CN101752455B - The method of manufacturing a solar cell - Google Patents

The method of manufacturing a solar cell Download PDF

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CN101752455B
CN101752455B CN 200810204622 CN200810204622A CN101752455B CN 101752455 B CN101752455 B CN 101752455B CN 200810204622 CN200810204622 CN 200810204622 CN 200810204622 A CN200810204622 A CN 200810204622A CN 101752455 B CN101752455 B CN 101752455B
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polysilicon layer
single crystal
solar cell
manufacturing
crystal substrate
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CN 200810204622
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CN101752455A (en )
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肖德元
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中芯国际集成电路制造(上海)有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/52Manufacturing of products or systems for producing renewable energy
    • Y02P70/521Photovoltaic generators

Abstract

本发明提供太阳能电池的制造方法,包括步骤:在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层;从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上注入氢离子,在所述单晶衬底内形成空洞;通过离子注入在所述多晶硅层内形成相互接触的P型多晶硅层和N型多晶硅层;在所述多晶硅层远离所述单晶衬底的一侧上形成第一电极;对所述单晶衬底和多晶硅层进行热退火;剥离所述单晶衬底;在剥离了单晶衬底的多晶硅层远离所述第一电极的一侧上形成第二电极结构。 The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a solar cell, comprising the steps of: depositing a polysilicon layer on a single crystal substrate; hydrogen ions are implanted from the side of the polysilicon layer on the single crystal substrate, a cavity formed in said monocrystalline substrate; by ion injection mutual contact formed in the polysilicon layer of the P type polysilicon layer and N-type polysilicon layer; away from the polysilicon layer is formed on a first electrode side of the single crystal substrate; and the single crystal substrate thermal annealing of the polysilicon layer; detaching the single crystal substrate; polysilicon layer on the single crystal substrate peeled away from the electrode structure is formed on the second side of the first electrode. 与现有技术相比,本发明将形成太阳能电池PN结的多晶硅层生长在单晶衬底上,由于晶格常数匹配更佳,因而生长出的多晶硅层中晶粒尺寸较大,可以提高太阳能电池的性能。 Compared with the prior art, the present invention is a solar cell polycrystalline silicon layer forming a PN junction polysilicon layer is grown on a single crystal substrate, since the lattice constant a better match, and thus the growth of larger crystal size, can be improved solar battery performance. 并且,单晶衬底可以剥离,因而可以降低制造成本。 Further, the single crystal substrate can be peeled off, it is possible to reduce the manufacturing cost.

Description

太阳能电池的制造方法 The method of manufacturing a solar cell

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本申请涉及半导体制造领域,尤其涉及太阳能电池的制造方法。 [0001] The present application relates to semiconductor manufacturing, and more particularly relates to a method of manufacturing a solar cell. 背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 鉴于常规能源供给的有限性和环保压力的增加,世界上许多国家掀起了开发和利用新能源的热潮。 [0002] In view of the increased environmental pressures and the limited supply of conventional energy, many countries in the world set off a boom in the development and utilization of new energy. 在新能源中,太阳能是一种清洁、无污染、取之不尽用之不竭的绿色能源, 世界各国对此都很重视并作了大量的研究,在能源日益紧缺的当今世界,太阳能具有非常广阔的发展前景。 In the new energy, the solar energy is a clean, non-polluting, inexhaustible supply of green energy, the world attach great importance to this and made a lot of research, in today's world of increasingly scarce energy, solar energy has very broad prospects for development.

[0003] 现有的太阳能电池单元的结构如图1所示。 Structure [0003] The conventional solar cell is shown in FIG. 半导体衬底100上具有轻掺杂的浅扩散区102,以及大小不同的重掺杂深扩散的沟槽106和110。 Having a shallow lightly-doped diffusion region 102, and different sizes of the heavily doped deep diffusion trenches 106 and 110 on the semiconductor substrate 100. 沟槽106和110中分别形成有金属材料104和108,用作发射极电极或者母线(Bus-Bar)。 Grooves 106 and 110 are formed with a metallic material 104 and 108 serving as the emitter electrode or a bus (Bus-Bar). 细的金属材料108作为发射极电极,收集PN结处由光生载流子所产生的电流;而粗的金属材料104不仅作为发射极电极, 收集PN结处由光生载流子所产生的电流,还作为太阳能电池单元对外输出电流的母线。 Thin metallic material 108 as the emitter electrode, a collector current at the PN junction by the photogenerated carriers generated; and thick metal material 104 only as an emitter electrode, a collector current at the PN junction by the photogenerated carriers generated, also as the bus external output current of the solar cell.

[0004] 现有技术中,生产太阳能电池模块主要采用硅材料作为衬底,包括单晶硅和多晶硅,可以用来吸收太阳光的光能并转化为电能。 [0004] In the prior art, the solar cell modules produced using silicon as a main substrate, comprising silicon and polysilicon, can be used to absorb light energy of sunlight into electricity. 但是,近些年随着半导体制造业的不断扩张,市场上的硅衬底材料供不应求,价格节节攀升。 However, in recent years, with the continuous expansion of semiconductor manufacturing, silicon substrate material on the market in short supply, prices continue to rise. 因此,太阳能电池的制造方法又由完全硅衬底转变为在玻璃上沉积多晶硅衬底的薄膜太阳能电池制造方法。 Therefore, the manufacturing method of the solar cell and the silicon substrate is completely converted by the thin-film solar cell manufacturing method for the polysilicon is deposited on a glass substrate. 例如,中国发明专利第2006101544M. 9号公开了一种在玻璃基板上沉积氢化非晶硅碳合金薄膜来制造太阳能电池的方法。 For example, Chinese patent of 2006101544M. 9 discloses a process for depositing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon alloy thin film on a glass substrate to manufacture a solar cell.

