CN101539008B - Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane - Google Patents

Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101539008B
CN101539008B CN2009100741652A CN200910074165A CN101539008B CN 101539008 B CN101539008 B CN 101539008B CN 2009100741652 A CN2009100741652 A CN 2009100741652A CN 200910074165 A CN200910074165 A CN 200910074165A CN 101539008 B CN101539008 B CN 101539008B
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cave
coal
coal seam
coal bed
well
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CN2009100741652A
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CN101539008A (en
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赵万福
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赵万福
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Abstract

The invention relates to a ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane. The ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method adopts a main shaft to discharge and mine the coal bed methane and is mainly characterized by damaging a natural coal reservoir system, breaking the balance state of the system, leading the system to be homogenized relatively and creating a new coal reservoir system which is beneficial to discharging and mining. In the coal bed around the main shaft, a cavity is built by a directional inclined shaft so as to form a region of stress concentration of the coal bed, the stress of the coal bed around the cavity is released in the process of stress homogenization of the coal bed, and the coal bed is led to generate extension and shear damage, thus forming a new crack, forming interference among the cavities, causing communication of coal bed cracks which are in closed or semi-closed state and further forming a large area of air permeable flow channel. The method has the characteristics of low engineering risk, wide application range and the like, can realize high-efficiency methane discharge and improve the productivity of the coal bed gas shaft.

Description

Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane
Technical field
The invention belongs to coal bed gas (gas) production technique, is a kind of ground discharge and mining method that improves the coal bed gas well production capacity.
Background technology
Coal bed gas is a kind of resource, and China's coal seam reservoirs has low gas content saturation ratio, low-permeability, low reservoir pressure (reservoir energy), low-resource abundance, high-ground stress, strong non-homogeneity characteristics such as (comprising its reservoir property and permeability).Compare with san juan basin with the black warrier that U.S. cbm development is achieved success, the main difficult problem of China's cbm development is that permeability is low, than low 2~3 one magnitude of the U.S.; Hide reservoir with conventional gas and oil and compare, very big difference is also arranged: the young's modulus of elasticity in coal seam is lower than general sandstone or limestone reservoir, is generally less than an one magnitude, and compression coefficient is high; The air water coexistence; Gas reservoir pressure is low; Gas-bearing formation is prone to infringement.
At present; Domestic coal bed gas ground row adopt technology abroad coal bed gas arrange on the excavating technology basis with petroleum gas and grow up; Mainly contain straight well and horizontal well dual mode, auxiliary yield-increasing technology mainly contains fracturing yield increasing, and the horizontal well array of multicomponent gas displacement and pinniform is adopted technology.
The purpose of fracturing yield increasing mainly improves the coal seam reservoirs permeability, and its applicable elements is: the coal seam is harder.The coal seam reservoirs that mechanical strength is lower is prone to compression, is prone to produce coal dust, stops up the crack, and form the stress barrier zones around might be in the crack, as in the basin, Qinshui the Lushui River peace block fracturing effect very poor.
Inject CO 2The raising the output cost is higher, have the source of the gas problem, and the output gas concentration is low, needs further to purify, and brings difficulty also for the exploitation in peripheral coal seam, and only be applicable to can not working seam, the coal seam reservoirs CO that permeability is low 2Inject and have permeability barrier too.
Low pressure, hypotonic, undersaturation, high-ground stress and softer coal seam reservoirs are produced between the straight well because the well spacing is bigger in a large number, are difficult to form between well and disturb, and can not discharge the coal seam geostatic stress, and row adopts weak effect.Basin, Qinshui the Lushui River peace block, tens mouthfuls of straight wells that reached completion in the past in 2008 show that the overwhelming majority is lower than 400m 3/ d, the scale development difficulty is very big.
Pinniform branch horizontal well technology is applicable to the coal seam reservoirs of thicker and distributional stability, structural integrity, needs the geological conditions that the coal rank are higher, ature of coal is harder, requires also very high to technical equipment.Horizontal well is constructional difficulties in the lower coal seam reservoirs of mechanical strength, and risk is high, and the area of complex structure is difficult to construction, even can not completion, and later maintenance cost is bigger.Be that horizontal well is only linked up the part fissure system importantly, be difficult to influence the non-homogeneity on especially vertical on the reservoir all directions.If construction level well in the roof and floor in coal seam just possibly linked up the aquifer or is unfavorable for the roof control of coal mining in the future, cause some fixation (like tunnel, powder magazine, shaft station etc.) of mine planning to build.Only administer gas, but bring new hidden danger, the difficult situation that can cause safety management " to attend to one thing and lose sight of another ".
