CN102102586B - 一种高峰负荷发电装置 - Google Patents

一种高峰负荷发电装置 Download PDF

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CN102102586B
CN102102586B CN2010101948287A CN201010194828A CN102102586B CN 102102586 B CN102102586 B CN 102102586B CN 2010101948287 A CN2010101948287 A CN 2010101948287A CN 201010194828 A CN201010194828 A CN 201010194828A CN 102102586 B CN102102586 B CN 102102586B
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CN102102586A (zh
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丁玉龙
李永亮
金翼
陈海生
谭春青
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丁玉龙
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
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    • F25J3/04521Coupling of the air fractionation unit to an air gas-consuming unit, so-called integrated processes
    • F25J3/04527Integration with an oxygen consuming unit, e.g. glass facility, waste incineration or oxygen based processes in general
    • F25J3/04533Integration with an oxygen consuming unit, e.g. glass facility, waste incineration or oxygen based processes in general for the direct combustion of fuels in a power plant, so-called "oxyfuel combustion"
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    • F25J3/04769Operation, control and regulation of the process; Instrumentation within the process
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    • F25J2260/42Integration in an installation using nitrogen, e.g. as utility gas, for inerting or purging purposes in IGCC, POX, GTL, PSA, float glass forming, incineration processes, for heat recovery or for enhanced oil recovery
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种高峰负荷发电装置,包括发电机(1)、空分及液化设备(2)、高压储气罐(3)、低温储液罐(4)、燃气透平(5)、高压透平(6)、低压透平(7)、三级式多通道热交换装置、甲烷压缩机(8)、燃烧室(9)、低温泵(10),氦气压缩机(11),本发明结构简单、合理紧凑,通过将深冷储能技术与传统的以天然气为燃料的发电系统的有效集成,克服了现有技术的诸多缺点,可以有效回收低谷段的过量负荷并减少高峰段的燃料需求量,实现了高品位冷能和低品位余热的高效回收和利用,并且能够高效地捕捉和存储高峰负荷设备所产生的二氧化碳,以减少对环境污染的优点。

