CN101592575B - Airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus - Google Patents

Airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101592575B
CN101592575B CN2009100851760A CN200910085176A CN101592575B CN 101592575 B CN101592575 B CN 101592575B CN 2009100851760 A CN2009100851760 A CN 2009100851760A CN 200910085176 A CN200910085176 A CN 200910085176A CN 101592575 B CN101592575 B CN 101592575B
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China
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force
normal
sample
tangential
piston
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CN2009100851760A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101592575A (en
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李守定
李晓
赫建明
刘艳辉
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中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所
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Abstract

The invention provides a simple, accurate and field airbag-loading potable soft and weak interlayer direct shear apparatus. In the direct shear apparatus, airbag loading is adopted to apply a normal force, and a piston system arranged on the upper part of a reaction frame can guarantee the verticality and application uniformity of the normal force when a sample produces shearing displacement; and a ball screw system applies a tangential force and linear guides under a sample seat can guarantee the horizontality of the application direction of the shearing force and the continuity and smoothness of the tangential force. A normal force applying system avoids bearing load, and airbag pressurization is accomplished by a potable pressurizing device and is high in precision, simple and easy to implement. A tangential force applying system uses a screw handle to apply force and the force application is steady and highly operable. Both the normal force applying system and the tangential force applying system are fixed, small in volume, high in reliability and convenient in on-site test. The test device can perform the quick shearing of field soft and weak interlayer and consolidated drained quick and slow shear tests and is simple, precise and high in operability.

Description

Airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus

Technical field soil mechanics experimental technique field

The background technology weak intercalated layer belongs to the soil body, and existing soil mechanics shear test is divided into shop experiment and in-situ test.Indoor shear test mainly contains two kinds: direct shear test and triaxial compression test.Direct shear test uses counterweight that soil sample is applied normal pressure by lever, applies horizontal thrust then, and sample is destroyed along predetermined shear surface.Calculate acquisition sample shear strength parameter C, φ value by many groups direct shear test.For weak intercalated layer, the advantage of direct shear test is that test operation is easy, and sample size is few, and is consuming time few; Shortcoming is the easy disturbance of weak intercalated layer, and the instrument heaviness can not be tested at the scene.

Triaxial compression test is that sample is applied confined pressure, applies xial feed then, destroys until soil sample.Carry out many group tests back calculate obtain sample shear strength parameter C, Value.The triaxial compression test advantage is the parameters of shear resistant that can obtain under the sample true stress state, and shortcoming is that instrument is accurate complicated, and sample size is big, and length consuming time can not be tested at the scene.Two kinds of shop experiments have common shortcoming to be: the original state sample is difficult for obtaining, and disturbance easily takes place in packed and transported sample; Can not test at the scene, obtain test findings fast.

The original position shear test mainly contains two kinds: vane shear test and the large-scale pushing and cutting experiment of the on-the-spot soil body.Vane shear test is compressed into clay with rectangle four-bladed vane or chamfering four-bladed vane and is rotated, and calculates the undrained shear strength τ of complete saturated clay f, but can not measure soil body cohesive strength C, angle of friction Value.The large-scale pushing and cutting experiment of the on-the-spot soil body does not have the equipment of fixed standard, generally uses hydraulic pump, lifting jack, plank, steel plate, reaction frame, the reaction beam etc. of testing pits.This method can draw soil body cohesive strength C, angle of friction Value, but shortcoming is funds, time and manually expends morely that equipment heaviness, operability are not strong.

In a word, four kinds of methods of present two class soil mechanics shear tests, preceding two kinds of shop experiment method samples are subjected to disturbance easily in packed and transported, be difficult for carrying out the test of original state sample; And can not test quick acquisition test findings at the scene.The two kinds of in-situ tests in back, a kind of undrained shear strength that can only test saturated soft clay, a kind of testing apparatus heaviness wastes time and energy, and operability is relatively poor.Existing soil mechanics shearing test method all can not satisfy the requirement that weak intercalated layer obtains the undisturbed soil sample shear parameters quickly and easily.

