, the 4th power switch, the 5th power switch, the 6th power switch, first fly-wheel diode, second fly-wheel diode and filter; The drain electrode of the drain electrode of first power switch, the 3rd power switch, the anode of input capacitance link to each other with the positive pole of input dc terminal; The negative electrode of the anode of the drain electrode of the source electrode of first power switch, second power switch, first fly-wheel diode, second fly-wheel diode links to each other with the first input end of filter; The source electrode of the source electrode of second power switch, the 6th power switch, the negative terminal of input capacitance link to each other with the negative pole of input dc terminal; The negative electrode of the source electrode of the 3rd power switch, first fly-wheel diode links to each other with the drain electrode of the 4th power switch; The anode of the drain electrode of the 6th power switch, second fly-wheel diode links to each other with the source electrode of the 5th power switch; The drain electrode of the source electrode of the 4th power switch, the 5th power switch links to each other with second input of filter.
Described first power switch is composed in parallel by first switching transistor and the first anti-also diode, second power switch is composed in parallel by second switch transistor and the second anti-also diode, the 3rd power switch is composed in parallel by the 3rd switching transistor and the 3rd anti-also diode, the 4th power switch is composed in parallel by the 4th switching transistor and the 4th anti-also diode, the 5th power switch is composed in parallel by the 5th switching transistor and the 5th anti-also diode, and the 6th power switch is composed in parallel by the 6th switching transistor and the 6th anti-also diode; Switching transistor with the parallel way of anti-and diode is: the drain electrode of switching transistor or collector electrode link to each other with the negative electrode of anti-and diode and constitute the drain electrode of power switch, and the source electrode of switching transistor or emitter link to each other with the anode of anti-and diode and constitute the source electrode of power switch.
Described fly-wheel diode is separate diode, or for carrying the switching transistor of anti-and diode.
Described input capacitance is an electric capacity or the electric capacity combination that is made of a plurality of electric capacity connection in series-parallel.
Described filter is single inductive type filter, inductor-capacitor mode filter or inductor-capacitor-inductive type filter.
Described switching transistor is high voltage metal oxide silicon field effect transistor or insulation bipolar transistor.
Described anti-also diode is the diode that separate diode or switching transistor inside carry.
The modulation system of inverter of the present invention has following two kinds, unipolar pulse width modulation mode 1 and unipolar pulse width modulation mode 2.
In unipolar pulse width modulation mode 1, first switching transistor, second switch transistor, the 3rd switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor alternately carry out switch motion with power frequency period (for example 50Hz) and high frequency period (for example 20kHz).At the power frequency positive half period, the synchronous high frequency action of first switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor, second switch transistor AND gate the 3rd switching transistor is normally closed, and the 4th switching transistor is normally closed, and the 5th switching transistor is often opened; At the power frequency negative half-cycle, first switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor are normally closed, the synchronous high frequency action of second switch transistor AND gate the 3rd switching transistor, and the 4th switching transistor is often opened, and the 5th switching transistor is normally closed.
In unipolar pulse width modulation mode 2, first switching transistor, second switch transistor, the 3rd switching transistor, the 4th switching transistor, the 5th switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor alternately carry out switch motion with power frequency period (for example 50Hz) and high frequency period (for example 20kHz).At the power frequency positive half period, the synchronous high frequency action of first switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor, second switch transistor AND gate the 3rd switching transistor is normally closed, and the 4th switching transistor and the first switching transistor complementation are open-minded, and the 5th switching transistor is often opened; At the power frequency negative half-cycle, first switching transistor and the 6th switching transistor are normally closed, the synchronous high frequency action of second switch transistor AND gate the 3rd switching transistor, and the 4th switching transistor is often opened, and the 5th switching transistor and the complementation of second switch transistor are open-minded.
When single-phase three-level inverter of the present invention is worked, coordinate to carry out switch motion by six bands power switch and two fly-wheel diodes anti-and diode, make inverter output voltage when zero level, inverter output AC side and input DC side are in the decoupling zero state, thereby guaranteed in whole modulated process, when inverter output voltage was realized three level, the common-mode voltage of inverter outlet side remained a constant, and then had eliminated common mode current fully.