[0005] 但是,玻璃是非晶体,研究发现,由于晶格常数匹配(lattice constant match)的原因,在非硅衬底上很难形成较大的多晶硅晶粒,并且容易在晶粒间形成空隙。 [0005] However, amorphous glass, found, due to lattice constant matching (lattice constant match), it is difficult to form a larger polysilicon grains on a non-silicon substrate, and a void is easily formed in the grain. 这不利于提高太阳能电池的性能,例如太阳能转换效率的提高。 This does not help to improve the performance of solar cells, for example, to improve solar energy conversion efficiency. 通常先用LPCVD在衬底上沉积一层较薄的非晶硅层,再将这层非晶硅层退火,得到较大的晶粒,然后再在这层籽晶上沉积厚的多晶硅薄膜。 Usually first deposited on the substrate by LPCVD thin layer of the amorphous silicon layer, and then annealing the amorphous silicon layer this layer, to obtain larger grains, and then deposited on the polysilicon thin film thickness of this seed layer. 其效果当然比不上在单晶硅衬底上直接沉积多晶硅来得好。 Its effect is not as well polysilicon is deposited directly on a monocrystalline silicon substrate. 而如果又转回到利用单晶硅衬底,成本又太高。 And if they turn back to the use of single-crystal silicon substrate, costs are too high. 因此,如何既能通过增加多晶硅晶格尺寸来提高太阳能电池的性能,又能降低制造成本成为业界的一个难题。 Therefore, how to improve the performance of both the solar cell by increasing the size of the polycrystalline silicon lattice, but also reduce the manufacturing cost becomes a problem in the industry.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是如何既能通过增加多晶硅晶格尺寸来提高太阳能电池的性能,又能降低制造成本。 Problem to be solved by the invention [0006] This is not only how to improve the performance of the solar cell by increasing the size of the polycrystalline silicon lattice, but also reduce the manufacturing cost.

[0007] 为解决上述技术问题,本发明提供一种太阳能电池的制造方法,包括步骤:在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层;从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上进行离子注入,在所述单晶衬底内形成空洞;通过离子注入在所述多晶硅层内形成相互接触的P型多晶硅层和N型多晶硅层; 在所述多晶硅层远离所述单晶衬底的一侧上形成第一电极;对所述单晶衬底和多晶硅层进行热退火;剥离所述单晶衬底;在剥离了单晶衬底的多晶硅层远离所述第一电极的一侧上形成第二电极结构。 [0007] To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a method for manufacturing a solar cell, comprising the steps of: depositing a polysilicon layer on a single crystal substrate; ion implantation from one side of the single crystal substrate to a polycrystalline silicon layer, in the a cavity formed inside said monocrystalline substrate; P-type polycrystalline silicon layer and an N type polysilicon layer is formed in contact with each other by ion implantation of the polysilicon layer; forming a first polysilicon layer on the side away from the said single crystal substrate an electrode; the single crystal substrate and the polysilicon layer thermal annealing; detaching the single crystal substrate; a second electrode structure formed on one side of the polysilicon layer is peeled away from the first single crystal substrate electrode .

4[0008] 可选地,所述从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上进行离子注入的离子为氢离子和/或 4 [0008] Alternatively, the ions from the ion implantation to the side on a single crystal substrate, a polysilicon layer of hydrogen ions and / or

気1¾子。 Genki 1¾ child.

[0009] 可选地,所述热退火在氢气的氛围中进行。 [0009] Alternatively, the thermal annealing in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

[0010] 可选地,所述热退火的温度为300°C至900°C,热退火时间为10秒至60分钟。 [0010] Alternatively, the thermal annealing temperature of 300 ° C to 900 ° C, the thermal annealing time is 10 seconds to 60 minutes.

[0011] 可选地,所述热退火的温度为300°C至400°C,热退火时间为30秒至2分钟。 [0011] Alternatively, the thermal annealing temperature of 300 ° C to 400 ° C, thermal annealing for 30 seconds to 2 minutes.

[0012] 可选地,所述单晶衬底为单晶硅衬底。 [0012] Alternatively, the single crystal substrate is a single crystal silicon substrate.

[0013] 可选地,所述P型多晶硅层与单晶衬底接触。 [0013] Alternatively, the P type polysilicon layer in contact with the single crystal substrate.

[0014] 可选地,在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层的方法为物理气相沉积法。 [0014] Alternatively, a method of depositing a polysilicon layer on a single crystal substrate to a physical vapor deposition method.

[0015] 可选地,所述多晶硅层的厚度为Ιμπι至ΙΟμπι。 [0015] Alternatively, the polysilicon layer to a thickness of Ιμπι ΙΟμπι.

[0016] 可选地,所述空洞距离单晶衬底与多晶硅层界面为Inm至lOOnm。 [0016] Alternatively, the cavity from the single crystal substrate and the polysilicon layer interface Inm to lOOnm.

[0017] 可选地,注入氢离子的能量为800KeV至8MeV,剂量为lE15/cm2至lE17/cm2。 [0017] Alternatively, the hydrogen ion implantation energy of 800KeV to 8 MeV, dosage of lE15 / cm2 to lE17 / cm2.

[0018] 可选地,形成P型多晶硅层所注入的离子为硼离子或二氟化硼离子。 [0018] Alternatively, a P-type polysilicon layer is ion implanted boron ions or boron difluoride ions.

