CN101713546A - Low-pollution combustor for various fuels - Google Patents

Low-pollution combustor for various fuels Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101713546A
CN101713546A CN 200810013562 CN200810013562A CN101713546A CN 101713546 A CN101713546 A CN 101713546A CN 200810013562 CN200810013562 CN 200810013562 CN 200810013562 A CN200810013562 A CN 200810013562A CN 101713546 A CN101713546 A CN 101713546A
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China
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fuel
air
combustion
pluralities
applicable
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CN 200810013562
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CN101713546B (en
Inventor
金戈
顾铭企
齐兵
王克新
刘常青
李孝堂
高凤树
尹家录
聂海刚
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AVIC Shenyang Engine Design and Research Institute
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AVIC Shenyang Engine Design and Research Institute
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Priority to CN 200810013562 priority Critical patent/CN101713546B/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a low-pollution combustor for various fuels, which comprises a shunt system, a mounting edge and a plurality of double fuel nozzles, wherein the shunt system is connected with the plurality of double fuel nozzles through the mounting edge into a whole; the shunt system comprises a gas fuel subchannel, a liquid fuel subchannel, a diluent subchannel and an atomized air subchannel; and the double fuel nozzles are arranged circumferentially along the central line of the combustor. The low-pollution combustor for various fuels provided by the invention reduces the discharge of pollutants such as NOX, solves the problems such as backfire and unstable combustion of premixing combustion of synthetic gases, simplifies an air cleaning and blowing protective system of a combustion chamber, avoids increasing the discharge of carbon monoxide, and can work with low and medium thermal value gas fuel such as coke oven gas, chemical tail gases and synthetic tail gases from IGCC power plants and high thermal value gas fuel such as diesel oil and natural gas.