In existing coal bed gas (gas) production technique, straight well is adopted with single only horizontal well array and is wire, is that one dimension row adopts; It is that a kind of row between a peacekeeping three-dimensional adopts mode in fact that straight well is made the cave strictness, because the well spacing is bigger, is difficult between the adjacent well form and disturbs, approximate think adopt for one dimension row; Multi-branched horizontal well is planar with " U " type, is that two dimension row adopts.Cause China's present coal seam gas field development individual well on average gas yield poorly; The reason of overall benefit difference is except objective factor such as complicated geological condition, reservoir permeability be low; Existing coal bed gas row adopts technology, and discharge and mining method is a deciding factor that influences the coal bed gas well production capacity.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiency that prior art exists; And the combination prior art, provide a kind of construction simple, require low to technical equipment; Can improve the coal bed gas well production capacity; Enlarge row and adopt scope, reduce engineering risk and cost, the coal bed gas ground row who promotes coal mining and coal bed gas row to adopt coordinated development adopts technology.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane adopts main shaft row mining coal seam gas, and it is characterized in that: this method is to destroy the raw coal reservoir systems, breaks the equilibrium state of this system, makes its relative homogeneousization, creates new helping and arranges the coal seam reservoirs system of adopting.This method is specially:
(1), said main shaft also comprises main shaft cave on every side;
(2), in the coal seam around the said main shaft, build cave, three places at least, form the coal seam area of stress concentration through deviated directional drilling; In the stress equilibrium process of coal seam, make cave coal seam stress on every side obtain discharging; And make the coal seam that Zhang Xingyu shear failure take place, and produce new crack, form the interference between the cave; Cause the crack, coal seam that is in sealing, semi-closed state in the coal seam to communicate with each other, form large tracts of land air infiltration circulation road;
(3), by said main shaft row mining coal seam gas, this main shaft can be a straight well, also can be deviated directional drilling.Deviated directional drilling around the main shaft is wanted sealing of hole but is kept the cave.
Said deviated directional drilling comprises two types, and one type is bifurcated, at certain well section branch deflecting well of main shaft; Another kind of is clump formula, begins the deflecting well from the face of land.
The construction technology of this discharge and mining method is: main shaft drilling well → deviated directional drilling drilling well → construction cave → inclined shaft sealing of hole → straight well completion and well cementation → perforation and pressure break.
Described construction cave, its cave distribution pattern: for network of triangle or be rectangle net or for the rhombus net or for circular net or for oval net or for the polygon net.
The inventive method and prior art compare: owing to adopt many places to build the cave, the main shaft discharge and mining method can destroy original reservoir systems, forms the comprehensive new reservoir systems of adopting that helps arranging, and is a kind of 3 D stereo discharge and mining method.It realized coal seam reservoirs anatonosis, release, space metathesis (it is vertical that level is changeed), promote the coal bed gas desorb, destroy functions such as coal seam reservoirs non-homogeneity, can impel coal bed gas efficiently to develop.
Outstanding substantive distinguishing features and remarkable result that the present invention has are following:
1, engineering construction risk is low.Owing to adopt existing maturation process, use conventional equipment, can reduce engineering risk (mainly comparing) greatly with horizontal well.
2, a large amount of little spacing straight wells are made the cave method and also can be reached row of the present invention and adopt effect.Compare and make the cave with a large amount of straight wells and straight well, the inventive method individual well effectively " well radius " is much bigger, thereby can significantly reduce row and adopt well; Reduce preliminary work for spudding (as repair the roads etc.), floor space, relocation equipment, surface line, practice thrift main borehole repeat creep into, setting of casing, well cementation; Help environmental protection, improve comprehensive benefit, and do not receive the environment influence of topography; Can avoid the stratum of geological problem and creep into, also be convenient to final-period management.The inventive method is made the cave inclined shaft will seal the above stratum of roof, need not arrange and adopt, and can avoid Coal Seam Collapse influence row to adopt, and can reduce later stage well workover cleaning up cost.Because the single hole control area is big, can combine the developing of mine to plan and arrange boring, avoiding tunnel and cavern, and make the cave inclined shaft without setting of casing, can reduce of the influence of coal seam section setting of casing greatly to the later stage coal mining.