[0019] 可选地,注入硼离子或二氟化硼离子的能量为IOOKeV至IMeV,剂量为lE15/cm2至lE16/cm2。 [0019] Alternatively, the ion implantation energy of boron or boron difluoride is ion IOOKeV to IMeV, dose lE15 / cm2 to lE16 / cm2.

[0020] 可选地,形成η型多晶硅层所注入的离子为砷离子或磷离子。 [0020] Alternatively, η-type polysilicon layer is formed by ion implantation of arsenic or phosphorus ions.

[0021] 可选地,注入砷离子或磷离子的能量为400KeV至2MeV,剂量为lE15/cm2至1E16/ cm2。 [0021] Alternatively, the implanted arsenic ions or phosphorus ions of energy 400KeV to 2 MeV, dosage of lE15 / cm2 to 1E16 / cm2.

[0022] 可选地,所述第一电极为铝电极。 [0022] Alternatively, the first electrode is an aluminum electrode.

[0023] 可选地,所述第一电极的厚度为20 μ m至50 μ m。 [0023] Alternatively, the thickness of the first electrode is 20 μ m to 50 μ m.

[0024] 可选地,还包括步骤:去除多晶硅层上残留的单晶硅。 [0024] Optionally, further comprising the step of: removing the remaining polycrystalline silicon layer on the single crystal silicon.

[0025] 可选地,形成第二电极结构具体包括步骤:在所述多晶硅层远离所述第一电极的一侧上沉积钝化层;图形化所述钝化层,形成沟槽;在钝化层表面以及所述沟槽内形成电镀种子层;形成暴露所述沟槽的光刻胶层;在所述沟槽内电镀第二电极材料至至少填满所述沟槽;去除光刻胶层和所述钝化层表面的电镀种子层。 [0025] Alternatively, the second electrode structure comprises the steps of: depositing a passivation layer away from the polysilicon layer is on a side of the first electrode; patterning the passivation layer, forming a trench; blunt plating seed layer and a surface layer formed in the trench; forming a photoresist layer is exposed to the trench; plating within the trench to fill at least a second electrode material to the trench; removing the photoresist plating seed layer and the surface layer of the passivation layer.

[0026] 可选地,所述第二电极材料为银。 [0026] Alternatively, the second electrode material is silver.

[0027] 与现有技术相比,本发明将形成太阳能电池PN结的多晶硅层通过物理气相沉积(PVD)的方法生长在单晶衬底上,由于晶格常数匹配更佳,因而生长出的多晶硅层中晶粒尺寸较大,可以提高太阳能电池的性能,并且,单晶衬底可以剥离,因而可以降低制造成本。 [0027] Compared with the prior art, the present invention is a solar cell a PN junction polysilicon layer is grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on a single crystal substrate, since the lattice constant a better match, and thus the growth of larger grain size in the polysilicon layer, can improve the performance of the solar cell, and the single crystal substrate can be peeled off, it is possible to reduce the manufacturing cost.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0028] 图1为现有技术制造的太阳能电池结构示意图; [0028] The solar cell structure of FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the prior art manufacturing;

[0029] 图2为本发明一个实施例制造太阳能电池的流程图; [0029] FIG 2 is a flowchart of fabricating a solar cell according to one embodiment of the present invention;

[0030] 图3至图13为根据图2所示流程制造太阳能电池的示意图。 [0030] FIG. 3 to FIG. 13 is a schematic view for manufacturing a solar cell according to the flow shown in Fig.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0031] 在具体实施方式中,提供一种基于单晶衬底制造多晶硅太阳能电池的方法。 [0031] In a particular embodiment, there is provided a method of manufacturing a polycrystalline silicon solar cells based on single crystal substrate. 在该方法中,形成太阳能电池PN结的多晶硅层通过物理气相沉积(PVD)的方法生长在单晶衬底上,由于晶格常数匹配更佳,因而生长出的多晶硅层中晶粒尺寸较大,可以提高太阳能电池的性能。 Polysilicon layer polycrystalline silicon layer grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on a single crystal substrate, since the lattice constant matched better, thus grown in this method, a PN junction solar cell of a larger grain size , can improve the performance of the solar cell. 以下将对本发明的具体内容进行详细说明。 The following details of the present invention will be described in detail. [0032] 如图2所示,根据本发明的一个实施例,提供一种太阳能电池的制造方法,包括步骤: [0032] 2, according to the manufacturing method of an embodiment, there is provided a solar cell of the present invention, comprising the steps of:

[0033] S101,在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层; [0033] S101, a polysilicon layer is deposited on a single crystal substrate;

[0034] S102,从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上注入氢离子; [0034] S102, implanting hydrogen ions into a polysilicon layer on the single crystal substrate from one side;

[0035] S103,在多晶硅层内形成P型和N型多晶硅层; [0035] S103, a P-type and N-type polysilicon layer over the polysilicon layer;

[0036] S104,在多晶硅层上形成第一电极; [0036] S104, a first electrode formed on the polysilicon layer;

[0037] S105,对单晶衬底和多晶硅层进行热退火; [0037] S105, and the polysilicon layer on the single crystal substrate thermal annealing;

[0038] S106,剥离单晶衬底; [0038] S106, peeling the single crystal substrate;

[0039] S107,在多晶硅层上沉积钝化层; [0039] S107, a passivation layer is deposited on the polysilicon layer;

[0040] S108,图形化钝化层,形成沟槽; [0040] S108, a passivation layer is patterned to form a trench;

[0041] S109,在钝化层表面以及沟槽的内壁上形成电镀种子层; [0041] S109, the plating seed layer is formed on the inner wall surface of the passivation layer and the trench;

[0042] S110,形成暴露沟槽的光刻胶层; [0042] S110, a photoresist layer is exposed trench;

[0043] S111,在沟槽内电镀第二电极材料; [0043] S111, plating the second electrode material in the trench;

[0044] S112,去除光刻胶层和所述钝化层表面的电镀种子层,形成第二电极结构。 [0044] S112, removing the photoresist layer and the plating seed layer on the surface of the passivation layer, forming a second electrode structure.