Inverter of the present invention is adopting under above-mentioned two kinds of unipolar pulse width modulation modes, when the mode of operation of circuit is switched, the parasitic junction capacitance voltage of power switch remains balance, therefore the balance of voltage problem that pulse width modulation strategy that need not be extra or hardware circuit compensate parasitic junction capacitance, so its control mode is fairly simple; Inverter output voltage of the present invention is three level, thereby can reduce the volume of output filter greatly, reduces the loss on the filter; Inverter of the present invention only need arrange the dead band when output current is in the power frequency near zero-crossing point, so the circuit output quality of power supply is good, and the stability of circuit is high.Inverter of the present invention is applicable to self inverter and grid type inverter system, and is particularly suitable for being applied in the distributed photovoltaic grid-connected system.
The present invention utilizes six power switch and two fly-wheel diodes that have anti-and diode to coordinate to carry out switch motion, has eliminated common mode current fully; This circuit is under suitable modulation system, and control mode is simple, and dead band working mechanism is reliable.The present invention adopts the unipolar pulse width modulation mode, and output current ripple reduces, thereby has improved the output quality of power supply of inverter, has reduced the volume and weight of filter, has reduced the copper loss and the magnetic loss that produce on the filter inductance.The present invention is simple in structure, can realize the output voltage of three level when eliminating common mode current.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the circuit diagram of the single-phase three-level inverter of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the waveform schematic diagram that the present invention adopts unipolar pulse width modulation mode 1.
Fig. 3 is the waveform schematic diagram that the present invention adopts unipolar pulse width modulation mode 2.
Fig. 4 a-Fig. 4 j is ten kinds of mode of operation schematic diagrames of the single-phase three-level inverter of the present invention.
Embodiment
Referring to accompanying drawing 1, a kind of single-phase three-level inverter of the present invention comprises input capacitance C Dc, the first power switch S 1, the second power switch S 2, the 3rd power switch S 3, the 4th power switch S 4, the 5th power switch S 5, the 6th power switch S 6, first sustained diode 7, second sustained diode 8And filter F;
The described first power switch S of present embodiment 1By the first switching transistor T 1With the first anti-and diode D 1Compose in parallel the second power switch S 2By the second switch transistor T 2With the second anti-and diode D 2Compose in parallel the 3rd power switch S 3By the 3rd switching transistor T 3With the 3rd anti-and diode D 3Compose in parallel the 4th power switch S 4By the 4th switching transistor T 4With the 4th anti-and diode D 4Compose in parallel the 5th power switch S 5By the 5th switching transistor T 5With the 5th anti-and diode D 5Compose in parallel the 6th power S 6Switch is by the 6th switching transistor T 6With the 6th anti-and diode D 6Compose in parallel; Switching transistor with the parallel way of anti-and diode is: the drain electrode of switching transistor or collector electrode link to each other with the negative electrode of anti-and diode and constitute the drain electrode of power switch, and the source electrode of switching transistor or emitter link to each other with the anode of anti-and diode and constitute the source electrode of power switch.
The first power switch S 1Drain electrode, the 3rd power switch S 3Drain electrode, input capacitance C DcAnode with the input dc terminal positive pole link to each other; The first power switch S 1Source electrode, the second power switch S 2Drain electrode, first sustained diode 7Anode, second sustained diode 8Negative electrode link to each other with the first input end of filter; The second power switch S 2Source electrode, the 6th power switch S 6Source electrode, input capacitance C DcNegative terminal with the input dc terminal negative pole link to each other; The 3rd power switch S 3Source electrode, first sustained diode 7Negative electrode and the 4th power switch S 4Drain electrode link to each other; The 6th power switch S 6Drain electrode, second sustained diode 8Anode and the 5th power switch S 5Source electrode link to each other; The 4th power switch S 4Source electrode, the 5th power switch S 5Drain electrode link to each other with second input of filter;
The modulation system of inverter of the present invention is the unipolar pulse width modulated.
