CN102127673A - High-strength spheroidal graphite cast iron for thick-walled casting die - Google Patents

High-strength spheroidal graphite cast iron for thick-walled casting die Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102127673A
CN102127673A CN2010100226508A CN201010022650A CN102127673A CN 102127673 A CN102127673 A CN 102127673A CN 2010100226508 A CN2010100226508 A CN 2010100226508A CN 201010022650 A CN201010022650 A CN 201010022650A CN 102127673 A CN102127673 A CN 102127673A
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cast iron
percent
equal
spheroidal graphite
graphite cast
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张恒
王以春
温宏权
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SHANGHAI BAOSTEEL CASTING CO Ltd
Baoshan Iron and Steel Co Ltd
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SHANGHAI BAOSTEEL CASTING CO Ltd
Baoshan Iron and Steel Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses high-strength spheroidal graphite cast iron for a thick-walled casting die, which comprises the following main components in percentage by mass: 3.20 to 3.50 percent of C, 1.90 to 2.20 percent of Si, 0.20 to 0.50 percent of Mn, 0.40 to 0.60 percent of Cu, 0.40 to 0.80 percent of Mo, 0.60 to 0.80 percent of Ni, less than or equal to 0.06 percent of P, less than or equal to 0.03 percent of S, 0.02 to 0.05 percent of Mg, less than or equal to 0.07 percent of Re and the balance of Fe and other inevitable impurities. The as-cast mechanical properties of the spheroidal graphite cast iron are that: sigma b is more than or equal to 750MPa, sigma 0.2 is more than or equal to 520MPa, delta is more than or equal to 3 percent, and Brinell hardness is 190 to 240; the mechanical properties of the normalized, hardened and tempered spheroidal graphite cast iron are that: the sigma b is more than or equal to 1,000MPa, the sigma 0.2 is more than or equal to 900MPa, the delta is more than or equal to 2 percent, and the Brinell hardness is 260 to 300; and the material has high strength, hardness and elongation, has uniform section hardness and structure after the material is hardened and tempered when used for a large-section die, and can meet the requirement of the actual use working condition of the large-section die with the wall thickness of more than 200mm.

Description

A kind of high-strength ductile cast iron that is used for the heavy section casting mould
Technical field
The invention belongs to the cast material technical field, relate to a kind of high-strength ductile cast iron that is used for the heavy section casting mould.
Background technology
The cardinal principle of die design is to satisfy the requirement of using target, and these requirements comprise main mechanical property such as intensity, toughness and other relevant processing performance.For mould, spheroidal graphite cast iron is compared with cast steel with steel alloy has higher strength and toughness and wear resisting property, and its over-all properties is good, also is suitable for owing to it is with low cost simultaneously producing in enormous quantities.Also existing both at home and abroad in addition large stamping die, bent axle etc. use the precedent of ductile cast iron material.Patent publication No. is that the invention of CN1506485 " high-strength alloy ductile iron crankshaft novel material and production method thereof " by name has disclosed a kind of high-strength alloy ductile iron crankshaft material, and its alloying constituent mass percent consists of: C 3.46~3.76%, Si 2.04~2.22%, Mn 0.49~0.66%, P<0.05, S<0.033, Cu 0.34~0.46%, Mo 0.12~0.19%, Re 0.022~0.041%, Mg 0.025~0.052%, Sn 0.04~0.05%, Ba 0.03~0.05%.Through Alloying Treatment, its tensile strength can reach more than the 900Mpa, and unit elongation also can reach more than 5%.
Because service condition difference and inefficacy mechanism at different application background bed dies are all different, be crucial so understand and be familiar with the service requirements and the corresponding environment for use of designed mould.In addition, should be taken into account that also designing material should be easy to manufacture finished product and work in-process, production cost is lower.Should reach simultaneously the performance of service requirements, guarantee that again physics and the chemical property of material in environment for use do not change.
