A kind of wood-based plate and preparation method
The present invention relates to a kind of novel artificial plate and manufacturing approach thereof, relate in particular to a kind of structure, belong to wood-based plate and make the field with wooden directed recombination board and manufacturing approach thereof.
Wood-based panel industry is because the recyclability of timber resources; Substitute as solid wood; Have structure, performance designability and be superior to characteristics such as natural timber and keeping the impetus of high speed development always; Be part indispensable in the national economic development, have a wide range of applications in fields such as furniture manufacturing, packing, building and indoor and outdoor decorations.But the shortage of the forest reserves has had a strong impact on the supply of wood raw material, becomes the bottleneck of timber industry development.Add the protection of various countries to the environment and the forest reserves, the wood raw material price is risen steadily, many artificial board enterprises are because of insufficient raw material or cost of material is too high can't produce smoothly.Guarantee the sustainable and healthy development of wood-based panel industry; Must be in the innovation (as making the agricultural crop straw class become the Wood-based Panel Production raw material) of raw material; Improve or innovation existing artificial plate production technology; Improve the comprehensive utilization ratio of wood materials, especially make full use of felling residue, wood machining residues, bamboo wood and agricultural crop straw etc. and produce wood-based plate.
Existing artificial plate manufacturing technology; Mainly be the leftover bits that utilize fast growing wood, small dimension wood, brush wood, wood-processing industry, bamboo wood, agricultural crop straw etc.; Be processed into different units (veneer, wood shavings, fiber, wood bundle etc.) by various mechanical systems; It is auxiliary again that (various Wood Processing stick with glue agent with adhesive; Like PF, UF, MF, RF etc.), carry out compound reorganization through certain heat pressing process at last and process artificial boards such as glued board, particieboard, fiberboard, multilayer composite sheet, various reorganization wood.
Plate veneer unit is had relatively high expectations to the log quality, and along with timber is that the master is main transformation to utilizing artificial forest by utilizing wildwood, the footpath level of log constantly reduces, the continuous deterioration of material, and the single board utilization of timber has lost competitive advantage gradually.
The particieboard and the fiberboard that adopt wood shavings and fibre structure unit to produce; Be that the order of wood materials fiber natural alignment is all upset; Again permutation and combination is got up again; Product has lost the native texture of timber, and the especially vertically reductions such as mechanical property, nail-holding ability of part physical and mechanical property, has limited its scope of application.
Utilize wood bundle or wood to restraint the wooden recombined material that curtain structure unit manufacturability can be superior; The manufacturing approach of this material is; At first discongest the promptly wooden bundle of the composition construction unit of processing reorganization wood through one or more pairs of rollers of discongesting, then the wood bundle is processed reorganization wood through operations such as impregnation, drying, hot pressing from log is direct.This method keeps the mechanical property of wood materials itself to a certain extent; But the difference of each position material of timber exists knot, defective such as rotten, unavoidably in the process of discongesting; These defectives cause easily and fracture; Thereby reduced the volume recovery of wooden bundle, and wooden area of beam size, length, form, discongested degree varies, can cause that in follow-up applying glue operation applying glue is uneven; In drying process, can cause the moisture content skewness; In the operation of mating formation, can cause the inequality of mating formation, thereby cause a series of problems such as product warpage, distortion, jumping silk owing to the bulk density difference.Patent CN101357470 (a kind of reorganization wood and manufacturing approach thereof; Application number 200810114331.2) a kind of wooden preparation method of recombinating is disclosed; Process veneer or veneer strip through earlier log being carried out rotary-cut; Again this veneer is discongested wood bundle curtain or the wood bundle that forms point and/or wire crackle, then through impregnation, drying, hot-forming reorganization timber.This technology has solved the irregular problem of wooden bundle, but has adopted veneer as raw material, aspect production, exists the restriction of aspects such as big footpath level log shortage.