[0045] 首先执行步骤S101,如图3所示,在单晶衬底201上沉积多晶硅层202。 [0045] The first executes step S101, and as shown in FIG. 3, a polysilicon layer 202 is deposited on a single crystal substrate 201. 这里的单晶衬底201的材料可以为硅、III-V族或者II-VI族化合物半导体,由于单晶硅衬底的应用广泛,产量大,价格较低,并且单晶硅与多晶硅的晶格常数匹配更佳,因而在本发明的一个实施例中,优选采用单晶硅形成单晶硅衬底201。 Here the single crystal substrate 201 material may be silicon, III-V or Group II-VI compound semiconductor, a single crystal silicon substrate due to the wide application, production, low price, and a silicon single crystal and polycrystalline silicon better lattice constant match, and therefore the present invention, in one embodiment, preferably single crystal silicon substrate 201 is formed using silicon.

[0046] 沉积多晶硅层202的方法可以是PVD的方法。 [0046] The method of depositing a polycrystalline silicon layer 202 may be a PVD method. 因为相比利用硅烷形成多晶硅层的方法而言,利用PVD沉积多晶硅层202的成本更低。 For lower as compared to a method of forming a polysilicon layer using a silane, a polysilicon layer 202 is deposited using PVD cost.

[0047] 沉积多晶硅层202的压力小于IOOmTorr,形成多晶硅层202厚度优选在1 μ m至10 μ m,这样的厚度可以保证后续能够形成足够厚的P型和N型多晶硅层,用以形成满足太阳能电池需要的PN结。 [0047] depositing a polysilicon layer 202 is less than the pressure IOOmTorr, polysilicon layer 202 is formed preferably in a thickness of 1 μ m to 10 μ m, such thickness may be capable of forming a sufficiently thick to ensure that a subsequent P-type and N-type polysilicon layer, is formed to satisfy required PN junction solar cell. 在这种沉积条件下,由于晶格常数匹配更加,形成的多晶硅层202 的晶粒尺寸比根据现有技术形成多晶硅层的晶粒尺寸更大,进而可以提高太阳能电池的性能。 In this deposition conditions, since the lattice constant matched more, the grain size of the polysilicon layer 202 is formed larger grain size of the polycrystalline silicon layer, and thus can improve the performance of the solar cell is formed than according to the prior art.

[0048] 然后执行步骤S102,从多晶硅层202 —侧向单晶衬底201上注入氢离子,在多晶硅层202靠近多晶硅层202与单晶衬底201界面的位置上形成空洞203,即形成如图4所示的结构。 [0048] then perform step S102, the polysilicon layer 202-- hydrogen ion implantation on the side of the single crystal substrate 201, a cavity 203 is formed at a position 202 and the single crystal substrate 201 near the interface of the polysilicon layer 202 on the polysilicon layer, i.e., it is formed as 4 structure shown in FIG.

[0049] 注入氢离子的能量为800KeV至8MeV,注入的剂量为lE15/cm2至lE17/cm2。 Energy [0049] The hydrogen ion implantation is 800KeV to 8MeV, the injected dose of lE15 / cm2 to lE17 / cm2. 这样的氢离子注入工艺能够保证经过后续热退火的工艺之后,在单晶衬底201内距离单晶衬底201与多晶硅层202的界面Inm至IOOnm的位置上形成空洞203。 After this hydrogen ion implantation process can be guaranteed through a subsequent thermal annealing process, the single crystal substrate 201 in a position 201 to a cavity 203 formed IOOnm of the single crystal substrate from the interface between the polysilicon layer 202 Inm.

[0050] 形成空洞203的目的是方便在后续工艺过程中将单晶衬底201与多晶硅层202剥离开。 [0050] The purpose of forming the cavity 203 is open to facilitate the release of the polysilicon layer 202 and the single crystal substrate 201 in the subsequent process. 本领域技术人员知道,单晶衬底201是非常易碎的,步骤S102在单晶衬底201中形成大量空洞203,破坏了单晶衬底201的内部结构,使得形成空洞203处的结构强度大幅降低,从而可以保证单晶衬底201不破碎的情况下,将单晶衬底201与多晶硅层202剥离。 Those skilled in the art know, the monocrystalline substrate 201 is very brittle, step S102 a plurality of voids 203 formed structural strength, damage the internal structure of the single crystal substrate 201 such that a cavity 203 is formed in the single crystal substrate 201 significantly reduced, which can ensure the case of the single crystal substrate 201 is not broken, the single crystal substrate 201 and the polysilicon layer 202 peeled off.

