CN102122832A - Lithium ion battery management system - Google Patents

Lithium ion battery management system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102122832A
CN102122832A CN201110028753XA CN201110028753A CN102122832A CN 102122832 A CN102122832 A CN 102122832A CN 201110028753X A CN201110028753X A CN 201110028753XA CN 201110028753 A CN201110028753 A CN 201110028753A CN 102122832 A CN102122832 A CN 102122832A
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Prior art keywords
battery
module
voltage
temperature
microcontroller
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Pending
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CN201110028753XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈冠豪
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Individual
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Priority to CN201110028753XA priority Critical patent/CN102122832A/en
Publication of CN102122832A publication Critical patent/CN102122832A/en
Priority to PCT/CN2011/079416 priority patent/WO2012100540A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/441Methods for charging or discharging for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/443Methods for charging or discharging in response to temperature
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/48Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating the condition of cells, e.g. the level or density of the electrolyte
    • H01M10/486Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating the condition of cells, e.g. the level or density of the electrolyte for measuring temperature
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention relates to a lithium ion battery management system, comprising a plurality of battery voltage sampling modules, a temperature sampling module, a microcontroller, a PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) charging controller and a plurality of equalization gating control modules, wherein the plurality of battery voltage sampling modules are used for measuring a voltage value V of each single battery of each battery string in a battery module; the temperature sampling module is used for measuring a temperature value T of the battery module; the microcontroller receives the voltage values V of the single batteries measured by the voltage sampling modules and the temperature values T of the battery module measured by the temperature sampling module, and judges the single battery to be equalized; and the PWM charging controller and the plurality of equalization gating control modules are controlled by the microcontroller to transfer and equalize energy of the single battery to be equalized.