It is generally acknowledged that the above nodular iron casting of casting section thickness 100mm is called big section nodular graphite cast iron spare.Big section nodular graphite cast iron spare size is big, and weight is big, and wall thickness is big, and the thermal capacity during casting is big, solidifies slowly, very easily causes decaying spheroidisation and inoculation fade, thereby causes THE STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS to change, and this phenomenon is more serious in the heart portion of foundry goods.It is thick mainly to show as graphite pebbles, and graphite pebbles quantity reduces, graphite floatation, and graphite pebbles produces distortion and forms various non-globular graphite, mainly contains pseudo-sheet, vermiform, explosion shape and chunky shape.Simultaneously because the reallocation of solute element when solidifying, a series of problems such as serious element segregation and intergranular carbide, inverse chill also can appear, its result makes the mechanical property variation of spheroidal graphite cast iron, particularly elongation and plasticity obviously reduce, thereby have restricted promoting the use of of big section nodular graphite cast iron.
Summary of the invention
The performance of spheroidal graphite cast iron mainly is controlled by composition and microstructure, impurity, defective, surface structure and the stressed condition etc. of material.Composition is one of principal element of decision tissue, and composition is by organizing the performance of remote effect material.The objective of the invention is provides a kind of high-strength ductile cast iron that is applicable to the heavy section casting mould by reasonable component design, and this spheroidal graphite cast iron has high strength, high rigidity and unit elongation preferably.Through after the modifier treatment, section hardness is even, homogeneous microstructure, can satisfy wall thickness greater than the big section mould of 200mm actual applying working condition requirement.
Technical conceive of the present invention is the mechanical property requirements at heavy section casting, by adjusting the addition of C, Si, Mn, Cu, elements such as Mo, Ni in the spheroidal graphite cast iron, makes the as cast condition mechanical property of ductile cast iron material reach σ b〉=750Mpa, σ 0.2〉=520MPa, δ 〉=3%, cloth formula hardness 190~240.Reach σ through its mechanical property after normalizing, the modifier treatment b〉=1000Mpa, σ 0.2〉=900MPa, δ 〉=2%, cloth formula hardness 260~300.Its cardinal principle is as follows:
C and Si are two elements that the mechanical property of spheroidal graphite cast iron and castability are had the greatest impact.The carbon equivalent of spheroidal graphite cast iron (w (C)) is generally eutectic or a little higher than eutectic composition, can help nodularization like this and prevent spoken parts in traditional operas.Increase carbon equivalent, then can increase spheroidal graphite cast iron cast ferrite amount, thereby increase toughness.The carbon content height is separated out the spheroidal graphite number and is increased, and sphere diameter is little, and degree of sphericity is good, and the nodulizing agent specific absorption is also high simultaneously.Improve carbon content, also can reduce shrinkage porosite and shrinkage cavity, make the foundry goods densification.General carbon equivalent selection 4.1%~4.3% is comparatively suitable, and general control w (C) is 3.4%~3.7% in the production process.In the big section nodular graphite cast iron spare trial-manufacturing process of 600mm * 1500mm, selecting w (C) is 3.5%~3.7%, has also obtained good effect (main reference document: Jiang Yunfeng, Zhang Xiangjie, Chen Xiangkun, the melting of big section high elongation rate spheroidal graphite cast iron, casting, 2004, (2): 35~37; Wu Zhaoqi, Di soldier, the trial-production of the big section nodular graphite cast iron spare of 600 * 1500mm, heat processing technique, 1997, (4): 6).