[0051] 在本具体实施方式中,步骤S102的离子注入仅以注入氢离子为例,但本发明不限于此。 [0051] In the present embodiment, an ion implantation step S102 is an example only hydrogen ion implantation, but the present invention is not limited thereto. 因为在步骤S102中进行离子注入的目的是为了破坏单晶衬底201的内部晶格结构, 形成空洞,利于后续剥离单晶衬底201。 Because the purpose of ion implantation in step S102 in order to destroy the internal lattice structure of single-crystal substrate 201, a cavity is formed, a single crystal substrate 201 facilitates the subsequent peeling. 所以,在步骤S102中进行注入的离子也可以是其他半径较小的离子,例如氦离子。 Therefore, ion implantation is performed in step S102 may be smaller radius of other ions such as helium ions. 并且,注入的方式也不限于单独注入氢离子或氦离子等,可以采用混合注入的方式,例如混合注入氢离子和氦离子。 Further, the embodiment is not limited to the injection of hydrogen ions or helium ions alone implantation, implantation mixing methods can be used, for example, a mixed ion implantation of hydrogen and helium ions.

[0052] 接着执行步骤S103,如图5所示,在多晶硅层202内靠近单晶衬底201的一侧形成P型多晶硅层204,以及在多晶硅层202内远离单晶衬底201的一侧形成N型多晶硅层205。 [0052] then perform step S103, a shown in FIG, 5 is formed in the polysilicon layer 202 single crystal substrate 201 side close to the P-type polysilicon layer 204, 201 and the side away from the single crystal substrate in the polysilicon layer 202 N-type polysilicon layer 205 is formed.

[0053] 形成P型多晶硅层204的工艺为:从多晶硅层202远离单晶衬底201的一侧注入硼离子或二氟化硼离子,注入能量为IOOKeV至IMeV,注入剂量为lE15/cm2至lE16/cm2。 Process [0053] P-type polysilicon layer 204 is formed of: implanting boron ions or boron difluoride ions away from the side of the polysilicon layer 202 single crystal substrate 201, an implantation energy of IOOKeV to IMeV, implantation dose is lE15 / cm2 to lE16 / cm2. 形成N型多晶硅层205的工艺为:从多晶硅层202远离单晶衬底201的一侧注入砷离子或磷离子,注入能量为400KeV至2MeV,注入剂量为lE15/cm2至lE16/cm2。 Process of forming the N-type polysilicon layer 205 is: implanting arsenic or phosphorus ions away from the side of the polysilicon layer 202 single crystal substrate 201, an implantation energy of 400KeV to 2 MeV, implantation dose is lE15 / cm2 to lE16 / cm2. 根据上述注入工艺, 可以在多晶硅层202内形成相互接触的P型多晶硅层204和N型多晶硅层205,即形成太阳能电池所需要的PN结。 According to the implantation process may be formed of P-type polysilicon layer 204 and the N-type polysilicon layer 205 contact each other in the polysilicon layer 202, i.e. a PN junction solar cells require.

[0054] 然后执行步骤S104,如图6所示,在多晶硅层202内远离单晶衬底201的表面上形成第一电极206。 [0054] and then performs step S104, as shown in FIG. 6, the polysilicon layer 202 remote from the first electrode 206 is formed on a single crystal substrate 201 surface. 第一电极206的厚度可以为20μπι至50μπι。 The thickness of the first electrode 206 may be 20μπι to 50μπι. 形成第一电极206的材料优选是金属,而金属中更优的选择是铝,因为铝的机械强度较好且成本低廉。 Forming a first electrode 206 is preferably a metal material, and the metal aluminum is better choice, because the mechanical strength of the aluminum is better and inexpensive.

[0055] 将形成第一电极206的步骤放在后续剥离单晶衬底201的步骤之前是有原因的。 Before [0055] The step of forming a first electrode 206 placed in the subsequent step of peeling the single crystal substrate 201 for a reason. 第一电极206在这里除了起到电极的作用以外,还有另一个作用,即形成对多晶硅层202的支撑。 Where the first electrode 206 functions as an electrode in addition, there is another effect that the support is formed on the polysilicon layer 202. 如前所述,多晶硅层202的厚度仅有1 μ m至10 μ m,而后续步骤将会剥离单晶衬底201,在剥离过程中,第一电极206就起到对多晶硅层202的支撑。 As described above, the thickness of the polysilicon layer 202 only 1 μ m to 10 μ m, and the subsequent step 201 will release the single crystal substrate, the peeling process, the first electrode 206 functions as a support on the polysilicon layer 202 .

[0056] 然后执行步骤S105,对单晶衬底201和多晶硅层202进行热退火10秒至60分钟, 优选退火时间为30秒至2分钟。 [0056] then perform step S105, the single crystal substrate 201 and the polysilicon layer 202 is thermally annealed 10-60 seconds, annealing time is preferably 30 seconds to 2 minutes. 热退火的温度为300°C至900°C,优选的退火温度为300°C 至400°C。 Thermal annealing temperature of 300 ° C to 900 ° C, the annealing temperature is preferably 300 ° C to 400 ° C. 热退火可以在氢气的氛围下进行。 Thermal annealing may be performed in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

[0057] 这里进行热退火有两个目的,其一是为了强化前述氢离子注入的效果,在单晶衬底201内形成氢致片状缺陷,从而可以单晶衬底201内形成微空腔(microcavity)层,这样的微空腔层有利于后续剥离单晶衬底201的进行;目的二是为了进一步增大多晶硅层202 的晶粒尺寸,而在氢的氛围下进行热退火,可以实现增大晶粒尺寸的目的,从而提高所制成的太阳能电池的光电转换效率。 [0057] Here is thermally annealed for two purposes, one is to strengthen the effect of the hydrogen ion implantation, the sheet-like hydrogen-induced defects formed in the monocrystalline substrate 201, the micro-cavities can be formed within the monocrystalline substrate 201 (microcavity) layer, such micro cavities facilitates the subsequent peeling layer 201 is a single crystal substrate; Second object to further increase the grain size of the polycrystalline silicon layer 202, thermal annealing is performed in an atmosphere of hydrogen, can be achieved the purpose of increasing the grain size, thereby improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells made of.