Description

The lithium ion battery management system
Technical field
The present invention relates to be used for the lithium ion battery management system that demands such as electric powered motor lithium-ions battery, communication accumulation of energy high-capacity lithium-ion storage battery and energy-accumulating power station high-capacity lithium-ion storage battery two save the high capacity lithium ion battery group of above series connected battery.
Background technology
Lithium ion battery is because the life-span is long, and the large current density electrical characteristics are good, and are safe, memory-less effect, and the corresponding maturation of technology and be considered to the most potential battery, and obtained application.Industry generally believes that monomer lithium ion battery manufacturing technology is mature on the whole, but the lithium ionic cell module that the one of the main reasons of not being used widely so far is made up of the multi-section lithium ion battery is because the consistency of battery is poor, very easily cause a certain or a few cells super-charge super-discharge to occur, cause inefficacy, thereby cause chain reaction, the whole battery group life-span is finished in advance or extreme case under can set off an explosion, catastrophic effect such as on fire, so the lithium ion battery management system is essential.Adopt lithium ion battery protecting plate that battery pack is carried out super-charge super-discharge control and cell is carried out super-charge super-discharge control in the market; Also have the lithium ion battery management system simultaneously integrated equalization function, defencive function and function for monitoring, these have all improved the fail safe and the useful life of lithium ion battery to a certain extent.But existing battery protecting plate or battery management system be ubiquity function singleness, little, not high, the circuit complicated problems of precision of function also, certainly will cause battery pack to reduce useful life, and cost rises, and security of system reduces.
Above-mentioned battery protecting plate or battery management system function singleness, function do not show as very much:
1. battery protecting plate does not have equalization function and other miscellaneous function;
2. battery management system has over-charging of battery to cross to put protection and equalization function, but equalization function adopts the energy consumption mode, and euqalizing current is little, generally in 0.3A, high capacity cell is performed practically no function;
Accurately not high, circuit is complicated shows in the battery voltage sampling, general employing difference amplifier array or linear optical coupling add sends into microcontroller after operational amplifier is handled, because large-capacity battery pack generally all has tens of joints or hundreds of batteries to be composed in series, the circuit complex components is more, certainly will cause cost to rise, stability decreases, simultaneously difference amplifier array is influenced by resistance error and linear optical coupling adds operational amplifier and influenced by the optocoupler linearity, and sampling precision is not high.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide that a kind of portfolio effect is good, precision is high, the lithium ion battery management system of good stability.
A kind of lithium ion battery management system of the present invention comprises: a plurality of battery voltage sampling modules, the magnitude of voltage V of each cell in the measurement battery module in each battery strings; The temperature sampling module is measured the temperature value T of described battery module; Microcontroller receives the magnitude of voltage V of described each cell that described battery voltage sampling module records and the temperature value T of the battery module that the temperature sampling module records, and judging needs balanced cell; PWM charge controller and a plurality of balanced gating control module are subjected to described microprocessor controls to need balanced cell to carry out energy transfer equilibrium to described.
The voltage of described each battery strings is input to described microcontroller by electric resistance partial pressure.
This system also comprises the isolating transformer that is arranged between described PWM charge controller and a plurality of balanced gating control module.
This system also comprises the over-charge protective module; satisfying when overcharging condition, described microprocessor is sent and is overcharged signal and cut off to charging device and charge, and the described condition of overcharging is OC<V* (1+ppm%*T); wherein OC supplements with money for the mistake of supposition, and ppm% is the battery temperature coefficient.
This system also comprised puts protection module; satisfying when putting condition, described microprocessor was sent discharge signal and was cut off discharge to electric discharge device, and the described mistake condition of putting is OV>V* (1+ppm%*T); wherein OV is mistake value of putting of supposition, and ppm% is the battery temperature coefficient.
This system also comprises the overheat protector module, and when satisfying the excess temperature condition, described microprocessor is sent the excess temperature signal and cut off charge and discharge respectively to charging device and electric discharge device, and described excess temperature condition is OT>T, and wherein OT is the excess temperature value of supposition.
This system comprises that also reception is from the discharging current and the output voltage electric current of electric discharge device and be sent to the electric discharge device sampling module of described microprocessor.
This system also comprises the display alarm memory module, and it receives data from described microcontroller with storage and show by digital interface.
Described display alarm memory module is stored described data with compress mode.
This system comprises that also the bus expansion interface that links to each other with described microcontroller is to expand more battery modules by bus mode.
Lithium ion battery management system of the present invention compared with prior art has following advantage:
1, the present invention's formula energy of taking the initiative shifts balancedly, and portfolio effect is 8 times of traditional about 0.3A euqalizing current, and euqalizing current reaches 2.2-2.5A, and energy transfer efficiency reaches more than 80%, thoroughly solves the inconsistent problem of high capacity cell capacity.
2, battery voltage sampling is input to microcontroller by the simple resistor dividing potential drop, make precision in 10mV by external world's calibration and software algorithm, lack 50%-80% than traditional sampling that adds operational amplifier and difference amplifier array with linear optical coupling, save system cost more than 5%, and improved stability.
3, data can be stored battery information amount more than 10 years through overcompression, guarantee the entire cell life cycle, maintenance and improvement to system provide first-hand data, especially under the ripe not enough situation of present lithium ion battery, need lot of data to analyze the failure mode of battery, directly from using terminal to fetch data, than the dangerous chamber of reality carry out multiple simulation and hypothesis testing more direct, clearer, the lifting of battery technology is had immeasurable effect.
Studies show that in a large number that 4, the life-span of battery pack is 1/2 of a cell, even lower, the life-span that the battery protection system of a consummating function can guarantee cell is very near life-span of battery pack.The present invention is integrated lithium ion battery group super-charge super-discharge and cell super-charge super-discharge defencive function, equalization function, battery pack temperature measuring ability, battery electric quantity (SOC) estimation function, monitor alarm function, memory function, modularized design extendable functions, prevents battery generation catastrophic effect to greatest extent and can prolong nearly one times of battery useful life.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram that lithium ion battery management system of the present invention and external device are electrically connected;
Fig. 2 shows the master control functional-block diagram of lithium ion battery management system of the present invention;
Fig. 3 shows the circuit theory diagrams of battery voltage sampling module among Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 shows the circuit theory diagrams of temperature sampling module among Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 shows the circuit theory diagrams of balanced gating control module among Fig. 2.
Embodiment
Describe the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
This lithium ion battery management system adopts modularized design, and adopting 16 cell series connection in following examples is a battery strings, and 16 battery strings constitute a battery pack, and promptly battery module can be expanded more battery modules by bus mode.
Fig. 1 shows being electrically connected of lithium ion battery management system of the present invention and external device, comprising: master board 1; Bus expansion interface 2; Display alarm memory module 3; Excess temperature signal 4; Cross discharge signal 5; Discharging current and output voltage electric current 6; Electric discharge device 7; Overcharge signal 8; Charging device 9; Battery pack interface 10; Module 111; Module N 12.