Suitably improve Si content, perlite is reduced, as cast condition intensity and hardness reduce, and plasticity increases.Silicon dissolves in the ferrite in addition, can play strengthening effect.But silicon content surpasses at 3% o'clock, and the plasticity of spheroidal graphite cast iron is descended, and fragility increases.The silicon content of spheroidal graphite cast iron depends on the wall thickness of foundry goods and to the requirement of metallic matrix tissue.In order to prevent carbon floatage, the silicon content of this foundry goods should hang down.Under the constant situation of total silicon content, if more silicon can be added molten iron when breeding, then can make the graphite refinement and improve degree of sphericity, the castability of spheroidal graphite cast iron and mechanical property are had greatly improved, most researchs are thought in the heavy-section ductile iron, the mass percent of silicon should be limited in 1.8%~2.2% (the main reference document: Li Xiaojuan, the time triumph, Fu Yongsheng, the quality control method of big section nodular graphite cast iron spare, foundry engieering, 2007,28 (10): 1383~1385; Chen Bingting, Jia Xiumei, Zhu Yongheng, Zheng Lei has the production of the large-scale ductile iron foundry goods of thick and large section, Laigang science and technology, 2007,129:58 ~ 60; ItofujiH, et al, Production and evaluation of heavy section ductile cast-iron, Transactions of AFS, 1990:595).
Mn hinders graphited element, can stablize and refine pearlite during eutectoid transformation.For ferrite ductile cast iron, when manganese content was high, near the residual pearlite crystal boundary was difficult for eliminating, so high-tenacity nodular cast iron will obtain ferrite matrix and higher unit elongation, too high manganese content is unallowed.Generally the mass percent of manganese should be controlled at 0.1%~0.4% in heavy-section ductile iron, ferrite ductile cast iron takes off limit, pearlite ductile iron capping (main reference document: Chen Bingting, Jia Xiumei, Zhu Yongheng, Zheng Lei, production with large-scale ductile iron foundry goods of thick and large section, Laigang science and technology, 2007,129:58 ~ 60).
The Cu element influences the spheroidal graphite cast iron mechanical property by promoting pearlitic generation and reinforced metal matrix.Add a small amount of Cu, perlite quantity significantly increases, and tensile strength, yield strength and hardness obviously improve all thereupon, and unit elongation significantly descends.When copper content surpassed 0.5wt%, matrix in fact major part was a perlite, and intensity index, hardness continue to rise, and unit elongation no longer descends.Cu has adverse influence (Liu Yaohui, the CuCrMoNi multi-element low alloyization is to structure of cast iron and Effect on Performance, Automobile Technology and Material, 2003,01:18~20 for main reference document: Zhu Xianyong, Du Jun) to the homogeneity of graphite pebbles and nodularization rate.
Mo has significant raising effect to the tensile strength of spheroidal graphite steel.The mass percent of Mo reaches at 0.3% o'clock can make Rb increase about 100MPa, and Rb is reached more than the 950M Pa.The mass percent of Mo surpasses after 0.3%, and it is little to the raising effect of Rb to continue to increase the Mo amount, and this is that not only amplification is limited, and is that it obviously descends plasticity.Mo can also reduce the degree of graphitization of spheroidal graphite cast iron tissue significantly.This is because of the increase along with the Mo amount, and graphite pebbles quantity reduces, and sphere diameter diminishes, even point graphite occurs.When the graphite volume percent descended, the volume percent of cementite significantly rose in the tissue.Relevant studies show that, mass percent are that 0.6% Mo makes the graphite volume percent descend about 4.8%, and the cementite volume percent increases about 5.6%.(main reference document: Yang Diankui, Liang Wenxin, Dong Tianpeng, alloying element is to the tissue and the Effect on Performance of spheroidal graphite steel, steel research journal, 2004,16 (2): 56~62).
Ni has degree of graphitization, the effect of balance carbide-forming element effectively that strengthens the spheroidal graphite cast iron tissue.Relevant test card is understood the remarkable effect of Ni, such as, be 0.3% o'clock in the mass percent of Mo, the mass percent of Ni is increased to 1.5% by 0%, the graphite volume percent rises to 15.25% by 7.36%, and carbide volume per-cent drops to 1.67% by 4.91%; Ni also has bigger improvement to the impelling strength of spheroidal graphite cast iron.These effects of Ni should ascribe it to and promote greying, reduce cementite content in the tissue, and it can offset the disadvantageous effect of Mo to graphite structure, makes graphite pebbles be tending towards all even rounding.(main reference document: Guo Xinli, Liu Zhiguo, Liu Junming, Meng Xiangkang, Ni behavior and the effect in spheroidal graphite cast iron, investigation of materials journal, 1995,9 (4): 289~293)
Make nodulizing agent with elements such as magnesium, calcium, rare earths and handle molten iron production spheroidal graphite cast iron, mainly contain two big series: a class is a magnesium nodularization series, comprises pure magnesium, magnesium alloy such as ferrosilicon magnesium alloy, nickel magnesium, copper-magnesium alloy, magnesium coke or magnesium salts etc.Another series is rare earth magnesium series, comprises light rare earths magnesium and heavy rare earths magnesium nodulizer etc.