3, applied range is suitable for the coal bed gas row of production at a specified future date and adopts, and also is suitable for recent area mash gas discharging; Be applicable to the primary structure coal seam reservoirs, also be applicable to some tectonic reworking coal seam reservoirs, can be used for the coal seam reservoirs of different mechanical strengths, be more suitable in the high-ground stress coal seam reservoirs; Be applicable to strong moisture coal seam reservoirs, moisture coal seam reservoirs a little less than also being applicable to; Be suitable for the coal mining enterprise application, also be suitable for non-coal mining enterprise application, can also be used to transform some and complete but the lower or anaerogenic straight well of productivity ratio.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the ground stereoscopic discharge and mining sketch map;
Fig. 2 is a cave distribution pattern sketch map;
Fig. 3 is space, cave key element and each Multilateral Wells horizontal projection;
Fig. 4 is the casing programme design diagram of main shaft;
Fig. 5 is each Multilateral Wells design track vertical projection diagram;
Fig. 6 is each Multilateral Wells design track schematic perspective view.
Wherein Reference numeral is: main shaft 1, deviated directional drilling 2, cave 3, coal seam reservoirs 10,
The specific embodiment
Specify the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Shown in Figure 1, be coal bed gas ground stereoscopic discharge and mining sketch map of the present invention.Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane; This formed over 1 years to destroy coal seam reservoirs (10); The relatively independent unconventional natural gas system that is in equilibrium state is broken the equilibrium state of this system, makes its relative homogeneousization; Set up new helping and arrange the coal seam reservoirs system of adopting, adopt main shaft row to adopt.In said main shaft (1) coal seam on every side, build cave, many places (3) (abbreviating " making the cave " again as below building the cave) through deviated directional drilling (2), form the coal seam area of stress concentration; In the stress equilibrium process of coal seam, make coal seam stress obtain discharging, help coal bed gas desorb, seepage flow; And make the coal seam that Zhang Xingyu shear failure take place, and produce new crack, form the interference between the cave; The cracks in coal seam (hugger) that causes in the coal seam some to be in sealing, semi-closed state is communicated with each other; Increase the natural crack network in coal seam and the specific area of coal, enlarge effectively " well radius ", form large tracts of land coal-bed methane seepage passage in wellbore.
Ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane of the present invention, main shaft (1) also comprise the deviated directional drilling (2) around the main shaft; Said deviated directional drilling comprises two types, and one type is bifurcated, at certain well section branch deflecting well of main shaft; Another kind of is clump formula, begins the deflecting well from the face of land.
Bifurcated can be divided into multiple-limb and single branch again, multiple-limb can be divided into again side direction on one side with from all directions, side direction from all directions be called cluster type (instance adopts cluster type exactly in this manual) again.
In the coal seam of certain limit, the cave is made in many places around described main shaft, and the construction technology that forms the coal seam area of stress concentration is: main shaft drilling well → deviated directional drilling drilling well → construction cave → inclined shaft sealing of hole → straight well completion and well cementation → perforation and pressure break.Wherein:
Main shaft drilling well: conventional drilling process.Be the protection coal seam reservoirs, normal at present clear water or the underbalance air drilling technology of adopting;
The deviated directional drilling drilling well: according to cave distribution pattern and stratum mechanical strength, design angle buildup interval and radius of curvature.Directional well is selected cluster type for use in principle; If owing to stratum reason (thicker like unconsolidated formation, exist zone of fracture etc.) causes the angle buildup interval spacing not enough; Can adopt clump formula to creep into and make the cave, perhaps cluster type mixes use with the clump formula, and cluster well is generally to the cave than the levels displacement.For accurately hitting the target area, can be with boring deviational survey with Controlling Borehole Trajectory.Making the cave well does not need setting of casing, well cementation, cost-saved, adopts slim hole drilling, is as the criterion to put into cave making tool.Making the cave inclined shaft creeps into to the coal seam reservoirs base plate;
Build the cave: there is certain volume in the general requirements cave; The cave height approaches coal seam thickness; Make the worker's technology of spreading manuer in holes and want simple, safety.Making the cave mode at present has negative pressure to make cave, waterpower to make cave, machine tool and make several kinds in cave etc., and machine tool is made the cave technology, and technology and equipment are fairly simple comparatively speaking, can assist in-place blasting out coal seam, cave, strengthens the coal seam effect of breaking, and can cooperate other well stimulation.After boring the chance seat earth, also directly borehole blasting in the coal seam, punching forms the cave, and this mode is the simplest.Make the cave process and protect roof as far as possible;
The inclined shaft sealing of hole: the inclined shaft sealing of hole requires the above complete closed of coal seam reservoirs, keeps the cave;
Straight well completion and well cementation: comprise setting of casing and well cementation etc., should be during well cementation according to the characteristics and the pressure condition in coal seam, well shaft fixing technology reasonable in design and mortar architecture;
Perforation and pressure break: perforation is necessary operation, and pressure break is then according to making the cave effect, need to determine whether and suitable pressure break scale, fracturing material etc.