Therefore; How to overcome the prior art deficiency, seek a kind of raw material sources abundant, need not fine finishining, and Processes and apparatus is simple, investment is low; The method that can make full use of raw material again prepares high performance structural and uses artificial board, is the focus that we practitioner thinks deeply always.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of raw material sources and enrich, can make full use of raw material again, Processes and apparatus is simple, investment is low, can make the preparation method of high performance structural with wood-based plate, and the wood-based plate density that makes with this method is 0.6-2.5g/cm
3MOR (MOR) is 30-75MPa; Elastic modelling quantity MOE is 4.5-12GPa, and nail-holding ability 1200-2500N, thickness swelling rate are below 8%; Can be used as purposes such as building wooden frame, pin, template, platform floor, ornament materials, furniture woods, floor, and compression-molded structures material in irregular shape.
The preparation method of wood-based plate of the present invention comprises the steps:
Put into preparatory boiling pond to raw materials such as brush wood, the living intermediate cutting small dimension wood of speed, bamboo wood, agricultural crop straw, Wood Processing leftover bits, logs and carry out preparatory boiling, make raw material softening; Putting into dewaterer again dewaters; Dehydration back raw material is put into cavity charge containers and is carried out explosion treatment, spurts to receiving vessel after the raw material moment explosion; Raw material after the explosion is processed into the loose netted thick sheet unit of decide through pressing stranding equipment to press to rub with the hands, and the loose netted fiber of deciding the thick sheet unit is not destroyed at length direction, fiber is loose and staggered continuous on perpendicular to the fibre length direction; Nettedly decide the thick sheet unit and be dried to below the equilibrium moisture content loose, carry out applying glue, drying, directed assembly again; The hot repressing moulding promptly gets (being used to produce thin plate) behind the directed assembly; Or behind the directed assembly again cold moudling promptly get (being used to produce slab or compression-molded structures material in irregular shape).
Beneficial effect of the present invention: it is raw material that the present invention gives birth to intermediate cutting small dimension wood, bamboo wood, agricultural crop straw, Wood Processing leftover bits, log etc. with brush wood, speed, and raw material sources are very abundant, and raw material need not fine finishining, utilization ratio of raw materials almost 100%.Boiling in advance, dehydration, explosion treatment, applying glue, drying, directed assembly (mating formation), hot pressing, cold moudling etc. all belong to prior art.Explosion treatment is to handle in order to make raw material loose evenly, to be beneficial to press to rub with the hands.The wood-based plate density that makes is 0.6-2.5g/cm
3, MOR (MOR) is 30-75MPa, and elastic modelling quantity MOE is 4.5-12GPa, and nail-holding ability 1200-2500N, thickness swelling rate are below 8%, use wood-based plate for high performance structural, are that a kind of structure is with wooden directed recombination board.
Above-mentioned preparation method when steaming in advance, soaked 60-180 minute in 45 ℃-99 ℃ alkaline water, so that raw material is fully softening.
Above-mentioned preparation method during explosion treatment, handled 6-15 minute under 140-220 ℃, 0.5-2.5MPa pressure, and the moment explosion is spurted to receiving vessel then.In cavity charge containers; Hydrothermally make raw material such as timber plasticizing deliquescing, high steam fills in lumen, and the moment step-down can make fibrous raw material evenly separate fibre through the mode of explosion; In such temperature and pressure limit; Because the hydrothermal time is very short, the chemical constituent of wood fibre is constant basically, thereby can guarantee that fiber has the good mechanical performance.
Above-mentioned preparation method presses stranding equipment to comprise that at least one pair of is provided with the compression roller of helical form double wedge; The double wedge hand of spiral that partners on two compression rollers of compression roller is identical; Press when rubbing with the hands, the raw material after the explosion passes through between two compression rollers of every pair of compression roller respectively along the fibre length direction, so is used for adjusting the thickness of mesh sheets unit, and the sheet material unit is homogenized.Raw material after pressing stranding equipment with explosion is processed into thick surely loose mesh sheets unit, and the fiber of fixed thick loose mesh sheets unit is not destroyed at length direction, fiber is loose and staggered on perpendicular to the fibre length direction links to each other.In order strengthening the pressure of raw material to be rubbed with the hands effect, to press stranding equipment to comprise at least two pairs of compression rollers that are provided with the helical form double wedge; Gap between two compression rollers of a pair of compression roller that the raw material after the explosion passes through earlier greater than after pass through another to the gap between two compression rollers of compression roller; The a pair of compression roller that passes through earlier with after another double wedge hand of spiral of passing through to compression roller opposite, and fixed thick to compression roller to sheet material through last.So be used for adjusting the thickness of mesh sheets unit, and the sheet material unit is homogenized.
