CN102081168B - Method for improving surface wave attenuation performance in seismic data processing - Google Patents

Method for improving surface wave attenuation performance in seismic data processing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102081168B
CN102081168B CN2009102413953A CN200910241395A CN102081168B CN 102081168 B CN102081168 B CN 102081168B CN 2009102413953 A CN2009102413953 A CN 2009102413953A CN 200910241395 A CN200910241395 A CN 200910241395A CN 102081168 B CN102081168 B CN 102081168B
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China
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ground roll
surface wave
apparent velocity
seismic trace
point
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CN2009102413953A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102081168A (en
Inventor
熊定钰
赵波
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中国石油天然气集团公司
中国石油集团东方地球物理勘探有限责任公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for improving a seismic processing signal to noise ratio and resolution ratio for geophysical exploration seismic data processing, comprising: determining the apparent velocity of the surface wave according to a single shot record; carrying out small time window and space window division on the single-shot seismic record data; carrying out linear energy dip angle scanning on the divided space window; selecting the dig angle of the strongest linear energy; when the speed corresponding to the line of the maximum value of the amplitude quadratic sum is between the maximum apparent velocity and the minimum apparent velocity of the surface wave, attenuating because of determining as the surface wave; and otherwise, carrying no attenuation because of determining as the effective signal. The linear energy scanning method favorably separates the surface wave and the effective signal, and then the surface wave is attenuated to protect the effective signal; meanwhile, the purpose of improving the signal to noise ratio and the resolution ratio in the seismic data processing can be realized; and surface wave attenuation performance is improved.

Description

A kind of method that improves surface wave attenuation performance in the geological data processing

Technical field

The present invention relates to geophysical exploration technology, is to improve the method that geological data is handled signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution during a kind of physical prospecting geological data is handled.

Background technology

In the physical prospecting seismic data processing technology; Surface wave attenuation is the important step during geological data is handled; Also be the important measures that improve geological data signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution, the surface wave attenuation method of using at present mainly is to adopt the method for high-pass filtering that the ground roll that local distributes is decayed.The cardinal principle of this high-pass filtering surface wave attenuation method is according to the lower characteristics of earthquake data surface wave frequency; General earthquake data surface wave frequency all concentrates on about 10 hertz; And usable reflection geological data frequency is generally about 8 to 150 hertz; So just can design the Hi-pass filter more than 10 hertz, the geological data below 10 hertz is carried out attenuation filter according to the difference decay ground roll of ground roll and significant wave frequency distribution; Keep geological data composition more than 10 hertz, the ground roll energy just has been attenuated like this.This damped system is that single seismic trace ground roll is handled; Do not distinguish useful signal and ground roll during decay; In the decay ground roll, will be attenuated inevitably less than 10 hertz useful signal like this, this has limited the raising of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution during geological data is handled.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to provide a kind of surface wave attenuation method, and this method can be avoided the decay to useful signal in surface wave attenuation, thereby realizes the raising of geological data signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution.

Process of the present invention comprises following treatment step:

1) earthquake-wave-exciting and gather the single track geological data forms the big gun collection record in the geological data;

2) confirm the apparent velocity of ground roll according to single shot record;

Step 2) apparent velocity of described definite ground roll is to choose one section ground roll lineups; Be the hypotenuse of right-angle triangle with the ground roll lineups simultaneously; Geophone offset with last seismic trace place of this section ground roll deducts the propagation distance of the geophone offset at first seismic trace place as ground roll then; The same time with last seismic trace place of this section ground roll deducts the travel-time of the time at first seismic trace place as ground roll, and ground roll passes distance obtains ground roll divided by the time apparent velocity.

3) single big gun seismologic record data are carried out little time window and spatial window division;

It is that time window is got 50 milliseconds that described time window of step 3 and spatial window are divided, and selects 5-10 seismic trace on the space.

4) carry out the linear energy The dip sweep to having divided spatial window, select the inclination angle of linear energy the most by force;

The The dip sweep of step 4) is that the maximum time sampling point with first seismic trace of spatial window is the point of rotation; Be made as the O point, any one sampling point B on last seismic trace is linked to be straight line OB with the O point in the spatial window; B forms a projection C point at the bottom of time window; This subpoint and O point form straight line OC, and the angle of establishing OB and OC is Q, establish again B to time of C apart from representing be T; Calculating the surface wave speed that ground roll propagates on the OB straight line is: V=OB*COS (Q)/T; Calculate amplitude quadratic sum then through all sampling points of OB this straight line, calculate according to the method described above last seismic trace of spatial window have a few and O point line the amplitude quadratic sum of sample value of process, search out the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum then.