The cave distribution pattern
Network of triangle, rectangle net, rhombus net, circular net, oval net and polygon etc. are arranged, as shown in Figure 2.Stress is higher at large owing to China's coal seam reservoirs, has certain stress flatly in the coal seam reservoirs, and the present invention is more prone to adopt rhombus or rectangle or oval mode.If be not sure of the coal seam flatly stress direction or flatly stress a little less than, can adopt modes such as square, triangle or circle.A plurality of coal seam reservoirs adopt many spaces to make the cave.
General cave spacing (distance between the adjacent cave) and cave horizontal movement are between 10~800 meters.Different zones should be optimized according to geology and coal seam situation, confirms best cave pattern, cave horizontal movement, cave spacing and target area scope.Can increase cave number and cave horizontal movement for enlarging row's scope of adopting.
The reservoir strengthening mechanism
Coal seam hugger trend is parallel with maximum stress direction; The face cleat that is passed through can be effectively linked up in opening property destruction crack; Higher face cleat of permeability and joint system can crosscut be organized in the shear failure crack more, and the coal seam along the permeability of hugger, joint system far above other direction, and the crack has the characteristics of self-supporting; In a short time can be not closed, help the seepage flow of coal bed methane gas; Side by side stress is released the desorb that helps coal bed gas; The phase mutual interference in a plurality of caves more helps the desorb and the seepage flow of coal bed gas.
On-the-spot technology construction example
One, geologic aspects
Pilot test unit is positioned at Qinshui coalfield somewhere, Shanxi Province, and according to interrelated data: the face of land is loose loess formation, and thickness is 20~160 meters.Target zone 3 #630 meters of the average buried depths in coal seam, coal bed gas content 8~25m 3/ t, the superstratum drillability is 4~5 grades, and few part is 6 grades, and 5~10 meters of coal seam thicknesses, major part are 6~8 meters, and ature of coal is meager coal, lean coal, primary structure, the coal seam mechanical strength is lower.
Two, well master data
Well is other: produce experiment well
Well-name: MLS001
Geographical position: somewhere, Shanxi Province.
Main shaft mouth coordinate: X:, Y: elevation: m
Magnetic declination :-4.50 °
Purpose coal seam: Shanxi Formation of Permian 3 #Coal
Completion method: ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method (this is made the cave and adopts the cluster type Multilateral Wells)
Finishing drilling vertical depth: design finishing drilling vertical depth 670.0m.
Three, construction purpose:
1, obtains relevant data such as relevant cave pattern, space, cave key element (comprising cave volume, cave spacing, cave horizontal movement), target area scope and adapt to the technical data of target area cbm exploration Development Engineering, technology.
2, arrange and adopt test, securing layer gas row adopts parameter.
Four, geological design
According to interrelated data, near the coal seam of well flatly stress direction is N70 ° of W, adopts the rhombus mode to arrange the cave, designs 8 in cave altogether.
The space key element in each cave is seen table 1 with the horizontal projection of each Multilateral Wells, and is as shown in Figure 3.Cave technology main target is following: the cave diameter is not less than 1.6 meters; The cave height approaches coal seam thickness; The cave is made the worker's technology of spreading manuer in holes and is wanted simple, safety; The target area scope is the circle of 6 meters of diameters.
The space key element table one in cave
Five, drilling design
(1), the casing programme of main shaft design
1, the casing programme plan of main shaft is as shown in Figure 4.
2, the casing programme tables of data of main shaft is seen table two.