Description

一种高峰负荷发电装置
技术领域
本发明涉及电力行业,具体地,涉及一种高峰负荷发电装置。
背景技术
与其它商品的生产消费链不同,电力行业中鲜有大型的储存阶段,因而电力行业的供需平衡一直是困扰其发展的重要难题。虽然大型的抽水电站和压缩空气储能技术可成功地调节这种供需平衡,但是由于他们的应用受限于特殊的地理环境及建设周期等,因而还远远不能满足应用于目前储电负荷的需求。
现有技术中,通常在以火电或核电为主的电网生产端会配套建立一定负荷的高峰发电装置用以调节电能产出量。在这样的系统中火电或核电连续运行并生产平均负荷,当用户端需求高于平均负荷时,以石油或天然气为燃料的高峰发电装置开启并提供所需的差额负荷。作为一种柔性复合式发电技术该系统虽然能够调节供需平衡,但亦有其内在缺陷:其一是在需求量低于平均负荷的低谷段容易造成多余电能的浪费或火电系统亚负荷运行带来的设备磨损和严重的污染物排放;其二是高峰发电装置的高闲置率会降低整体经济效益;其三是石油或天然气等高成本燃料会提高整体发电成本。因此寻求一种节能环保,方便实用的电能储存技术迫在眉睫。
发明内容
本发明的目的在于,针对上述问题,提出一种高峰负荷发电装置,以实现大大降低高峰负荷燃料需求量,并且能够有效地捕捉尾气中的二氧化碳,以减少对环境污染的优点。
为实现上述目的,本发明采用的技术方案是:
一种高峰负荷发电装置,包括发电机、空分及液化设备、高压储气罐、低温储液罐、燃气透平、高压透平、低压透平、三级式多通道热交换装置、甲烷压缩机、氦气压缩机、燃烧室、低温泵,
所述燃烧室通过管线分别与甲烷压缩机、三级式多通道热交换装置、高压储气罐、燃气透平相连接;
所述空分及液化设备分别与高压储气罐和低温储液罐相连接,所述空分及液化设备所生产的氧气和液氮分别被存储于高压储气罐、低温储液罐中;
所述三级式多通道热交换装置包括:第一换热器、第二换热器、第三换热器、冷凝器、二氧化碳分离器,所述第一换热器、第二换热器、第三换热器顺序连接形成一条通路;所述第一换热器、冷凝器、第二换热器、二氧化碳分离器、第三换热器顺序连接形成另一条通路,燃气尾气中的水蒸气首先液化,在冷凝器中吸收和分离,随着温度的继续下降气态的二氧化碳将凝华为固态的干冰于二氧化碳分离器中分离;
所述第一换热器分别与高压透平、低压透平、燃烧室、燃气透平相连接;所述第三换热器分别与氦气压缩机、低温储液罐连接;所述第三换热器和低温储液罐之间设置有低温泵。
进一步地,进入燃气透平中的高温燃气中均匀的混合有氦气,性质稳定的氦气被用作循环工质和纯氧燃烧的掺混剂以降低燃气透平机的入口温度,同时氦气良好的绝热压缩和膨胀性能能够使动力循环的最高工作压力大大降低,并由此降低透平机叶片的生产和制造难度。
进一步地,所述高压储气罐与燃烧室之间装有压力调节装置。
进一步地,高峰负荷发电装置的使用方法是:在负荷低谷时段,利用基载设备所产生的过量负荷,带动空分及液化设备进行空气的分离和液化,产生的氧气和液氮被分别储存于高压储气罐和低温储液罐内,达到储能目的;
在负荷高峰时,将储存于高压储气罐的氧气导入天然气为燃料的高峰负荷设备,以实现纯氧燃烧,储存于低温储液罐内的液氮则用于冷却燃气透平的尾气,以此达到分离尾气产物的目的,降低高峰负荷设备动力循环压气机功耗,并充分回收动力循环余热的目的。
所述空分及液化设备中除氧气和氮气以外的气体,可作为成熟商品用于其它用途或直接销售。
有益效果:
本发明一种高峰负荷发电装置结构简单、合理、紧凑,通过将深冷储能技术与传统的以天然气为燃料的发电系统的有效集成,克服了现有技术的诸多缺点,可以有效回收低谷段的过量负荷并减少高峰段的燃料需求量,实现了高品位冷能和低品位余热的高效回收和利用,并且能够高效地捕捉和存储高峰负荷设备所产生的二氧化碳,以减少对环境污染的优点。
附图说明
附图用来提供对本发明的进一步理解,并且构成说明书的一部分,与本发明的实施例一起用于解释本发明,并不构成对本发明的限制。在附图中:
图1 为本发明高峰负荷发电装置的结构示意图;
结合附图,本发明实施例中附图标记如下:
1- 发电机;2- 空分及液化设备;3- 高压储气罐;4- 低温储液罐;5- 燃气透平;6- 高压透平;7- 低压透平;8- 甲烷压缩机;9- 燃烧室;10- 低温泵;11- 氦气压缩机;12- 第一换热器;13- 第二换热器;14- 第三换热器;15- 冷凝器;16- 二氧化碳分离器。
具体实施方式
以下结合附图对本发明的优选实施例进行说明,应当理解,此处所描述的优选实施例仅用于说明和解释本发明,并不用于限定本发明。
图1为本发明的实施例示意图,由图可见,高峰负荷发电装置,包括发电机1、空分及液化设备2、高压储气罐3、低温储液罐4、燃气透平5、高压透平6、低压透平7、三级式多通道热交换装置、压缩机8、燃烧室9、低温泵10,氦气压缩机11,
燃烧室9 通过管线分别与甲烷压缩机8、三级式多通道热交换装置、高压储气罐3、燃气透平5 相连接,高压储气罐3 与燃烧室9 之间装有压力调节装置;空分及液化设备2 分别与高压储气罐3、低温储液罐4 相连接,空分及液化设备所生产的氧气和液氮分别被存储于高压储气罐3、低温储液罐4 中;三级式多通道热交换装置包括:第一换热器12、第二换热器13、第三换热器14、冷凝器15、二氧化碳分离器16,第一换热器12、第二热器13、第三换热器14 顺序连接形成一条通路;所述第一换热器12、冷凝器15、第二换热器13、二氧化碳分离器16、第三换热器14 顺序连接形成另一条通路,燃气尾气中的水蒸气首先液化,在冷凝器15 中吸收和分离,随着温度的继续下降气态的二氧化碳将凝华为固态的干冰于二氧化碳分离器16 中分离;
第一换热器12 分别与高压透平6、低压透平7、燃烧室9、燃气透平5 相连接;第三换热器14 分别与氦气压缩机11、低温储液罐4 连接;第三换热器14 和低温储液罐4 之间设置有低温泵10。
进入燃气透平5 中的高温燃气中均匀的混合有氦气,性质稳定的氦气被用作循环工质和纯氧燃烧的掺混剂以降低透平机的入口温度,同时氦气良好的绝热压缩和膨胀性能能够使动力循环的最高工作压力大大降低,并由此降低透平机叶片的生产和制造难度。
空分及液化设备2 中除氧气和氮气以外的气体,可作为成熟商品用于其它用途或直接销售。
工作方法:
在低谷时段,高峰发电装置处于关机状态,由基载设备所产生的过量负荷被用于空气的分离和液化。这一过程可由空分及液化设备2 完成,其所生产的氧气和液氮被储存于高压储气罐3 和低温储液罐4 中。空分中的其他副产品如稀有气体氩气等可被当作成熟商品用于其它用途或直接销售。
高峰时段,空分及液化设备2 处于关机状态而高峰发电装置的工作过程如下。天然气燃料( 如果出口为常压或低于工作压力下) 首先通过甲烷压缩机8 被压缩至工作压力并与调节至工作压力的低谷段存储的氧气按照完全燃烧的比例混合并被导入燃烧室9 中燃烧。由于是纯氧燃烧,其燃烧产物水蒸气和二氧化碳的温度将远高于燃气透平5 的极限温度值。为了降低燃气的温度使其满足透平入口的要求,一定量的氦气被导入至高温燃气中并与之均匀混合至其温度略低于燃气透平的极限温度值。之后混合气体被导入燃气透平5 中驱动叶片旋转做功并带动与之相连的发电机1 发电。高温低压的燃气透平尾气将依次通过第一换热器12,第二换热器13,和第三换热器14 以回收其余热并分离各产物。在低谷段生产并储存的液氮经低温泵10 升压后作为换热器的低温流体依次通过第三换热器14,第二换热器13 和第一换热器12。在这个换热过程中,燃气尾气中的水蒸气首先液化并被安装于第一换热器12 和第二换热器13 之间的冷凝器15 吸收和分离。随着温度的继续下降气态的二氧化碳将凝华为固态的干冰并被安装于第二换热器13 和第三换热器14 之间的二氧化碳分离器16 分离。剩余的燃气产物氦气将通过第三换热器14 进一步过冷至极低温并被导入氦气压气机(11) 中压缩至工作压力。高压的氦气将依次通过第二换热器13 和第一换热器12 预热并导入燃烧室9 与燃气掺混以实现其闭口循环。
如上所述,低谷段存储的液氮在高峰段首先通过低温泵10 升压至极高的工作压力,之后依次通过第三换热器14,第二换热器13 和第一换热器12 以回收其低温冷并预热,之后高温高压的氮气将依次驱动高压透平6 和低压透平7 旋转并带动电动机1 发电。在两级透平之间氮气将被导入第一换热器12 中进行回热。低压透平7 出口的氮气将被用于空分设备中干燥剂的除湿和再生。
总之,该发明的高峰发电系统由一个以氦气,二氧化碳和水蒸气的混合气体为工质的闭口燃气循环和一个以氮气为工质的开口循环组成。
闭口循环的工作过程为:燃烧室9- →燃气透平5- →第一换热器12- →冷凝器15- →第二换热器13- →二氧化碳分离器16- →第三换热器14- →氦气压缩机11- →第三换热器14- →第二换热器13- →第一换热器12- →燃烧室9。
开口循环的工作过程为:低温储液罐4- →低温泵10- →第三换热器14- →第二换热器13- →第一换热器12- →高压透平6- →第一换热器12- →低压透平7- →空分设备干燥器。
最后应说明的是:以上所述仅为本发明的优选实施例而已,并不用于限制本发明,尽管参照前述实施例对本发明进行了详细的说明,对于本领域的技术人员来说,其依然可以对前述各实施例所记载的技术方案进行修改,或者对其中部分技术特征进行等同替换。凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,所作的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。