Description

Be applicable to the burner with low pollution of pluralities of fuel
Technical field
The present invention relates to the gas-turbine combustion chamber technical field, in particularly using, the gas-turbine combustion chamber field of low calorific value gas fuel.
Background technology
Traditionally, gas turbine uses high heating value natural gas and liquid fuel (mainly being diesel oil etc.) work.In recent years, the energy supply and the environmental pressure of China increase day by day, natural gas and oil in short supply, and rise in price is serious, and gas turbine uses the operating cost of natural gas and oil more and more to be difficult to bear.The energy resource structure of China is based on coal, but a large amount of pollutant of generation in traditional coal fired power generation process is the important source of environmental pollution.Integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC) is passed through coal gasification, low heat value synthesis gas in the generation behind the purified synthesis gas, infeeds gas turbine combustion and acting, can keep efficient and low polluting property simultaneously, thereby be considered to the important development direction that the future source of energy clean and effective utilizes.
Generate synthesis gas after the coal gasification in the IGCC system, synthesis gas mainly is made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, comprises a spot of inert gas in addition, as nitrogen or carbon dioxide.Fuel that the IGCC system that depends on composition that synthesis gas is detailed and calorific value is adopted and gasification treatment technology.Because the constituent of synthesis gas is different with natural gas (methane generally accounts for more than 90%), its combustion characteristics is also obviously different.
Gas-turbine combustion chamber organizes combustion system mainly to be divided into two kinds of lean premixed burning and diffusion combustions.Lean premixed combustion system is that fuel and combustion air are pre-mixed, and becomes uniform flammable mixture, by the mixing proportion of control fuel and air, controls the flame combustion temperature, realizes reducing NO XThe purpose of discharging.Diffusion combustion is meant that fuel and air are not pre-mixed, infeed the combustion chamber respectively after, the phenomenon of on flame front, burning near stoichiometric ratio.At present, to be widely used in the natural gas be on the gas-turbine combustion chamber of fuel to lean premixed combustion system.Because hydrogen content is big in the synthesis gas, makes that the firing temperature of synthesis gas is low, flame propagation speed.If continue to adopt original lean premixed combustion system, will face very big tempering danger, the tempering of flame will cause the overheated and ablation of burner, the security of operation of whole gas turbine of serious harm in the combustion chamber.If the employing diffusion combustion mode, though can avoid the tempering problem, because the flame temperature height will produce nitrogen oxide (NO X) problem that rolls up of discharging.
Along with the increase of environmental pressure and the enhancing of environmental consciousness, at present, the home and abroad is to the nitrogen oxide (NO of gas turbine X) more and more strictness of discharging quantitative limitation.Therefore, during using, gas turbine during the low heat value synthesis gas, reduces the nitrogen oxide (NO in the combustion process X) discharge capacity is the problem that must solve.
When diffusion combustion mode work is adopted in middle low calorific value gas fuel combustion chamber, mainly control NO by the mode of in the combustion chamber, injecting diluent XDischarging, diluent comprises water vapour, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Except that using the synthesis gas fuel work, gas turbine is requirement a kind of backup fuel that can burn reliably also, as diesel oil and natural gas.So that under the situation of or interruption under-supply at IGCC system synthesis gas, can switch to the multifuel combustion that backs up fuel work or keep two kinds of fuel, can guarantee gas turbine continuous firing and orderly shutdown.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide in a kind of use, the burner with low pollution of low heat value synthesis gas and diesel oil (or natural gas), be used to use synthesis gas and satisfy low NO XThe gas turbine combustion system of discharging.
The invention provides a kind of burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel, comprise separate system, limit, a plurality of dual fuel nozzle are installed, wherein: separate system is connected as a whole with a plurality of dual fuel nozzles by the limit is installed; Separate system is formed by concentric pipe, oil feed line, baffle plate and in that the cavity that is processed to form on the limit is installed, form 4 split channels of opposition mutually, comprise gaseous fuel split channel, liquid fuel split channel, diluent split channel, atomizing air split channel, be used to realize liquid fuel, atomizing air, diluent and gaseous fuel the flowing separately in burner that infeed by the external world, and branch to a plurality of fuel nozzles; Dual fuel nozzle is circle distribution along the central axis of burner, dual fuel nozzle 22 along self central shaft from inside to outside, be annular radial distribute successively liquid fuel nozzle and gas fuel nozzle, wherein: gas fuel nozzle comprises fuel gas passage 3 and diluent passage 2, the dual fuel nozzle outside is consolidated with the annulus 11 that perforate 6 is set, to constitute combustion air channel 1; Diluent passage 2 front ends are communicated with combustion air channel 1 end and connect into an integral body by sleeve, and the front end of combustion air channel 1 extends to the combustion zone in fuel nozzle exit.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention, liquid fuel nozzle can be air atomizer spray nozzle, the liquid fuel that uses is diesel oil or kerosene.Also can be designed to two centrifugal pressure atomized fog jets of oil circuit, wherein: air atomizer spray nozzle comprises liquid fuel passage 5, atomizing air passage 4.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention, diluent passage 2 inside are equipped with spray-hole 10.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention all is equipped with air cyclone in atomizing air passage 4, fuel gas passage 3 and the combustion air channel 1.Combustion air enters this passage by the perforate on the annulus 6, enters the combustion zone and participate in burning behind air cyclone 1-1, and diluent enters combustion air channel 1 through channel injection hole 10, infeeds the combustion zone equally behind air cyclone 1-1.Can dynamically adjust the combustion air flow that enters cyclone according to the injection rate of diluent, thereby adjust the air/fuel ratio in the combustion zone.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention, air cyclone are vane type or tangential hole hydrocyclone structure, and intake method is axial admission or radial air inlet.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention, the air cyclone 3-1 of fuel gas passage 3 is identical or opposite with the rotation direction of the air cyclone 1-1 of combustion air channel.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention, the quantity of dual fuel nozzle are 1~8.