Main shaft casing programme table two
(2), Multilateral Wells parameter designing
The cylindrical screw method is adopted in the design of Multilateral Wells wellbore trajectory;
Multilateral Wells designs the inclination section rate of over-all angle change less than 5.0 °/30m, 25 ° of maximum drift angles;
Each Multilateral Wells design track cross level projection, as shown in Figure 3.
Each Multilateral Wells design track upright projection, as shown in Figure 5.
The three-dimensional upright projection of each Multilateral Wells, as shown in Figure 6.
The Multilateral Wells sequence of construction is numbered in the space key element table by the cave: I, V, III, VII, IV, VIII, II, VI;
1758 meters of Multilateral Wells orbit Design length overalls.
Table three is an I Multilateral Wells design orbital data, and other Multilateral Wells is similar, and each Multilateral Wells design track is seen accompanying drawing 5.
I Multilateral Wells design orbital data table three
Six, drilling equipment and parameter
(1), drilling equipment
Main drilling equipment table four
(2), BHA
1, spud in a tool combination
0~50.00m section φ 311.1mm drill bit * 1+ φ 158.8mm drill collar * 2+ drilling rod.
2, two spud in tool combinations
50.00~670.00m section straight well BHA (50.00-670.00m), φ 215.9mm drill bit * 1+ φ 158.8mm non magnetic drill collar * 1+ φ 214mm spiral centralizer * 1+ φ 158.8mm drill collar * 9+ φ 127mm drilling rod.
The alternative BHA of straight well: Φ 215.9mm drill bit * 1+ Φ 158.8mm non magnetic drill collar * 1+ Φ 158.8mm drill collar * 9+ Φ 127mm drilling rod.
3, inclination section (360.00~464.00m) BHAs
φ 215.9mm drill bit+φ 165mm screw rod+φ 214mm spiral centralizer * 1+ φ 158.8mm non magnetic drill collar * 2+ φ 158.8mm drill collar * 9+ φ 127mm drilling rod.
(3), creep into combination
1, one opens
Adopt φ 311.15mm roller bit cutting.
2, two open
The straight well section adopts φ 215.90mm roller bit cutting.
3, inclination section
Since about 464 meters Multilateral Wells positioning operations, adopt φ 215.90mm rock bit deflecting.
4, increasing hole angle section
The drilling method that this well section adopts φ 215.90mm gear wheel and PDC drill bit to be used alternatingly.
5, steady tilted section
Drilling tool: φ 215.9mm gear wheel (PDC) drill bit+φ 214mm spiral centralizer * 1+ φ 158.8mm non magnetic drill collar * 1+ φ 158.8mm drill collar * 9+ φ 127mm drilling rod+kelly.
6, drop angle section
This design drop angle seldom surpasses designing requirement as if gradient, must drop angle.Drop angle drilling tool: φ 215.9mm gear wheel (PDC) drill bit+φ 159mm non magnetic drill collar * 1+ φ 158.8mm drill collar * 9+ φ 127mm drilling rod+kelly.
Seven, build, make cave and sealing of hole at the bottom of the artificial hole
The I Multilateral Wells, earlier with stopper at the 474m place " bridge formation ".With 191 #Portions of resin cement: sand: curing compound: catalyzer was in 1: 2.5: 1: 0.6: 0.05 ratio is made into mortar; And this mortar with become mud ball; From the well head input, again with the drilling tool tamping of screw terminal to the 464m place, leave standstill to reach after 10 hours and estimate to build successfully at the bottom of intensity is promptly calculated artificial hole.V, III, VII, IV, VIII Multilateral Wells, kickoff point (KOP) be 10 meters of spacings respectively, after the completion of I Multilateral Wells, directly tamping to design attitude as artificial hole at the bottom of.II Multilateral Wells " bridge formation " is again built at the bottom of the artificial hole, and the VI Multilateral Wells is on the basis of II Multilateral Wells, and directly tamping is built at the bottom of the artificial hole.
Make the cave process and can adopt common cave drill bit or the patent cave making tool (a kind of oil gas well bore hole cave making tool, number of patent application 200620007271) made, cooperate explosion punching cavitation, or direct explosion punching cavitation.After making the cave completion, each Multilateral Wells is " bridge formation " and sealing of hole more than roof.Sealing material: Portland cement or portland slag cement, fine sand or rock dust.