[0058] 接着执行步骤S106,剥离单晶衬底201。 [0058] then perform step S106, peeling the single crystal substrate 201. 剥离单晶衬底201的过程即对单晶衬底201施加拉力或剪切力的过程。 Peeling the single crystal substrate 201, i.e., the process of the single crystal substrate 201 during a pulling force or shearing force. 如前所述,氢离子注入使得单晶衬底201中形成大量空洞203,从而破坏了单晶衬底201的内部结构,使得形成空洞203处的结构强度大幅降低,因而可以保证单晶衬底201不破碎的情况下,将单晶衬底201与多晶硅层202剥离。 As described above, hydrogen ion implantation so that the single crystal substrate 201 is formed in a plurality of voids 203, thereby destroying the internal structure of the single crystal substrate 201 such that a significant reduction of the structural strength of the cavity 203, thereby ensuring single crystal substrate case 201 without collapse of the crystal substrate 201 and the polysilicon layer 202 peeled off.

[0059] 如图7所示,单晶衬底201被剥离后,在多晶硅层202上的残留单晶硅207表面会非常粗糙,这对于提高太阳能电池的性能有好处,具体将在后续工艺步骤进行说明。 [0059] 7, after the monocrystalline substrate 201 is peeled, the polysilicon layer 202 remains on the surface of the silicon single crystal 207 can be very rough, which for improving the performance of the solar cell is good, particularly in a subsequent process step Be explained.

[0060] 被剥离的单晶衬底201可以重复使用。 [0060] The single crystal substrate 201 is peeled can be reused. 每次重复应用,单晶衬底201仅损失数百纳米至数微米的厚度,因而可以多次的重复使用,大幅降低了太阳能电池的制造成本。 Application of each repetition, only the loss of a single crystal substrate 201 to a thickness of several hundred nanometers to several micrometers, and thus can be reused many times, significantly reducing the manufacturing cost of the solar cell. 并且,由于多晶硅层202与单晶衬底201接触的表面粗糙,对于提高太阳能电池的性能有好处。 Further, since the surface of the polysilicon layer 202 in contact with the rough monocrystalline substrate 201, for improving the performance of solar cells is good. 因此,在此可以省去对单晶衬底201被剥离的一面进行平滑处理的步骤,在下一次再次在单晶衬底201表面形成多晶硅层时,由于单晶衬底201的表面粗糙,沉积的多晶硅层与单晶衬底201接触的表面也会相应变得粗糙,这也是本发明的一个优点。 Therefore, one side may be omitted the step of smoothing the monocrystalline substrate 201 is peeled off, the next layer is again formed on the polysilicon surface of the monocrystalline substrate 201 in this case, since the rough surface of the monocrystalline substrate 201, the deposited surface of the polysilicon layer 201 in contact with the corresponding single crystal substrate will be roughened, which is an advantage of the present invention.

[0061] 在剥离单晶衬底201之后,还可以有清除残留单晶硅207的步骤。 [0061] After peeling the single crystal substrate 201 can have the step of removing remaining single-crystal silicon 207. 残留单晶硅207 可以用等离子刻蚀的方法来清除。 The residue silicon single crystal 207 by plasma etching method may be cleared. 由于残留单晶硅207表面非常粗糙,因此在用等离子将残留单晶硅207完全清除的过程中,必然会将多晶硅层202的表面刻蚀得非常粗糙。 207 due to residual monocrystalline silicon surface is very rough, so the remaining single-crystal silicon by plasma process 207 completely removed, a polysilicon layer 202 is bound to the surface was very rough etching. 如前 As previously

7所述,这对于提高太阳能电池的性能有好处,因而省去了专门将多晶硅层202的表面粗糙化的步骤。 7, which is good for improving the performance of solar cells, thus eliminating the need for a special step to the surface of the polysilicon layer 202 is roughened. 因此,这也是本发明的一个优点。 Accordingly, it is an advantage of the present invention.

[0062] 然后执行步骤S107,如图8所示,通过热氧化在多晶硅层202上沉积钝化层208。 [0062] and then performs step S107, as shown in FIG. 8, by thermal oxidation passivation layer 208 is deposited on the polysilicon layer 202. 沉积形成的钝化层208的厚度可以是IOOnm至300nm。 Thickness of the passivation layer 208 may be formed by deposition IOOnm to 300nm. 形成钝化层的材料可以是氮化硅。 Material forming the passivation layer may be silicon nitride. 通过热氧化使硅悬挂键饱和,可使Si-Si02界面的复合速度大大下降,其钝化效果取决于发射区的表面浓度、界面态密度和电子、空穴的浮获截面。 By thermal oxidation of the silicon dangling bonds saturated, make Si-Si02 interface recombination velocity is greatly reduced, the surface passivation effect depends on the concentration of the emitter region, the interface state density and electron hole capture cross section of the float. 而在氢气氛中退火可使钝化效果更加明显。 Annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere while the passivation effect can be more pronounced. 采用PECVD淀积氮化硅效果更佳,因为在成膜的过程中具有加氢的效果。 PECVD silicon nitride is deposited using better, because an effect of the hydrogenation in the process of film formation. 此外用氮化硅形成的钝化层208还起抗反射膜的作用。 In addition the passivation layer 208 is formed with a silicon nitride anti-reflection film further acts.