The invention provides a kind of burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel, can be applied on the industrial gas turbine combustion chamber: reduce gaseous fuel and fluid combustion flame temperature by injecting diluent (nitrogen, water vapour and carbon dioxide), control NO to the combustion chamber XDischarge capacity Deng pollutant; Diluent infeeds through independent diluent passage, not with gaseous fuel and air blending in advance, can be with the variation of diluent injection rate, adjust the air/fuel ratio in the combustion zone---be after diluent injects, the flow area of air cyclone will inevitably be taken, thereby reduce the combustion air amount of infeeding of cyclone, make the primary zone be in the relative rich oil condition, this will help enlarging the stable operation range after diluent is injected in the combustion chamber; Under the situation of not injecting diluent, because diluent passage do not contact with high-temperature fuel gas in the combustion zone, need not air-suppliedly diluent passage is carried out protectiveness to blow clearly, simplify the combustion chamber air and blown protection system clearly; Simultaneously, diluent does not obviously reduce burner inner liner air film layer temperature, does not cause that carbon monoxide emission increases.
The burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel provided by the invention adopts the dilution, diffusion and combustion technology of following, control NO XDeng the discharge capacity of pollutant, problems such as the tempering of synthesis gas premixed combustion and combustion instability have been avoided; Simplify the combustion chamber air and blown protection system clearly; Burner adopts a plurality of dual fuel nozzle structures, can use in coke-stove gas, chemical industry tail gas, the IGCC power station synthesis gas etc., the work of low calorific value gas fuel and exotic fuels (diesel oil, natural gas etc.), and two kinds of fuel can switch mutually and multifuel combustion.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is applicable to the burner with low pollution cutaway view of pluralities of fuel
Fig. 2 is applicable to the burner with low pollution schematic three dimensional views of pluralities of fuel
The single burner noz(zle) schematic diagram of Fig. 3
Fig. 4 is applicable to the burner with low pollution fundamental diagram of pluralities of fuel
The specific embodiment
A kind of burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel comprises separate system 20,21,6 dual fuel nozzles 22 in limit is installed, wherein:
Separate system is connected as a whole with 6 dual fuel nozzles by the limit is installed; Separate system is by concentric pipe 28,29, oil feed line 35, baffle plate 30,31,32,33,34 and the cavity that is processed to form on the installation limit are formed, form 4 split channels of opposition mutually, comprise gaseous fuel split channel 24, liquid fuel split channel 25, diluent split channel 26, atomizing air split channel 27, be used to realize liquid fuel, atomizing air, diluent and gaseous fuel the flowing separately in burner that infeed by the external world, and branch to 6 fuel nozzles, see Fig. 1, Fig. 2;
Dual fuel nozzle is become with the gaseous fuel nozzle sets by liquid fuel nozzle and is circle distribution along the central axis 23 of burner, and liquid fuel nozzle is designed to air atomizer spray nozzle, comprises liquid fuel passage 5, atomizing air passage 4.Dual fuel nozzle 22 outsides are that the gas fuel nozzle outside is consolidated with the annulus 11 that perforate 6 is set, to constitute combustion air channel 1, along the central shaft of nozzle from inside to outside, be annular radial and be distributed with liquid fuel passage 5, atomizing air passage 4, fuel gas passage 3 and diluent passage 2 successively, wherein:
Diluent passage 2 front ends are communicated with combustion air channel 1 end and connect into an integral body by sleeve, i.e. the shared one section passage of diluent passage and combustion air channel.The front end of combustion air channel 1 extends to the combustion zone in fuel nozzle exit; In atomizing air passage 4, fuel gas passage 3 and the combustion air channel 1 the vane type air cyclone is installed all, intake method is an axial admission, and wherein the rotation direction of air cyclone 1-1 and 3-1 is identical.Diluent passage 2 inside are equipped with spray-hole 10.Referring to Fig. 3, Fig. 4,7 is cylinder among Fig. 4, and 8 is burner inner liner, and 9 is the cooling air hole on the burner inner liner wall;
The course of work of burner is as follows: when burner uses liquid fuel work, liquid fuel 36 is infeeded by split channel 25, and atomizing air 38 is infeeded by split channel 27, after cyclone 4-1 rotation, with liquid fuel generation shear action, satisfy the atomizing of liquid fuel requirement.During burner using gases fuel work, gaseous fuel 39 is infeeded by split channel 24, infeeds the combustion chamber behind cyclone 3-1.Combustion air infeeds the combustion chamber by 6 admission passages 2 of the perforate on the annulus 11 behind cyclone 1-1, form recirculating zone, the retention flame in the combustion zone.Diluent 37 is infeeded by split channel 26, spray into combustion air channel 1 by the spray-hole on the fuel nozzle 10, behind air cyclone 1-1, infeed the combustion zone equally, with the high-temperature fuel gas blending, and according to the dynamic combustion air flow that enters cyclone of adjusting of the injection rate of diluent, thereby the ratio of the air/fuel in the adjustment combustion zone, and then reach the reduction combustion flame temperature, reduce the purpose of nitrogen oxide emission in the combustion process.