Eight, drilling fluid
Full well requires clear water to creep into, and non-coal measure strata drill-in fluid density must not be greater than 1.05g/cm 3, coal measure strata must not be greater than 1.02g/cm 3
Nine, coal bed gas well control requirement
Two drive a well mouthful device by casing head, four-way and veneer preventer to down and on form.
The well control prediction scheme is:
1, construction corps's equipment is installed details by the well control requirement, the on-the-spot H that is equipped with 2S gas detecting instrument and protection tool.
2, bore chance 3 #40m begins to sit the hilllock observation before the coal seam, stops to observe the dereliction of duty situation generation of overflow; Overflow occurs, weighted drilling fluid is prepared by establishment officer, reports to project management department immediately; Under branch company and project management department's personnel arrangement, control overflow, well kick, stop blowout and blowout out of control.
3, deposit calcite in powder in well site is no less than 15 tons.
4, find that prominent fast, the emptying of drilling speed, leakage, pump pressure descend in creeping into, drilling fluid returns that outflow strengthens, drilling fluid viscosity increases, drilling fluid density descends, drilling fluid has great amount of bubbles intrusion etc., stop to bore circulation immediately and observe, prepare to implement a well control and control overflow.
5, all adjust property of drilling fluid before each the trip-out, big discharge capacity circulation, measuring drilling fluid density, the conclusive evidence drilling fluid density is even, just allows to pull out of hole.
6, after the trip-out, should shorten as far as possible and stop the well time, bore down as early as possible.
7, should there be the special messenger to be responsible for observation from start to finish in that wellbore construction is interim, mud pit, mud ditch level change, especially after the coal seam left by brill, noting abnormalities in time reported the tool pusher, reports project management department by the tool pusher.
8, after main force coal seam left by brill, per 3 post of drilling rod, each post of drill collar were filled drilling fluid once in well, kept the head of liquid in the well; The simultaneously strict control speed that makes a trip will note preventing to pull out piston especially, finds to pull out piston, transfers drilling tool immediately and connects the kelly bar circulation and get rid of and pull out the piston phenomenon.Avoid causing blowout because of the pressure excitement causes leakage, suction that head of liquid is reduced.Trip-out speed must not be greater than 20m/min.
9, adhere to cadre's watch system.After opening the coal seam, cadre 24h is on duty in drilling team.
10, the anti-fire behind the blowout out of control, evacuation personnel, tissue are speedily carried out rescue work, and carry out according to the well control regulations.
11, No Open Flames in the well site; Brill leaves the purpose coal seam and gets angry subject to project management department approval and the precautionary measures are arranged; The fire prevention utensil is assorted by code requirement in the well site.
12, as blowout out of control takes place, stop immediately, blowing out, eliminate disaster hidden-trouble, prevent to catch fire, and the immediate evacuation personnel, report, organize and speedily carry out rescue work.
13, if gas blowout accident is more serious, having to leave under the situation in well site, the rig personnel will choose escape route, and withdraws to well site direction against the wind, to prevent causing poisoning in the pernicious gas suction body.
Ten, cementing operation design
1, surface pipe well cementation requires cement to return out ground, and cement slurry density is controlled at 1.85 ± 0.03g/cm 3Require accurate measurement during for slurry, be strictly on guard against for empty.
2, protective casing well cementation, cement slurry density design 1.50-1.60g/cm 3, cement paste returns to 3 #The above 400m of roof.Mortar architecture requires: low dehydration, high early strong, microdilatancy, slurry stability are good, and transit time is short.Casing stabbing board is laid design: one of big per 2 sleeve pipe of gradient section; One of 3 sleeve pipe of all the other interval isolations.
3, cement paste prescription: G level oil well cement+palliative+filtrate loss reduction additive+early strength admixture+expansion agent+adjustable solidification agent+antifoaming agent.The cement paste test requirements document: cement paste Free water controlled quentity controlled variable is 0; Fluid loss<50ml; Cement paste is done supercharging multiviscosisty test, the thickening time >=cementing total time+1h; Cement stone should satisfy requirement of strength, compressive strength: 24h >=8MPa, 48h >=14MPa.
11, perforation and pressure break: existing mature technology, perforation is necessary operation.Determine whether needs pressure break and suitable pressure break scale, fracturing material etc. according to making the cave effect.