Mg makes the spheroidal graphite rounding, can slow down decaying spheroidisation to large-section magnesium iron, and Mg hinders graphite and separates out, and residual Mg amount is high, increases and shrinks and fragility, and the easy oxidation of Mg forms oxide film on the molten iron surface, enters sand mold and easily makes foundry goods produce slag inclusion and subsurface porosity.It is low more good more that residual Mg amount should be controlled under the prerequisite that guarantees nodularization, but we consider that big part setting time is long, should improve the anti-ageing ability of moving back, and the Mg amount should height, makes that Mg content is controlled at 0.02%~0.05% in the final iron liquid.
Re is by offsetting the deleterious effect of interference element, and balling-up turns the element of usefulness into indirectly, but in thick and large casting, Re residual quantity height causes chunky graphite to increase easily, and we generally are controlled at below 0.07%.(main reference document: Wang Wanchao, the exploitation and the application of the special-purpose nodulizing agent of thick and large section casting parts, nucleating agent, 2006 Chinese Foundry active cycle collections of thesis, 2006:272~274)
S belongs to surface-active material, and it can be adsorbed in the graphite crystal nucleus surface of growing, the one, hindered carbon atom by iron liquid inside to surface diffusion, separate out thereby hinder graphite; The 2nd, impel graphite along basal plane orientation (0001) growth (sheet), graphite shape is degenerated.Studies show that when having only mass percent as S<0.03% in the iron liquid, graphite just has the condition of balling-up.Simultaneously, S easily causes hot-short phenomenon.S is dissolved among the iron liquid with the form of FeS, in process of setting, concentrates in the crystal boundary place, form low melting point eutectic Fe-FeS (fusing point is 985 ℃) and Fe-Fe3C-FeS (fusing point is 975 ℃), weakened the intercrystalline bonding force, caused cast iron brittle cracking defective, promptly hot-short phenomenon.(main reference document: Wang Xiantao, the control of the influence of sulphur, source and sulphur content in the spheroidal graphite cast iron, casting, 2004 (7): 53~54).
Therefore the contriver is based on above-mentioned theoretical foundation, and the high-strength ductile cast iron composition that is applicable to the heavy section casting mould has been invented in design.Its mass percent composition is:
C 3.20~3.50%;
Si 1.90~2.20%;
Mn 0.20~0.50%;
Cu 0.40~0.60%;
Mo 0.40~0.80%;
Ni 0.60~0.80%;
P ≤0.06%;
S ≤0.03%;
Mg 0.02~0.05%;
Re ≤0.07%;
Surplus is Fe and unavoidable impurities.
Preferably, the described high-strength ductile cast iron that is used for the heavy section casting mould, its mass percent consists of:
C 3.20~3.36%;
Si 2.01~2.19%;
Mn 0.36~0.47%;
Cu 0.43~0.59%;
Mo 0.43~0.80%;
Ni 0.67~0.73%;
P ≤0.05%;
S ≤0.004%;
Mg 0.025~0.046%;
Re 0.017~0.022%。
The spheroidal graphite cast iron that the present invention relates to is by batching, and electrosmelting breeds and the nodularization process, sand mold casting, and modifier treatment makes.Its production technique is:
1,, smelts batching with foundry iron and other various required alloys according to above-mentioned design mix.
2, will prepare burden and drop into electrosmelting.
3, melted molten iron breed, nodularization, pour in the previously prepd sand mold moulding cooling.