Claims (8)

1. a burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel comprises separate system, limit, a plurality of dual fuel nozzle is installed, and wherein: separate system is connected as a whole with a plurality of dual fuel nozzles by the limit is installed; Separate system comprises gaseous fuel split channel, liquid fuel split channel, diluent split channel, atomizing air split channel; Dual fuel nozzle is circle distribution along the central axis of burner, it is characterized in that:
Dual fuel nozzle (22) along self central shaft from inside to outside, be annular radial distribute successively liquid fuel nozzle and gas fuel nozzle, wherein: gas fuel nozzle comprises fuel gas passage (3) and diluent passage (2), the dual fuel nozzle outside is consolidated with the annulus (11) that perforate (6) are set, to constitute combustion air channel (1); Diluent passage (2) front end is communicated with combustion air channel (1) end and connects into an integral body by sleeve, and the front end of combustion air channel (1) extends to the combustion zone in fuel nozzle exit.
2. according to the described burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel of claim 1, it is characterized in that: liquid fuel nozzle can be air atomizer spray nozzle, also can be designed to two centrifugal pressure atomized fog jets of oil circuit, wherein: air atomizer spray nozzle comprises liquid fuel passage (5), atomizing air passage (4).
3. according to the described burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel of claim 1, it is characterized in that: diluent passage (2) inside is equipped with spray-hole (10).
4. according to claim 1, the 2 or 3 described burner with low pollution that are applicable to pluralities of fuel, it is characterized in that: in atomizing air passage (4), fuel gas passage (3) and the combustion air channel (1) air cyclone is installed all.
5. according to the described burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel of claim 4, it is characterized in that: air cyclone is leaf structure or tangential hole structure.
6. according to the described burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel of claim 5, it is characterized in that: the intake method of air cyclone is axial admission or radial air inlet.
7. according to claim 5 or the 6 described burner with low pollution that are applicable to pluralities of fuel, it is characterized in that: the air cyclone (3-1) of fuel gas passage (3) is identical or opposite with the rotation direction of the air cyclone (1-1) of combustion air channel.
8. according to the described burner with low pollution that is applicable to pluralities of fuel of claim 7, it is characterized in that: the quantity of dual fuel nozzle is 1~8.
CN 200810013562 2008-10-08 2008-10-08 Low-pollution combustor for various fuels Expired - Fee Related CN101713546B (en)

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CN101900352A (en) * 2009-05-28 2010-12-01 通用电气公司 Be used for carrying out the method and apparatus of air and fuel injection at turbine
CN102538016A (en) * 2012-01-11 2012-07-04 哈尔滨工程大学 Internal rotational flow dual fuel nozzle for chemical regenerative cycle
CN102679399A (en) * 2011-03-15 2012-09-19 通用电气公司 Gas turbine combustor having a fuel nozzle for flame anchoring
CN102959334A (en) * 2010-06-28 2013-03-06 西门子公司 A combustion apparatus
CN103175220A (en) * 2013-03-19 2013-06-26 哈尔滨工程大学 Dual-fuel nozzle used for chemical regenerative cycle
CN103411220A (en) * 2013-07-25 2013-11-27 江联重工股份有限公司 Big heating value difference double-fuel gas double-swirl burner
CN104595927A (en) * 2015-01-23 2015-05-06 北京华清燃气轮机与煤气化联合循环工程技术有限公司 Low-heat value fuel gas combustion chamber of gas turbine
CN105570932A (en) * 2016-02-25 2016-05-11 上海电气燃气轮机有限公司 Central nozzle structure having back-fire self-inhibition function
CN106715870A (en) * 2014-07-02 2017-05-24 诺沃皮尼奥内股份有限公司 Fuel distribution device, gas turbine engine and mounting method
CN106958837A (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-07-18 通用电气公司 There is groove injector for what axial fuel was classified
CN103672969B (en) * 2013-12-13 2017-09-15 北京华清燃气轮机与煤气化联合循环工程技术有限公司 A kind of gas turbine dual-fuel combustion chamber nozzle of combustion
CN107735618A (en) * 2015-07-06 2018-02-23 西门子股份公司 Method for the burner and operation burner of gas turbine
CN108603658A (en) * 2016-03-15 2018-09-28 杰伊·凯勒 Non- premixed swirl burner end and combustion strategies
CN110529877A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-12-03 中国航发南方工业有限公司 Multiphase fuel nozzle
CN110822482A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-02-21 中国航发沈阳黎明航空发动机有限责任公司 Medium-low calorific value gas and liquid dual-fuel nozzle and fuel switching method
CN113137632A (en) * 2021-05-13 2021-07-20 中国联合重型燃气轮机技术有限公司 Premixing type on-duty fuel nozzle head, fuel nozzle and gas turbine
CN113358335A (en) * 2020-11-20 2021-09-07 中国空气动力研究与发展中心 Flow detection device for integrated partition oil supply nozzle
CN113776086A (en) * 2021-10-08 2021-12-10 浙江浙能技术研究院有限公司 Low-pollution combustion chamber nozzle structure and method