Summary of the invention the invention provides a kind of easy and accurate on-the-spot airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus.Adopt air bag to load and apply normal force, place the piston system on reaction frame top can when sample generation shear displacemant, guarantee the vertical of normal force, and normal force applies evenly; Adopt ball screw system to apply tangential force, the line slideway under sample holder can guarantee that shearing force applies the direction level, and tangential force is steady continuously.The normal direction afterburner system need not loading, and the portable heating pressure device is adopted in the air bag pressurization, and precision is high and simple and easy to do.The tangential stress application system is with the reinforcing of leading screw handle, and is steadily afterburning, strong operability.Normal direction afterburner system and tangential stress application system are fixed, and the little reliability height of volume is convenient to site test.This test unit can carry out cutting soon of on-the-spot weak intercalated layer, and discharging consolidation is cut and slow shear test soon, and easy accurate, strong operability.

Airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus, it is made up of following several parts: weak intercalated layer sample device part, by locating cone 12, steel pressure pad 13, last box 14, following box 15, fixed pin 16, sample holder 17, permeable stone 23, osculum 30 and sample 22 are formed, and at first sample 22 are placed box 14 and following box 15 during test; Gasbag-type normal direction compression system, by inflation pressurizing valve 5, air bag 6, piston 7, piston wall 8, limited bolt 9, force-transmitting pole 10 and pilot hole 11 are formed; Normal direction pressurization reaction frame system, by rigid posts 1, entablature 2, lower bottom base 3 and leg 4 are formed; The tangential compression system of ball-screw, by sample holder 17, line slideway 18, rigidity transmission rod 19, gearing 20 and leading screw handle 21 are formed; Power and displacement measurement system, by pressure transducer 24, horizontal displacement sensors 25, fixed block 26, steel wire 27, perpendicular displacement sensor 28 and rain glass 29 are formed.

Ultimate principle and technology: according to soil mechanics shear test principle, the sample normal pressure must be constant and vertical all the time, and tangential force is steady continuously and will keep level.Adopt gasbag-type normal direction compression system and the tangential compression system of ball-screw can guarantee above requirement.

Gasbag-type normal direction compression system places piston 7 with air bag 6, and 6 pressurizations of 5 pairs of air bags of inflation pressurizing valve by force-transmitting pole 10 and steel pressure pad 13, sample 22 is applied the normal direction load, and the load direction are always vertical; Rigid posts 1, entablature 2 and lower bottom base 3 are formed the reaction frame system, guarantee applying of normal direction pressurization; Piston 7 internal diameters are designed to 123.6mm, and sample 22 internal diameters are 61.8mm, and air bag maximum load air pressure is 0.3MPa, and the maximum normal stress that passes on the sample is 1.2MPa, satisfy the demand of soil body direct shear test to normal stress.Air bag loads by piston 7 and guarantees the vertical of normal force, and weak intercalated layer is being sheared box tangential movement at present, and last box is fixed, and normal force is constant and vertical always in the shear history.

The tangential compression system of ball-screw, apply tangential force by ball-screw, sample holder 17 places on the line slideway 18, and lead screw gear 20 links to each other with sample holder 17 by rigidity transmission rod 19, rotational lead screw handle 21 can apply horizontal force, and line slideway 18 can guarantee the continuous and direction of horizontal force.