4, the as cast condition test specimen is carried out modified thermal treatment, obtain required ductile cast iron material.
The present invention makes it compared with prior art owing to adopted above technical scheme, and have the following advantages and positively effect: this ductile cast iron material, its as cast condition mechanical property is σ b〉=750Mpa, σ 0.2〉=520MPa, δ 〉=3%, cloth formula hardness 190~240.Through its mechanical property after normalizing, the modifier treatment is σ b〉=1000Mpa, σ 0.2〉=900MPa, δ 〉=2%, cloth formula hardness 260~300.This material has high strength, high rigidity and unit elongation preferably.When being used for big section mould, through after the modifier treatment, section hardness is even, homogeneous microstructure, can satisfy wall thickness greater than the big section mould of 200mm actual applying working condition requirement.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the normalizing process of high-strength ductile cast iron material of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the hardening and tempering process of high-strength ductile cast iron material of the present invention.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1-4
The composition quality per-cent of high-strength ductile cast iron except that surplus Fe of table 1 embodiment 1-4 correspondence
Embodiment 1 (%) Embodiment 2 (%) Embodiment 3 (%) Embodiment 4 (%)
C 3.2 3.32 3.27 3.36
Si 2.06 2.19 2.16 2.01
Mn 0.44 0.36 0.47 0.39
Cu 0.56 0.59 0.49 0.43
Mo 0.57 0.80 0.68 0.43
Ni 0.73 0.63 0.72 0.67
P ≤0.06 ≤0.06 ≤0.05 ≤0.05
S ≤0.003 ≤0.004 ≤0.004 ≤0.003
Mg 0.025 0.046 0.033 0.037
Re 0.017 0.022 0.021 0.021
The as cast condition mechanical property detected result of the high-strength ductile cast iron of table 2 embodiment 1-4 correspondence
Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4
Tensile strength sigma b 784 744 774 737
Yield strength σ 0.2 573 523 567 536
Relative reduction in area δ (%) 3.5 3 3.6 3.8
Brinell hardness 233 223 241 211
The high-strength ductile cast iron process normalizing of table 3 embodiment 1-4 correspondence, the mechanical property detected result after the modifier treatment
Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4
Tensile strength sigma b 1121 1057 1119 1037
Yield strength σ 0.2 988 951 947 928
Relative reduction in area δ (%) 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5
Brinell hardness 293 275 300 280
The metallographic structure analysis result of the high-strength ductile cast iron of table 4 embodiment 1-4 correspondence
Metallographic structure analysis
Embodiment 1 Top layer 0~30mm matrix is the tempering troostite tissue, is distributed with globular graphite and a spot of ferrite and eutectic carbides, hardness 296HB; Be similarly globular graphite, acicular ferrite, fine pearlite and strip and block primary crystal carbide below the 30mm and form, hardness is 280HB.
Embodiment 2 The tissue of top layer 0~30mm by globular graphite, have the martensite position to tempered sorbite, a small amount of acicular ferrite and eutectic carbides form, hardness is about 280HB; 30mm is following to be that globular graphite, acicular ferrite, fine pearlite and primary crystal carbide are formed hardness 260HB.
Embodiment 3 Top layer 0~30mm matrix is the tempering troostite tissue, is distributed with globular graphite and a small amount of
Ferrite and eutectic carbides, hardness 297HB; Be similarly globular graphite, acicular ferrite, fine pearlite and strip and block primary crystal carbide below the 30mm and form, hardness is 283HB.
Embodiment 4 Top layer 0~30mm matrix is the tempering troostite tissue, is distributed with globular graphite and a spot of ferrite and eutectic carbides, hardness 280HB; Be similarly globular graphite, acicular ferrite, fine pearlite and strip and block primary crystal carbide below the 30mm and form, hardness is 263HB.
Table 4
The concrete experiment process of embodiment 1-4 is as follows:
1, required batching was as follows during antivacuum intermediate frequency furnace was smelted: foundry iron, copper coin, molybdenum-iron, nickel plate, electrolytic manganese, heavy rare earths, ferrosilicon.