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JP3619626B2 (en) * 1996-11-29 2005-02-09 株式会社東芝 Operation method of gas turbine combustor
JP2003247425A (en) * 2002-02-25 2003-09-05 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Fuel nozzle, combustion chamber, and gas turbine
US7788897B2 (en) * 2004-06-11 2010-09-07 Vast Power Portfolio, Llc Low emissions combustion apparatus and method
CN201050803Y (en) * 2007-04-29 2008-04-23 沈阳黎明航空发动机(集团)有限责任公司 Double fuel jet-nozzle for combustion turbine

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CN101900352A (en) * 2009-05-28 2010-12-01 通用电气公司 Be used for carrying out the method and apparatus of air and fuel injection at turbine
CN102959334A (en) * 2010-06-28 2013-03-06 西门子公司 A combustion apparatus
CN102679399B (en) * 2011-03-15 2016-03-30 通用电气公司 There is the gas turbine combustion chamber of fixing flare fuel nozzle
CN102679399A (en) * 2011-03-15 2012-09-19 通用电气公司 Gas turbine combustor having a fuel nozzle for flame anchoring
CN102538016B (en) * 2012-01-11 2014-11-05 哈尔滨工程大学 Internal rotational flow dual fuel nozzle for chemical regenerative cycle
CN102538016A (en) * 2012-01-11 2012-07-04 哈尔滨工程大学 Internal rotational flow dual fuel nozzle for chemical regenerative cycle
CN103175220A (en) * 2013-03-19 2013-06-26 哈尔滨工程大学 Dual-fuel nozzle used for chemical regenerative cycle
CN103175220B (en) * 2013-03-19 2015-09-23 哈尔滨工程大学 A kind of dual fuel nozzle for chemical regenerative cycle
CN103411220A (en) * 2013-07-25 2013-11-27 江联重工股份有限公司 Big heating value difference double-fuel gas double-swirl burner
CN103672969B (en) * 2013-12-13 2017-09-15 北京华清燃气轮机与煤气化联合循环工程技术有限公司 A kind of gas turbine dual-fuel combustion chamber nozzle of combustion
CN106715870A (en) * 2014-07-02 2017-05-24 诺沃皮尼奥内股份有限公司 Fuel distribution device, gas turbine engine and mounting method
CN104595927A (en) * 2015-01-23 2015-05-06 北京华清燃气轮机与煤气化联合循环工程技术有限公司 Low-heat value fuel gas combustion chamber of gas turbine
CN107735618A (en) * 2015-07-06 2018-02-23 西门子股份公司 Method for the burner and operation burner of gas turbine
US10941940B2 (en) 2015-07-06 2021-03-09 Siemens Energy Global GmbH & Co. KG Burner for a gas turbine and method for operating the burner
CN106958837A (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-07-18 通用电气公司 There is groove injector for what axial fuel was classified
CN106958837B (en) * 2015-12-17 2020-06-30 通用电气公司 Slotted injector for axial fuel staging
CN105570932B (en) * 2016-02-25 2018-02-13 上海电气燃气轮机有限公司 From the center nozzle structure for suppressing tempering
CN105570932A (en) * 2016-02-25 2016-05-11 上海电气燃气轮机有限公司 Central nozzle structure having back-fire self-inhibition function
CN108603658A (en) * 2016-03-15 2018-09-28 杰伊·凯勒 Non- premixed swirl burner end and combustion strategies
CN110529877A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-12-03 中国航发南方工业有限公司 Multiphase fuel nozzle
CN110822482A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-02-21 中国航发沈阳黎明航空发动机有限责任公司 Medium-low calorific value gas and liquid dual-fuel nozzle and fuel switching method
CN113358335A (en) * 2020-11-20 2021-09-07 中国空气动力研究与发展中心 Flow detection device for integrated partition oil supply nozzle
CN113137632A (en) * 2021-05-13 2021-07-20 中国联合重型燃气轮机技术有限公司 Premixing type on-duty fuel nozzle head, fuel nozzle and gas turbine
CN113776086A (en) * 2021-10-08 2021-12-10 浙江浙能技术研究院有限公司 Low-pollution combustion chamber nozzle structure and method

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