[0063] 接着执行步骤S108,如图9所示,图形化钝化层208,形成沟槽209。 [0063] Next to step S108, as shown in FIG. 9, a passivation layer 208 is patterned, the trenches 209 are formed. 这里形成的沟槽将在后续步骤成为填充第二电极212(参考图12)的基础。 Grooves formed here will be the basis for filling the second electrode 212 (refer to FIG. 12) in a subsequent step. 沟槽209的深度需要至少完全暴露P型多晶硅层204。 Requires at least a trench depth 209 is completely exposed P-type polycrystalline silicon layer 204. 也就是说,沟槽209的底部要完全“嵌入”P型多晶硅层204内, 以实现第二电极与P型多晶硅层204的有效连接。 That is, the bottom of the trench 209 to completely "embedded" within the P-type polysilicon layer 204, in order to achieve the second electrode and the P-type polysilicon layer 204 is linked.

[0064] 接着执行步骤S109,如图10所示,在钝化层208表面以及沟槽209内形成电镀种子层210。 [0064] then perform step S109, as shown in FIG plating seed layer 210 is formed within trench 208 and the surface 209 of the passivation layer 10. 电镀种子层201在沟槽209内覆盖沟槽209的内壁和底部。 Plating seed layer 201 covering the inner wall and bottom of the trench 209 in the trench 209. 形成电镀种子层210 的方法可以是溅射钛钨合金和/或银。 The method of forming a plating seed layer 210 may be sputtered titanium tungsten alloy and / or silver. 形成电镀种子层210的具体工艺参数已为本领域技术人员所熟知,在此不再赘述。 Specific process parameters form a plating seed layer 210 are known to those skilled in the art and are not repeated here.

[0065] 然后执行步骤S110,如图11所示,形成暴露沟槽209的光刻胶层211。 [0065] then perform step S110, a 11, a photoresist layer 211 expose the trenches 209. 形成暴露沟槽209的光刻胶层211的方法可以是先旋涂光刻胶再通过光刻的方法在光刻胶层211上在沟槽209对应的位置上开出通孔,因而暴露沟槽209。 Forming a trench exposing the photoresist layer 209 may be 211 to a photoresist spin coating method and then by photolithography on a photoresist layer 211 to open the through hole at a position corresponding to the groove 209, thus exposing groove grooves 209. 形成暴露沟槽209的光刻胶层211 的原因是阻挡钝化层208表面的电镀种子层210与电镀液的接触,防止在钝化层208表面的电镀种子层210形成第二电极212。 Causes of exposing the photoresist layer 209 of the trench 211 is in contact with the blocking surface of the plating seed layer 210 and the passivation layer 208 plating solution to prevent the second electrode 212 plating seed layer 210 is formed on the surface of the passivation layer 208.

[0066] 接着执行步骤S111,如图12所示,在沟槽209内电镀形成第二电极212。 [0066] then perform step S111, the shown in FIG. 12, the second electrode 212 within the trench 209 is formed by plating. 电镀第二电极212需要至少填满沟槽209,因此在后续去除光刻胶层211之后,第二电极212的一端会高于钝化层208,这样才能形成和外部电路互联的节点。 Plating at least the second electrode 212 needs to fill in the trenches 209, 211 and therefore the subsequent removal after the end of the second electrode 212 is higher than the passivation layer 208 is a photoresist layer, so as to form an external circuit interconnected nodes. 由于有光刻胶层211覆盖在钝化层208表面的电镀种子层210上,因此电镀形成的第二电极212只会形成在沟槽209内。 Because photoresist layer 211 covers the surface of the plating seed layer 210,208 passivation layer, a second electrode 212 is thus formed by plating is formed only in the trench 209. 形成第二电极212的材料优选是银,其原因在于银的接触电阻小。 Material forming the second electrode 212 is preferably silver, because of its small contact resistance of silver.

[0067] 最后执行步骤S112,如图13所示,去除光刻胶层211和钝化层208表面的电镀种子层210。 [0067] The final implementation step S112, as shown in Figure 13, removing the plating seed layer 210 211 the surface of the photoresist layer 208 and the passivation layer. 这样,就在P型多晶硅层204上形成了由钝化层208、电镀种子层210和第二电极212所组成的第二电极结构。 Thus, the second electrode structure is formed by a passivation layer 208, the plating seed layer 210 and the second electrode 212 is formed on the P-type polysilicon layer 204.

[0068] 本发明虽然以较佳实施例公开如上,但其并不是用来限定权利要求,任何本领域技术人员在不脱离本发明的精神和范围内,都可以做出可能的变动和修改,因此本发明的保护范围应当以本发明权利要求所界定的范围为准。 [0068] Although the preferred embodiments of the present invention disclosed in the above embodiments, but not intended to limit the claims, anyone skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, can be made possible variations and modifications, Therefore, the scope of the invention as claimed in the present invention should be defined by the scope of the subject claims.