Claims (4)

1.一种高峰负荷发电装置,其特征在于,包括发电机(1)、空分及液化设备(2)、高压储气罐(3)、低温储液罐(4)、燃气透平(5)、高压透平(6)、低压透平(7)、三级式多通道热交换装置、甲烷压缩机(8)、燃烧室(9)、低温泵(10),氦气压缩机(11),
所述燃烧室(9)通过管线分别与甲烷压缩机(8)、三级式多通道热交换装置、高压储气罐(3)、燃气透平(5)相连接;
所述空分及液化设备(2)分别与高压储气罐(3)、低温储液罐(4)相连接;
所述三级式多通道热交换装置包括:第一换热器(12)、第二换热器(13)、第三换热器(14)、冷凝器(15)、二氧化碳分离器(16),所述第一换热器(12)、第二换热器(13)、第三换热器(14)顺序连接形成一条通路;所述第一换热器(12)、冷凝器(15)、第二换热器(13)、二氧化碳分离器(16)、第三换热器(14)顺序连接形成另一条通路;
所述第一换热器(12)分别与高压透平(6)、低压透平(7)、燃烧室(9)、燃气透平(5)相连接;所述第三换热器(14)分别与氦气压缩机(11)、低温储液罐(4)连接;所述第三换热器(13)和低温储液罐(4)之间设置有低温泵(10)。
2.根据权利要求1所述的高峰负荷发电装置,其特征在于,进入燃气透平(5)中的高温燃气中均匀的混合有氦气。
3.根据权利要求1所述的高峰负荷发电装置,其特征在于,所述高压储气罐(3)与燃烧室(9)之间装有压力调节装置。
4.根据权利要求1或2所述的高峰负荷发电装置,其特征在于,使用方法是:在负荷低谷时段,利用基载设备所产生的过量负荷,带动空分及液化设备(2)进行空气的分离和液化,产生的氧气和液氮被分别储存于高压储气罐(3)和低温储液罐(4)内;
在负荷高峰时,将储存于高压储气罐(3)内的氧气导入以天然气为燃料的高峰负荷设备,以实现纯氧燃烧,储存于低温储液罐(4)内的液氮则用于冷却燃气透平(5)的尾气。
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