Fig. 2 shows the master control functional-block diagram of lithium ion battery management system of the present invention, comprising: microcontroller 21; PWM charge controller 22; With 16 battery strings, 16 battery voltage sampling modules one to one, for example battery voltage sampling 123, battery voltage sampling 224 ... battery voltage sampling 1625; Temperature sampling module 26; Electric discharge device sampling module 27; With 16 battery strings, 16 balanced gating control modules one to one, for example balanced gating control 1628 ... balanced gating control 229, balanced gating control 1210; Isolating transformer 211; Output 1212, output 2213 ... output 16214; Battery strings 1215, battery strings 2216 ... battery strings 16217.
The concrete operation principle of lithium ion battery management system of the present invention is as follows:
The battery voltage sampling module is used to measure the magnitude of voltage V of each cell of series connection in each battery strings.The voltage of each battery strings is input to microcontroller 21 by electric resistance partial pressure, as shown in Figure 2, and battery voltage sampling totally 16 tunnel.Lift wherein battery strings 1 its principle of explanation: under calibration mode, insert corresponding to battery strings 1,2 ... 16 reference power supply V1, V2 ... V16 records the virtual voltage V1 ' of each battery strings, V2 ' ... V16 ' also deposits in the microcontroller memory; Under the proper testing pattern, insert the battery strings of being managed, record the voltage V1 " V2 " of battery strings ... V16 "; according to magnitude of voltage=V1 "/V1 ' * V1 of cell 1 in the following formula counting cell string 1, magnitude of voltage=the V1 of cell 2 "/V1 ' * V1*2; the rest may be inferred, the magnitude of voltage=V1 of cell 16 "/V1 ' * V1*16.Specifically as shown in Figure 3, each battery voltage sampling module comprises resistance R 1 and the R3 that for example is connected in parallel on the series connection between first and second cell, and the capacitor C 1 in parallel with resistance R 3, simple electric resistance partial pressure only needs three elements can finish a string battery voltage sampling.
The battery pack temperature sampling module specifically as shown in Figure 4, comprises the many groups resistance that is in series and temperature and resistance and electric capacity in parallel with each temperature and resistance in parallel.This battery pack temperature sampling module converts temperature variant each resistance value of temperature and resistance to magnitude of voltage, makes master meter, deposits in the microcontroller memory, draws battery pack temperature value T with lookup table mode during actual the test.
Judge equilibrium condition: the magnitude of voltage V of each cell that obtains from the battery voltage sampling module obtains mean value V A, maximum V Max, minimum value V Min, carry out temperature-compensating again, with the battery pack temperature value T that the temperature sampling module obtains, battery temperature coefficient ppm% (this coefficient can obtain from the electrical specifications that battery manufacturer is recommended) judges whether to satisfy equilibrium condition: V Max* (1+ppm%*T)<set point, V Min* (1+ppm%*T)>set point, V A* (1+ppm%*T)-V* (1+ppm%*T)>set point, the electrical specifications that set point is recommended according to battery manufacturer are set.
Carry out battery balanced: the cell that satisfies above-mentioned equilibrium condition is begun equilibrium, open PWM charge controller 22, by isolating transformer output 1212, output 2213 ... output 16214 ... totally 16 the tunnel export corresponding balanced gating control module (specifically as shown in Figure 5) to, open balanced gating control module, cell to required equilibrium carries out energy transfer equilibrium, and wherein isolating transformer 211 is used for power transfer and electrical isolation.
Judged put, overcharge, the excess temperature condition: according to magnitude of voltage V, temperature value T, the battery temperature coefficient ppm% that the temperature sampling module draws, the mistake value of the putting OV that supposes of the cell of battery voltage sampling module gained, cross and supplement OC, excess temperature value OT with money, judge whether to satisfy: OV>V* (1+ppm%*T), OC<V* (1+ppm%*T), OT>T wherein crosses the value of putting OV, crosses and supplement the electrical specifications setting that OC, excess temperature value OT are recommended according to battery manufacturer with money;
Battery protection: when above-mentioned mistake put, overcharge, when the excess temperature condition is set up respectively, microcontroller 21 was sent discharge signal 5 to electric discharge device 7, cut off discharge; Send and overcharge signal 8 to charging device 9 cut-out chargings; Then cut off charging dress transposition 9 and electric discharge device 7 when sending excess temperature signal 4 respectively.This management system system also comprises electric discharge device sampling module 27; reception is from the discharging current and the output voltage electric current 6 of electric discharge device 7; by sending again behind microprocessor 21 collection analysises; be used to detect the information of battery discharge status and the driving arrangement generation of battery discharge institute; when unusual, can turn-off or optimal control, with protection battery and protection equipment.
By digital interface magnitude of voltage, battery voltage, electric discharge device input current, output voltage, output current and the temperature information transfer of data of the cell that obtains from microcontroller 21 outer reasons are arrived display alarm memory module 3, record also shows.Memory module 3 usefulness surpass the mass storage of 2G, adopt compression function (just not preserving if be that adjacent two values are identical) simultaneously, and record data were reached more than 10 years.
Can expand more multimode by bus expansion interface 2, as module 111, module N 12, and each module comprises other battery strings of expansion, the value from module is passed to primary module realize battery status monitoring display and battery data storage.
Above embodiment only is used for explanation but does not limit the present invention.The present invention also has various deformation and improvement within the scope of the claims.Simple, the equivalence that every foundation claims of the present invention and description are done changes and modifies, and all falls into the claim protection range of patent of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a lithium ion battery management system is characterized in that, comprising:
A plurality of battery voltage sampling modules, the magnitude of voltage V of each cell in the measurement battery module in each battery strings;
The temperature sampling module is measured the temperature value T of described battery module;
Microcontroller receives the magnitude of voltage V of described each cell that described battery voltage sampling module records and the temperature value T of the battery module that the temperature sampling module records, and judging needs balanced cell;
PWM charge controller and a plurality of balanced gating control module are subjected to described microprocessor controls to need balanced cell to carry out energy transfer equilibrium to described.
2. the system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the voltage of described each battery strings is input to described microcontroller by electric resistance partial pressure.
3. the system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, this system also comprises the isolating transformer that is arranged between described PWM charge controller and a plurality of balanced gating control module.
4. the system as claimed in claim 1; it is characterized in that; this system also comprises the over-charge protective module; satisfying when overcharging condition; described microprocessor is sent and is overcharged signal to charging device cut-out charging; the described condition of overcharging is OC<V* (1+ppm%*T), and wherein OC supplements with money for the mistake of supposition, and ppm% is the battery temperature coefficient.
5. the system as claimed in claim 1; it is characterized in that; this system also comprised puts protection module; satisfying when putting condition; described microprocessor was sent discharge signal and was cut off discharge to electric discharge device; the described mistake condition of putting is OV>V* (1+ppm%*T), and wherein OV is mistake value of putting of supposition, and ppm% is the battery temperature coefficient.
6. the system as claimed in claim 1; it is characterized in that; this system also comprises the overheat protector module; when satisfying the excess temperature condition; described microprocessor is sent the excess temperature signal and is cut off charge and discharge respectively to charging device and electric discharge device; described excess temperature condition is OT>T, and wherein OT is the excess temperature value of supposition.
7. the system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, this system comprises that also reception is from the discharging current and the output voltage electric current of electric discharge device and be sent to the electric discharge device sampling module of described microprocessor.
8. the system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, this system also comprises the display alarm memory module, and it receives data from described microcontroller with storage and show by digital interface.
9. system as claimed in claim 8 is characterized in that, described display alarm memory module is stored described data with compress mode.
10. the system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, this system comprises that also the bus expansion interface that links to each other with described microcontroller is to expand more battery modules by bus mode.
CN201110028753XA 2011-01-26 2011-01-26 Lithium ion battery management system Pending CN102122832A (en)