5) when the size of the corresponding speed V of the peaked straight line of amplitude quadratic sum in step 2) distribution between the maximum apparent velocity of determined ground roll and the minimum apparent velocity, affirmation is a ground roll, need be attenuated, otherwise be useful signal, does not need to decay;

6) according to the result of step 5), carry out surface wave attenuation with the method for high-pass filtering, can avoid decay simultaneously, thereby realize the raising of geological data signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution useful signal along geological data on the pairing straight line of the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum.

The present invention is through the linear energy method for scanning; Well separate ground roll with useful signal, then ground roll is decayed, finally realized protection useful signal; Having reached geological data simultaneously improves noise in handling and than the purpose of resolution, has improved the surface wave attenuation performance.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the original earthquake data single shot record;

Fig. 2 the present invention has carried out the single shot record after the surface wave attenuation to Fig. 1.

Embodiment

The method of surface wave attenuation performance during raising geological data of the present invention is handled through open-air earthquake data acquisition, forms the big gun collection record in the geological data; According to this big gun collection record, our roughly eye estimate apparent velocity scope is then according to the visual observation ground roll apparent velocity scope that accurate Calculation is concrete again; The general apparent velocity scope that requires to be slightly larger than true ground roll of this velocity range is carried out very little time window to single big gun seismologic record data then and spatial window is divided, if ground roll is more weak; And disperse severe, so time window choose can select a little bit smaller, as 50 milliseconds; Select also corresponding a little bit smallerly on the space, can select 5 seismic traces, if the ground roll energy is more intense; And energy is more concentrated, and time window is chosen and can be selected more so, as 100 milliseconds; Select also greatly correspondingly on the space, can select 9 seismic traces.Spatial window to having divided carries out the linear energy The dip sweep; Select the inclination angle of the strongest linear energy,, then think ground roll if the inclination angle of strong linear energy is just in time in the distribution range between maximum apparent velocity and minimum apparent velocity; So extract the earthquake sampling point data of ground roll lineups; With high-pass filtering the sampling point data that extract are carried out surface wave attenuation, so just reached the purpose of decay ground roll, improved the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the resolution of geological data simultaneously.

The concrete implementation procedure of the present invention comprises following treatment step:

1) gathers the single track geological data, form the big gun collection record in the geological data, like Fig. 1;

2) the roughly apparent velocity scope according to single shot record Fig. 1 calculating and acquisition ground roll is that this velocity range of 800 metre per second (m/s)s-2200 metre per second (m/s) is generally bigger than ground roll apparent velocity scope;

Ground roll is constantly decay in communication process; The ground roll apparent velocity is unstable; The estimated apparent velocity of step 2 is the apparent velocity of strong ground roll just, and the present invention need be that the center provides a float value and confirms ground roll maximum apparent velocity and minimum apparent velocity at the surface wave speed that estimates with step 2.

As: step 2 estimates that the surface wave speed that comes out is 1000 a meters/per second; At this moment need provide 300 meters/per second of a float value; The present invention can confirm that the maximum apparent velocity of ground roll is 1000 meters/per second+300 meter/per second=1300 meter/per second so, and minimum apparent velocity is 1000 meters/per second-300 meter/per second=700 meter/per second.The distribution range that can conveniently confirm the ground roll apparent velocity like this is 700 meters/per second to 1300 meter/per second.

3) then single big gun seismologic record data are carried out very little time window and spatial window division, Fig. 1 ground roll is strong, not too disperses, and time window can be located 100 milliseconds, can select 9 seismic traces on the space;

4) carrying out the linear energy The dip sweep to having divided spatial window, is the point of rotation with the maximum time sampling point of first seismic trace of spatial window, is made as the O point; Any one sampling point B on last seismic trace in the spatial window; Be linked to be straight line OB with the O point, B forms a projection C point at the bottom of time window, and this subpoint and O point form straight line OC; If the angle of OB and OC is Q; Establishing B again is T to time of the distance expression of C, and can calculate the surface wave speed that ground roll propagates so be on this straight line of OB: V=OB*COS (Q)/T calculates the amplitude quadratic sum through all sampling points of this straight line of OB then; By same method calculate last seismic trace of spatial window have a few and O point line the amplitude quadratic sum of sample value of process, search out the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum then;

5) if in the distribution range of size between maximum apparent velocity of the determined ground roll of step 3) and minimum apparent velocity of the speed V of the peaked straight line correspondence of this amplitude quadratic sum; Then think ground roll; Need be attenuated, otherwise be useful signal, not need decay;

6) owing to ground roll is separated with useful signal well; At this moment carrying out surface wave attenuation with the method for high-pass filtering, so just reached and not only decayed ground roll simultaneously but also protected the purpose of useful signal along geological data on the pairing straight line of the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum;

Embodiment 1 is the process that the method for surface wave attenuation performance applied to actual earthquake data sheet big gun record during raising geological data of the present invention was handled, and Fig. 1 is that original earthquake data single shot record: Fig. 2 has carried out the single shot record after the surface wave attenuation to Fig. 1.Is 800 meter per seconds-2200 meter per seconds to Fig. 1 single shot record through calculating the surface wave speed approximate range, and the ground roll energy is stronger relatively, and more concentrated, so time window has been selected 100 milliseconds, the space seismic trace is selected 9 seismic traces.