8 8

Claims (19)

  1. 1. 一种太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于,包括步骤:在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层;从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上进行离子注入,在所述单晶衬底内形成空洞;通过离子注入在所述多晶硅层内形成相互接触的P型多晶硅层和N型多晶硅层;在所述多晶硅层远离所述单晶衬底的一侧上形成第一电极;对所述单晶衬底和多晶硅层进行热退火;剥离所述单晶衬底;通过等离子刻蚀去除多晶硅层上残留的单晶衬底材料,使多晶硅层表面粗糙化;在剥离了单晶衬底的多晶硅层远离所述第一电极的一侧上形成第二电极结构。 1. A method of manufacturing a solar cell, comprising the steps of: depositing a polysilicon layer on a single crystal substrate; ion implantation from one side of the single crystal substrate to a polycrystalline silicon layer, said single crystal substrate forming a cavity; P-type polycrystalline silicon layer and an N type polysilicon layer is formed in contact with each other by ion implantation of the polysilicon layer; forming a first electrode on a side remote from said polysilicon layer of said single crystal substrate; the single crystal substrate and the polysilicon layer is subjected to thermal annealing; release said monocrystalline substrate; the single crystal is removed by plasma etching of the substrate material remaining on the polysilicon layer, roughening the surface of the polysilicon layer; peeling the single crystal substrate forming a second polysilicon layer remote from said electrode structure on a side of the first electrode.
  2. 2.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上进行离子注入的离子为氢离子和/或氦离子。 2. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said ion implanted ions into the polycrystalline silicon layer from a side of the single crystal substrate into hydrogen ions and / or helium ions.
  3. 3.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述热退火在氢气的氛围中进行。 The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 3, wherein: said thermal annealing in an atmosphere of hydrogen.
  4. 4.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述热退火的温度为300°C至900°C,热退火时间为10秒至60分钟。 4. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said thermal annealing temperature of 300 ° C to 900 ° C, the thermal annealing time is 10 seconds to 60 minutes.
  5. 5.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述热退火的温度为300°C至400°C,热退火时间为30秒至2分钟。 5. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said thermal annealing temperature of 300 ° C to 400 ° C, thermal annealing for 30 seconds to 2 minutes.
  6. 6.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述单晶衬底为单晶硅衬底。 6. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said single crystal substrate is a single crystal silicon substrate.
  7. 7.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述P型多晶硅层与单晶衬底接触。 7. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said P-type polysilicon layer in contact with the single crystal substrate.
  8. 8.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:在单晶衬底上沉积多晶硅层的方法为物理气相沉积法。 8. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the method of depositing a polysilicon layer on a single crystal substrate is a physical vapor deposition method.
  9. 9.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述多晶硅层的厚度为IymM 10 μ m。 9. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said polysilicon layer has a thickness IymM 10 μ m.
  10. 10.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述空洞距离单晶衬底与多晶硅层界面为Inm至lOOnm。 10. The method of manufacturing a solar cell according to claim 1, wherein: said cavity from the single crystal substrate and the polysilicon layer interface Inm to lOOnm.
  11. 11.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述从多晶硅层一侧向单晶衬底上进行离子注入的离子为氢离子,注入氢离子的能量为SOOKeV至8MeV,剂量为lE15/cm2 至lE17/cm2。 11. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: a side of said ions from the ion implantation to the polysilicon layer on the single crystal substrate into hydrogen ions, the hydrogen ion implantation energy is SOOKeV to 8MeV a dose of lE15 / cm2 to lE17 / cm2.
  12. 12.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:形成P型多晶硅层所注入的离子为硼离子或二氟化硼离子。 12. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: forming a P-type polysilicon layer is ion implanted boron ions or boron difluoride ions.
  13. 13.如权利要求12所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:注入硼离子或二氟化硼离子的能量为IOOKeV至IMeV,剂量为lE15/cm2至lE16/cm2。 13. The method of manufacturing a solar cell according to claim 12, characterized in that: the ion implantation energy of boron or boron difluoride is ion IOOKeV to IMeV, dose lE15 / cm2 to lE16 / cm2.
  14. 14.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:形成η型多晶硅层所注入的离子为砷离子或磷离子。 14. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: η-type polysilicon layer is formed by ion implantation of arsenic or phosphorus ions.
  15. 15.如权利要求14所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:注入砷离子或磷离子的能量为400KeV 至2MeV,剂量为lE15/cm2 至lE16/cm2。 15. The method of manufacturing a solar cell according to claim 14, wherein: the energy implantation of arsenic or phosphorus ions is 400KeV to 2 MeV, dosage of lE15 / cm2 to lE16 / cm2.
  16. 16.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述第一电极为铝电极。 16. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the first electrode is an aluminum electrode.
  17. 17.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述第一电极的厚度为20 μ m M 50 μ m。 17. The method of manufacturing a solar cell according to claim 1, wherein: the thickness of the first electrode is 20 μ m M 50 μ m.
  18. 18.如权利要求1所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于,形成第二电极结构具体包括步骤:在所述多晶硅层远离所述第一电极的一侧上沉积钝化层;图形化所述钝化层,形成沟槽;在钝化层表面以及所述沟槽内形成电镀种子层;形成暴露所述沟槽的光刻胶层;在所述沟槽内电镀第二电极材料至至少填满所述沟槽;去除光刻胶层和所述钝化层表面的电镀种子层。 18. The method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the structure forming the second electrode comprises the steps of: depositing a passivation layer away from the polysilicon layer is on a side of the first electrode; patterning the passivation layer, forming a trench; forming a plating seed layer on the passivation layer and the inner surface of the trench; forming a trench exposing the photoresist layer; a second electrode material to the plating within the trench at least filling said trench; removing the photoresist layer and the plating seed layer of the surface passivation layer.
  19. 19.如权利要求18所述的太阳能电池的制造方法,其特征在于:所述第二电极材料为银。 19. A method of manufacturing a solar cell as claimed in claim 18, wherein: said second electrode material is silver.
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