2, will prepare burden to drop in the antivacuum intermediate frequency furnace of 750Kg and smelt 1450 ℃ of tapping temperatures, 1350 ℃ of pouring temperatures.
3, melted molten iron is floated in hot metal ladle silicon breeds, nodularization, pour into sand mold.
4, foundry goods is carried out normalizing treatment earlier and prepare as tissue, carry out modifier treatment then, concrete technology as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the sample workpiece is at first carried out normalizing treatment, 920 ℃ of normalizing temperatures, the normalizing time determines that according to the workpiece size normalizing type of cooling is a spray cooling.After finishing normalized structure preparation work, the sample workpiece is carried out modifier treatment, 870 ℃ of modified quenching temperatures, the cool time determines that according to workpiece size the quench cooled mode is an oil quenching equally.520 ℃ of modified tempering temperatures, tempering time determines that according to workpiece size the tempering type of cooling is an air cooling.
In sum, this spheroidal graphite cast iron has high strength, high rigidity and unit elongation preferably.When being used for big section mould, through after the modifier treatment, section hardness is even, homogeneous microstructure, can satisfy wall thickness greater than the big section mould of 200mm actual applying working condition requirement.
Be noted that above enumerate only for specific embodiments of the invention, obviously the invention is not restricted to above embodiment, many similar variations are arranged thereupon.If those skilled in the art all should belong to protection scope of the present invention from all distortion that content disclosed by the invention directly derives or associates.

Claims (2)

1. high-strength ductile cast iron that is used for the heavy section casting mould is characterized in that mass percent consists of:
C 3.20~3.50%;
Si 1.90~2.20%;
Mn 0.20~0.50%;
Cu 0.40~0.60%;
Mo 0.40~0.80%;
Ni 0.60~0.80%;
P ≤0.06%;
S ≤0.03%;
Mg?0.02~0.05%;
Re ≤0.07%;
Surplus is Fe and unavoidable impurities.
2. the high-strength ductile cast iron that is used for the heavy section casting mould as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that mass percent consists of:
C 3.20~3.36%;
Si 2.01~2.19%;
Mn 0.36~0.47%;
Cu 0.43~0.59%;
Mo 0.43~0.80%;
Ni 0.67~0.73%;
P ≤0.05%;
S ≤0.004%;
Mg 0.025~0.046%;
Re 0.017~0.022%。
CN2010100226508A 2010-01-12 2010-01-12 High-strength spheroidal graphite cast iron for thick-walled casting die Pending CN102127673A (en)

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CN104911461A (en) * 2015-05-13 2015-09-16 上海宏钢电站设备铸锻有限公司 High-temperature-resistant silicon molybdenum ferrite nodular cast iron for steam turbine and preparation technology therefor
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CN105970076B (en) * 2016-06-27 2017-10-31 含山县兴达球墨铸铁厂 The preparation method of high-strength low-temperature-resistant spheroidal graphite cast-iron
CN107988546A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-05-04 江铃汽车股份有限公司 A kind of as cast condition mixed matrix spheroidal graphite cast-iron differential carrier casting and preparation method thereof
CN109402496A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-03-01 精诚工科汽车系统有限公司 Alloying element addition method for determination of amount and ductile cast iron casting and its casting and mold in ductile cast iron casting with uniform wall thickness
CN109504890A (en) * 2018-11-28 2019-03-22 精诚工科汽车系统有限公司 Alloying element addition method for determination of amount and ductile cast iron casting and its casting and mold in ductile cast iron casting with uniform wall thickness
CN110295272A (en) * 2019-06-19 2019-10-01 东莞市卓蓝自动化设备有限公司 A kind of firm gear heat treatment process
CN111172451A (en) * 2019-11-18 2020-05-19 莱州新忠耀机械有限公司 High-hardness high-toughness constant-force collapsibility iron casting for petroleum drilling protection and manufacturing method thereof

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