Normal force can take advantage of 4 to get final product by air bag rain glass 29 readings, and consolidation settlement is read by perpendicular displacement sensing 28, and tangential force is read by pressure transducer 24, and horizontal shift is read by horizontal displacement sensors 25.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1: airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus sectional view

Fig. 2: airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus A-A sectional view

1: rigid posts; 2: entablature; 3: lower bottom base; 4: leg; 5: the inflation pressurizing valve; 6: air bag; 7: piston; 8: piston wall; 9: limited bolt; 10: force-transmitting pole; 11: pilot hole; 12: locating cone; 13: the steel pressure pad; 14: go up box; 15: following box; 16: fixed pin; 17: sample holder; 18: line slideway; 19: the rigidity transmission rod; 20: gearing; 21: the leading screw handle; 22: sample; 23: permeable stone; 24: pressure transducer; 25: horizontal displacement sensors; 26: fixed block; 27: steel wire; 28: the perpendicular displacement sensor; 29: rain glass; 30: osculum

After embodiment 1. samples 22 installed, usage level chi leveling instrument lower bottom base 3 used the portable aerating tube that air bag 6 is pressurizeed, and arrives predetermined pressure up to rain glass 29.

2. according to concrete testing requirements, rotating threaded shaft handle 21 makes specimen mount 17 along line slideway 18 tangential movements, the rotating threaded shaft handle 21 gradually, apply increasing tangential stress and read corresponding displacement, constant or when descending until pressure transducer 24 readings, show that sample 22 is cut off.Write down pressure transducer 24 readings, the shift value of reading horizontal displacement transducer 25.Pressure transducer 24 maximal values are pressure and the line slideway 18 friction force sums of sample 22 when cutting off, and utilize line slideway 18 friction factor that record in advance, can calculate friction force, thereby calculate shear stress.

3. cut off back reverse rotation leading screw handle 21, sample 22 is resetted, removal normal direction load, and sample 22 placed original position, the former normal direction load of resetting carries out the residual strength test.

Claims (1)

1. airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus, it is by weak intercalated layer sample device part, gasbag-type normal direction compression system part, normal direction pressurization reaction frame components of system as directed, tangential compression system part of ball-screw and power and displacement measurement system constitute, described weak intercalated layer sample device part is by locating cone (12), steel pressure pad (13), last box (14), following box (15), fixed pin (16), sample holder (17), permeable stone (23), osculum (30) and sample (22) are formed, and sample (22) places box (14) and following box (15); Described gasbag-type normal direction compression system part is by inflation pressurizing valve (5), air bag (6), piston (7), piston wall (8), limited bolt (9), force-transmitting pole (10) and pilot hole (11) are formed, air bag (6) is placed piston (7), and inflation pressurizing valve (5) is to air bag (6) pressurization, by force-transmitting pole (10) and steel pressure pad (13), sample (22) is applied the normal direction load, and the load direction is always vertical; Described normal direction is pressurizeed the reaction frame components of system as directed by rigid posts (1), entablature (2), and lower bottom base (3) and leg (4) are formed, and rigid posts (1), entablature (2) and lower bottom base (3) are formed the reaction frame system, guarantee applying of normal direction load; The tangential compression system part of described ball-screw is by sample holder (17), line slideway (18), rigidity transmission rod (19), lead screw gear (20) and leading screw handle (21) are formed, sample holder (17) places on the line slideway (18), lead screw gear (20) links to each other with sample holder (17) by rigidity transmission rod (19), and rotational lead screw handle (21) can apply horizontal force, and line slideway (18) can guarantee the continuous and direction of horizontal force; Described power and displacement measurement system part are by pressure transducer (24), horizontal displacement sensors (25), fixed block (26), steel wire (27), perpendicular displacement sensor (28) and rain glass (29) are formed, perpendicular displacement sensor (28) links to each other with piston (7) with steel wire (27) by fixed block (26), normal force can be drawn by air bag rain glass (29) reading, consolidation settlement is read by perpendicular displacement sensing (28), tangential force is read by pressure transducer (24), and horizontal shift is read by horizontal displacement sensors (25); Air bag loads by piston (7) and guarantees the vertical of normal force, and weak intercalated layer is being sheared box tangential movement at present, and last box is fixed, and normal force is constant and vertical always in the shear history.
CN2009100851760A 2009-05-27 2009-05-27 Airbag-loading potable weak and soft interlayer direct shear apparatus CN101592575B (en)

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CN101592575B true CN101592575B (en) 2011-01-05

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