Above-mentioned preparation method, the thickness of loose mesh sheets unit is 0.5-15mm.
Above-mentioned preparation method stacks health to the sheet material after hot-forming.The purpose of stacking health be the moisture content at each position of sheet material is reached in the regular hour evenly and with the external environment wetting balance, make the stress in the sheet material obtain discharging simultaneously, reduce the defectives such as distortion, bending of sheet forming, thereby improve its quality stability.Stack the health technology and be existing mature technology.Adopt thermal reactor to put life in a suitable place to breed when selecting phenolic resins and modified resin thereof, resorcinol formaldehyde resin and modified resin thereof during applying glue for use; When selecting Lauxite and modified resin thereof or melamine resin and modified resin thereof during applying glue for use, adopt cold dome to put life in a suitable place to breed.
Above-mentioned preparation method during directed assembly, loose mesh sheets unit orienting spreading, and makes slab be sandwich construction; The machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit parallels, perpendicular or angled.Above-mentioned preparation method vertically is processed into more than the length 10cm along machine direction loose mesh sheets unit before applying glue, the core assembly usefulness that length is used to produce other sheet materials after collecting less than the loose mesh sheets unit of 10cm.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a process chart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is for pressing the sketch map (right view of a pair of compression roller among Fig. 4) of a pair of compression roller in the stranding equipment;
Fig. 3 is for pressing the sketch map (vertical views of the adjacent two pairs of compression rollers among Fig. 4) of the adjacent two pairs of compression rollers in the stranding equipment;
Fig. 4 is for pressing the sketch map of stranding equipment;
The directed assembly sketch map that Fig. 5 parallels for the machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit;
Fig. 6 is the perpendicular directed assembly sketch map of machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit;
Fig. 7 is the acutangulate directed assembly sketch map of machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit.
The specific embodiment
Further specify concrete characteristic of the present invention and technological means below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Embodiment: get different raw material and make wood-based plate (wooden directed recombination board)
Embodiment 1-3,7-9,13, the 14th produce the embodiment that approaches wood-based plate; Their overall manufacturing approach comprises that raw material steams in advance, sorting is rubbed and handled, blocks in dehydration, explosion, pressure with the hands, drying, applying glue (impregnation or spray glue), drying, directed assembly (mating formation), hot-forming, stack health, cutting edge, sanding, packing and put in storage, referring to Fig. 1.
Referring to Fig. 1, embodiment 4-6,10-12 are the embodiment that produces thick wood-based plate, are with the difference of producing thin wood-based plate: replaced hot-forming and the stacking health with cold moudling.
With different raw materials in the table 1, put into preparatory boiling pond, handle through the preparatory boiling of different soak times under the alkaline water different temperatures.Getting into dewaterer then dewaters.From raw material, squeeze to pump in the preparatory steaming pond after the alkaline water take off is then collected again again and recycle, whole preparatory steaming workshop section only need replenish clear water, and externally discharged waste water not.
Raw material after boiling is handled in advance gets in the cavity charge containers, under different temperature, pressure, handles different time, and the moment explosion is spurted to receiving vessel then.
The pressure of again raw material after the explosion being formed through four pairs of compression rollers that are provided with the helical form double wedge by the surface is rubbed equipment with the hands; Raw material is pressed the loose mesh sheets unit that is twisted into different-thickness; The fiber of this loose mesh sheets unit is not destroyed at length direction, and links to each other perpendicular to fiber on the machine direction is loose and staggered.