Can see that from Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 comparative analysis the ground roll among Fig. 1 is had letter to imitate decay, and the lineups of useful signal are very fuzzy in Fig. 1, but but very clear among the Fig. 2 after ground roll is attenuated.The present invention carries out the method for surface wave attenuation along the ground roll lineups huge superiority is to improve the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the resolution of geological data, but also can avoid useful signal to be attenuated.

Claims (2)

  1. One kind improve geological data handle in the method for surface wave attenuation performance, it is characterized in that: comprise following treatment step:
    1) earthquake-wave-exciting and gather the single track geological data forms the big gun collection record in the geological data;
    2) confirm the apparent velocity of ground roll according to single shot record;
    The apparent velocity of described definite ground roll is to choose one section ground roll lineups; Be the hypotenuse of right-angle triangle with the ground roll lineups simultaneously; Geophone offset with last seismic trace place of this section ground roll deducts the propagation distance of the geophone offset at first seismic trace place as ground roll then; The same time with last seismic trace place of this section ground roll deducts the travel-time of the time at first seismic trace place as ground roll, and the surface wave propagation distance obtains the apparent velocity of ground roll divided by the time;
    3) single big gun seismologic record data are carried out little time window and spatial window division;
    4) ready-portioned spatial window is carried out the linear energy The dip sweep, select the inclination angle of linear energy the most by force;
    The dip sweep is that the maximum time sampling point with first seismic trace of spatial window is the point of rotation; Be made as the O point, any one sampling point B on last seismic trace is linked to be straight line OB with the O point in the spatial window; B forms a projection C point at the bottom of time window; This subpoint and O point form straight line OC, and the angle of establishing OB and OC is Q, establish again B to time of C apart from representing be T; Calculating the surface wave speed that ground roll propagates on the OB straight line is: V=OB*COS (Q)/T; Calculate amplitude quadratic sum then through all sampling points of OB this straight line, calculate according to the method described above last seismic trace of spatial window have a few and O point line the amplitude quadratic sum of sample value of process, search out the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum then;
    5) when the size of the corresponding speed V of the peaked straight line of amplitude quadratic sum in step 2) distribution between the maximum apparent velocity of determined ground roll and the minimum apparent velocity, affirmation is a ground roll, need be attenuated, otherwise be useful signal, does not need to decay;
    6) according to the result of step 5), carry out surface wave attenuation with the method for high-pass filtering, can avoid decay simultaneously, thereby realize the raising of geological data signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution useful signal along geological data on the pairing straight line of the maximal value of amplitude quadratic sum.
  2. 2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that it is that time window is got 50 milliseconds that described time window of step 3) and spatial window are divided, and selects 5-10 seismic trace on the space.
CN2009102413953A 2009-12-01 2009-12-01 Method for improving surface wave attenuation performance in seismic data processing CN102081168B (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103091714B (en) * 2011-10-28 2015-11-18 中国石油化工股份有限公司 A kind of self-adaptation surface wave attenuation method
CN103217709B (en) * 2012-01-18 2015-09-23 中国石油天然气集团公司 A kind of surface wave attenuation method improving geological data signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and resolution
CN104570115B (en) * 2013-10-16 2017-03-08 中国石油天然气集团公司 A kind of surface wave attenuation method and device
CN104330826A (en) * 2014-07-31 2015-02-04 中国石油化工股份有限公司 A method for removing various noises under the condition of complex surface
CN104199104B (en) * 2014-08-15 2017-03-08 中国石油天然气集团公司 3D seismic data surface wave attenuation method and device
CN105242309B (en) * 2015-10-19 2017-11-10 中国石油天然气集团公司 The drawing method and device of rule interference in a kind of geological data

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US5521881A (en) * 1994-09-02 1996-05-28 Exxon Production Research Company Method of processing seismic data having multiple reflection noise
CN1215424C (en) * 2002-03-26 2005-08-17 周熙襄 Handling method for eliminating strong correlated interference waves in seismic exploration recordings

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5521881A (en) * 1994-09-02 1996-05-28 Exxon Production Research Company Method of processing seismic data having multiple reflection noise
CN1215424C (en) * 2002-03-26 2005-08-17 周熙襄 Handling method for eliminating strong correlated interference waves in seismic exploration recordings

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