Accompanying drawing 2 is the waveform schematic diagram that adopts unipolar pulse width modulation mode 1, wherein u cBe high frequency carrier (for example 20kHz), u gBe power frequency modulating wave (for example 50Hz).The first switching transistor T 1, the second switch transistor T 2, the 3rd switching transistor T 3With the 6th switching transistor T 6Alternately carry out switch motion with power frequency period (for example 50Hz) and high frequency period (for example 20kHz).As modulating wave u gWhen being in positive half period, the first switching transistor T 1With the 6th switching transistor T 6High frequency action synchronously, the second switch transistor T 2With the 3rd switching transistor T 3Normally closed, the 4th switching transistor T 4Normally closed, the 5th switching transistor T 5Often open; As modulating wave u gBe in negative half-cycle, the first switching transistor T 1With the 6th switching transistor T 6Normally closed, the second switch transistor T 2With the 3rd switching transistor T 3High frequency action synchronously, the 4th switching transistor T 4Often open the 5th switching transistor T 5Normally closed.
Accompanying drawing 3 is the waveform schematic diagram that adopts unipolar pulse width modulation mode 2, wherein u cBe high frequency carrier (for example 20kHz), u gBe power frequency modulating wave (for example 50Hz), the first switching transistor T 1, the second switch transistor T 2, the 3rd switching transistor T 3, the 4th switching transistor T 4, the 5th switching transistor T 5With the 6th switching transistor T 6Alternately carry out switch motion with power frequency period (for example 50Hz) and high frequency period (for example 20kHz).As modulating wave u gWhen being in positive half period, the first switching transistor T 1With the 6th switching transistor T 6High frequency action synchronously, the second switch transistor T 2With the 3rd switching transistor T 3Normally closed, the 4th switching transistor T 4With the first switching transistor T 1Complementary open-minded, the 5th switching transistor T 5Often open; As modulating wave u gBe in negative half-cycle, the first switching transistor T 1With the 6th switching transistor T 6Normally closed, the second switch transistor T 2With the 3rd switching transistor T 3High frequency action synchronously, the 4th switching transistor T 4Often open the 5th switching transistor T 5With the second switch transistor T 2Complementary open-minded.
Referring to accompanying drawing 4a-accompanying drawing 4j, mainly there are 10 kinds of mode of operations in inverter of the present invention in entire work process.Wherein: when mode of operation 1, electric current flows through the first switching transistor T 1, the 5th switching transistor T 5With the 6th switching transistor T 6, inverter output positive voltage; When mode of operation 2, electric current flows through the 5th switching transistor T 5, second sustained diode 8, inverter output zero level; When mode of operation 3, electric current flows through the 6th anti-and diode D 6, the 5th anti-and diode D 5With the first anti-and diode D 1, inverter output positive voltage; When mode of operation 4, electric current flows through first sustained diode 7, the 4th switching transistor T 4, inverter output zero level; When mode of operation 5, electric current flows through the 3rd switching transistor T 3, the 4th switching transistor T 4With the second switch transistor T 2, inverter output negative voltage; When mode of operation 6, electric current flows through first sustained diode 7, the 4th switching transistor T 4, inverter output zero level; When mode of operation 7, electric current flows through the second switch transistor T 2, the 4th anti-and diode D 4With the 3rd anti-and diode D 3, inverter output negative voltage; When mode of operation 8, electric current flows through the 5th switching transistor T 5, second sustained diode 8, inverter output no-voltage.When mode of operation 9, electric current flows through the 6th anti-and diode D 6, the 5th anti-and diode D 5, the first anti-and diode D 1, inverter output positive level.When mode of operation 10, electric current flows through the second anti-and diode D 2, the 4th anti-and diode D 4, the 3rd anti-and diode D 3, inverter output negative level.In mode of operation 2, mode of operation 4, mode of operation 6 and mode of operation 8, the first switching transistor T 1With the first anti-and diode D 1All be in off state, the second switch transistor T 2With the second anti-and diode D 2All be in off state, the 3rd switching transistor T 3With the 3rd anti-and diode D 3All be in off state, the 6th switching transistor T 6With the 6th anti-and diode D 6All be in off state, make inverter output AC side and input DC side be in the decoupling zero state, thereby the output that has guaranteed inverter do not have the common mode leakage current.