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PCT/CN2011/079416 WO2012100540A1 (en) 2011-01-26 2011-09-07 Lithium ion battery management system

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CN102412614A (en) * 2011-12-31 2012-04-11 耿直 Boost grouping method of storage battery module and boost grouping controller of storage battery module
CN102975630A (en) * 2011-09-05 2013-03-20 三洋电机株式会社 Power supply apparatus for vehicle and vehicle provided with same
CN103390909A (en) * 2012-05-09 2013-11-13 北汽福田汽车股份有限公司 System and method for equalizing cell
CN103809490A (en) * 2012-11-02 2014-05-21 亚德诺半导体技术公司 System And Method To Reduce Data Handling On Lithium Ion Battery Monitors
CN105762895A (en) * 2016-05-13 2016-07-13 杭州士兰微电子股份有限公司 Battery management system and battery management method
CN106921204A (en) * 2017-05-15 2017-07-04 四川长虹电器股份有限公司 Low-speed electronic car lithium ion battery charge-discharge protection circuit
CN107834519A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-23 莱克电气股份有限公司 Li-ion cell protection controls asic chip system

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102975630A (en) * 2011-09-05 2013-03-20 三洋电机株式会社 Power supply apparatus for vehicle and vehicle provided with same
CN102412614A (en) * 2011-12-31 2012-04-11 耿直 Boost grouping method of storage battery module and boost grouping controller of storage battery module
CN102412614B (en) * 2011-12-31 2013-07-03 耿直 Boost grouping method of storage battery module and boost grouping controller of storage battery module
CN103390909A (en) * 2012-05-09 2013-11-13 北汽福田汽车股份有限公司 System and method for equalizing cell
CN103390909B (en) * 2012-05-09 2015-09-09 北汽福田汽车股份有限公司 The equalizing system of battery and method
CN103809490A (en) * 2012-11-02 2014-05-21 亚德诺半导体技术公司 System And Method To Reduce Data Handling On Lithium Ion Battery Monitors
CN103809490B (en) * 2012-11-02 2017-01-18 亚德诺半导体集团 System And Method To Reduce Data Handling On Lithium Ion Battery Monitors
CN105762895A (en) * 2016-05-13 2016-07-13 杭州士兰微电子股份有限公司 Battery management system and battery management method
CN106921204A (en) * 2017-05-15 2017-07-04 四川长虹电器股份有限公司 Low-speed electronic car lithium ion battery charge-discharge protection circuit
CN107834519A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-23 莱克电气股份有限公司 Li-ion cell protection controls asic chip system

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Application publication date: 20110713