Press stranding equipment referring to Fig. 2-4, comprise from left to right four pairs of tactic compression rollers 1 (referring to Fig. 4).Referring to Fig. 2, two compression rollers 11,12 of the compression roller 1 that partners are arranged above and below, and leave adjustable gap T therebetween, are equipped with the identical helical form double wedge 2 of the hand of spiral with two compression roller outer peripheral faces of a pair of compression roller.Referring to Fig. 4, from left to right, the gap T of two compression rollers up and down of the compression roller that partners tapers off; And the thread rotary orientation of the helical form double wedge 2 of adjacent two pairs of compression rollers opposite (referring to Fig. 3).Press when rubbing with the hands; Raw material after the explosion from left to right passes through between two compression rollers of every pair of compression roller respectively along the fibre length direction; Progressively pressed to rub with the hands and discongested; Form the loose mesh sheets unit of fixed thickness after to compression roller through last, the fiber of loose mesh sheets unit is not destroyed at length direction, fiber is loose and staggered on perpendicular to the fibre length direction links to each other.
Then block sorting; Promptly be that loose mesh sheets unit vertically is processed into certain size along machine direction; More than the preferred length 10cm, so that the operation of subsequent group blank process, the core assembly usefulness that length is used to produce other sheet materials after collecting less than the loose mesh sheets unit of 10cm.
Again with loose mesh sheets unit dried to equilibrium moisture content, carry out applying glue and handle.The adhesive that is adopted is used glue for Wood Processing commonly used, like phenolic resins and modified resin adhesive, resorcinol formaldehyde resin and modified resin adhesive thereof, Lauxite and modified resin adhesive thereof or melamine resin and modified resin adhesive thereof etc.; Spray glue or impregnation mode are adopted in applying glue, and the impregnation mode also can adopt methods such as common impregnation, pressure glue dipping or vacuum pressed impregnation, is existing technology.
Dried loose mesh sheets unit more than the length 10cm is carried out directed assembly (mating formation) by certain machine direction.Directed assembly can be: referring to Fig. 5, the machine direction angle of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit is 0 ° (machine direction parallel orientation); Referring to Fig. 6, the machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit perpendicular (machine direction vertical orientation); Referring to Fig. 7, the machine direction of adjacent two-layer loose mesh sheets unit becomes greater than 0 ° and less than 90 ° acute angle (the machine direction acute angle is directed).
Behind the assembly, for the embodiment 1-3, the 7-9,13,14 that produce thin wood-based plate, be that the blank behind the assembly is placed hot-press equipment, different (hot pressing) pressure, hot pressing temperature, (hot pressing) dwell times carried out hot-press gluing in the employing table 2.Slab after the hot pressing adopts the form that cold dome is put or thermal reactor is put to carry out health respectively according to the kind difference of used adhesive.Adopt thermal reactor to put life in a suitable place to breed when selecting phenolic resins and modified resin thereof, resorcinol formaldehyde resin and modified resin thereof for use; When selecting Lauxite and modified resin thereof or melamine resin and modified resin thereof during applying glue for use, adopt cold dome to put life in a suitable place to breed.After stacking the good slab process cutting edge of health, sanding, promptly can be used as the finished product packing warehouse-in.
Behind the assembly, for the embodiment 4-6, the 10-12 that produce thick wood-based plate, be that the blank behind the assembly is placed the equipment of colding pressing, different (colding pressing) pressure and (colding pressing) dwell time glue together in the employing table 2.After slab process cutting edge after the cold moudling, the sanding, promptly can be used as the finished product packing warehouse-in.
Among the present invention, operations such as applying glue, drying, hot pressing, health, cutting edge, sanding, packing warehouse-in are existing technology.Alkaline water of the present invention is meant that mass percent concentration is the ammoniacal liquor of 3-5%.Fibrous raw material presses down shrinkage than undressed raw material height at same pressure after alkali lye is handled, can adopt lower pressure to obtain bigger compression ratio, and the fibrous raw material pressed sheet intensity that alkali lye was handled is significantly improved.
To various embodiment, the performance parameter of mensuration is seen table 2.
The invention has the advantages that raw material sources abundant, need not fine finishining, Processes and apparatus is simple, the cost of investment of founding the factory is low.With the sheet material that this method is made, have high-strength, high usage, advantage cheaply, can be used as purposes such as building wooden frame, pin, template, platform floor, ornament materials, furniture woods, floor, and compression-molded structures material in irregular shape etc.