The described power switch of present embodiment can carry the anti-also switching transistor of diode by its inside and constitute, also can be by constituting after independent switch transistor and the separate diode inverse parallel; Described fly-wheel diode is separate diode, or carries the switching transistor of anti-and diode for its inside; Described switching transistor can be full-control type power semiconductors such as power metal oxide silicon field effect transistor or insulation bipolar transistor; Described anti-also diode is the diode that separate diode or switching transistor inside carry; Described filter F is the inductive type filter, also can be substituted by inductor-capacitor mode filter or inductor-capacitor-inductive type filter; The described transless type of present embodiment inverter structure both had been applicable to that the grid type inverter also was applicable to self inverter structure or other transless type inversion occasions.

Claims (7)

1. a single-phase three-level inverter comprises input capacitance (C Dc), the first power switch (S 1), the second power switch (S 2), the 3rd power switch (S 3), the 4th power switch (S 4), the 5th power switch (S 5), the 6th power switch (S 6), the first fly-wheel diode (D 7), the second fly-wheel diode (D 8) and filter (F); First power switch (the S 1) drain electrode, the 3rd power switch (S 3) drain electrode, input capacitance (C Dc) anode with the input dc terminal positive pole link to each other; First power switch (the S 1) source electrode, the second power switch (S 2) drain electrode, the first fly-wheel diode (D 7) anode, the second fly-wheel diode (D 8) negative electrode link to each other with the first input end of filter (F); Second power switch (the S 2) source electrode, the 6th power switch (S 6) source electrode, input capacitance (C Dc) negative terminal with the input dc terminal negative pole link to each other; The 3rd power switch (S 3) source electrode, the first fly-wheel diode (D 7) negative electrode and the 4th power switch (S 4) drain electrode link to each other; The 6th power switch (S 6) drain electrode, the second fly-wheel diode (D 8) anode and the 5th power switch (S 5) source electrode link to each other; The 4th power switch (S 4) source electrode, the 5th power switch (S 5) drain electrode link to each other with second input of filter (F); By to the first power switch (S 1), the second power switch (S 2), the 3rd power switch (S 3), the 4th power switch (S 4), the 5th power switch (S 5) and the 6th power switch (S 6) control end input pulse width modulation signal, this inverter can be converted to AC energy with input dc power.
2. single-phase three-level inverter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described power switch is made up of switching transistor and anti-also diode inverse parallel, the drain electrode of switching transistor or collector electrode link to each other with the negative electrode of anti-and diode and constitute the drain electrode of power switch, and the source electrode of switching transistor or emitter link to each other with the anode of anti-and diode and constitute the source electrode of power switch.
3. single-phase three-level inverter according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the described first fly-wheel diode (D 7), the first fly-wheel diode (D 8) be separate diode, or the switching transistor of and diode anti-for band.
4. single-phase three-level inverter according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described input capacitance (C Dc) be an electric capacity or the electric capacity combination that constituted by a plurality of electric capacity connection in series-parallel.
5. single-phase three-level inverter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described filter (F) is single inductive type filter, inductor-capacitor mode filter or inductor-capacitor-inductive type filter.
6. single-phase three-level inverter according to claim 2 is characterized in that: described switching transistor is high voltage metal oxide silicon field effect transistor or insulation bipolar transistor.
7. single-phase three-level inverter as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that, described anti-also diode is the anti-and diode that separate diode or switching transistor inside carry.
CN2011100572878A 2011-03-10 2011-03-10 Single-phase three-level inverter Active CN102185514B (en)

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CN105743382A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-07-06 苏州爱科博瑞电源技术有限责任公司 DC-AC conversion device and inverter based on same

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