12, health, safety and environmental protection (HSE) requirement
(1), to reach following requirement before the drillng operation:
1, is equipped with waste water, refuse antiseepage pond (100-150 side), open flow pond (10-20 side) and the separate drain system that removes contamination.
2, set up tangible environmental protection sign in the well site;
3, all must there be impermeable measure in wastewater disposal basin, refuse hole, open flow pond;
4, equipment, facility and process pipelines do not have the run, drip, leak phenomenon in the well site, and drying keeps clean;
5, clear and definite appointed place is all wanted in the storage of construction materials in the well site, implements impermeable, Anti-lost, anti-flying measure; Forbid on-site incineration waste oil article or other refuses;
6, poisonous, harmful materials should be established obvious sign, specify the personal management, set up transmitting-receiving registration machine account;
7, cementing etc. produces the operation of corpuscular property dust pollution, requires to prevent the dust pollution air ambient with airtight blanking system or cleaner production construction technology;
8, set up the environmental protection machine account.Environmental protection machine account content mainly comprises: construction operation major pollutants title, drain time, discharging quantity (liquid level), discharge sites; Environmental protection accident conditions in the construction operation, land oil mass, contaminated area, waste liquid wastage etc.;
(2), to reach following requirement in the drilling process:
1, drilling fluid will adopt the low toxicity material, forbids to use materials such as chromium-iron lignosulfonate;
Cleaning production measures such as 2, strict control waste water generation, the cooling water of implementing slush pump, hydromatic brake recycle.Forbid flushing with clean water equipment, if efflux wastewater must meet the environmental requirement of local government;
3, strict control quantity of solid waste is equipped with perfect solid control equipment, implements the solid controlling measure.The mode of encouragement employing minimizing, resource reclaims, the conversion using waste mud;
4, the generation of strict control household garbage, rubbish should leave in the special container, concentrates recycling; Degradable and non-degradable material will be deposited respectively, handle respectively.
5, the noise of construction equipment is taked the noise reduction soundproof measures, reduce influence surrounding environment;
(3), the well site environmental protection should meet following requirement after the completion:
1, the drilling fluid materials after the completion, used oil, wash part oil and other oil product must all reclaim, must not abandon in the well site;
2, waste water should all reclaim or qualified discharge.
3, all safe disposal or comprehensive utilizations of solid waste, after the disposal should with reference to < general industry solid waste store disposal site pollute control criterion>(GB18599) with the environmental requirement of local government.
4, drilling fluid is reclaimed or carry out that solidify on the face of land, harmless treatment, reach national requirements for environmental protection.
5, want smooth well site after the completion, recover landforms, reach the requirement of reclaiming.
(4), this well HSE important requirement
1, drilling team's drinking water quality must comply with the national standard requirements, and guarantees worker's health of drinking water.
2, the regulation of country about associated documents such as health, safety and enviromental protection law, rules should be observed by unit in charge of construction.
3, note carrying out anti-thunder and lightning, flood fighting flood control, reducing temperature of heatstroke prevention work summer.
4, in order to reach national energy conservation target, realize sustainable development, unit in charge of construction should adopt advanced technology, technology, improves bit speed, shortens drilling period, reaches energy-conservation purpose.
5, not contaminated for the protection groundwater resources, all waste water that produce in the drilling process, waste drilling fluid must enter mud sump or open flow pond, are cured or harmless treatment on ground, never allow the polluted underground water resource.
If for a certain reason during abandoned well, then want shutoff inside and outside the well in 6 drilling wells, must shut gas-bearing formation, water layer first cement plug sealing gas-bearing formation section and above 150m; Make a call to second cement plug at well head 200-300m place.Well head weldering wellhead cap, and carry out the underground construction profile.

Claims (2)

1. ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane adopts main shaft row mining coal seam gas, and it is characterized in that: this method is destroyed the raw coal reservoir systems exactly, breaks the equilibrium state of this system, makes its relative homogeneousization, creates new helping and arranges the coal seam reservoirs system of adopting;
Said destruction raw coal reservoir systems, break the concrete grammar of this system balancing state:
(a), said main shaft (1) also comprises main shaft cave (3) on every side;
(b), in the coal seam (10) around the said main shaft; Build cave (3) through deviated directional drilling at least three places, form the coal seam area of stress concentration, in the stress equilibrium process of coal seam, make cave coal seam stress on every side obtain discharging; And make the coal seam that Zhang Xingyu shear failure take place; Produce new crack, form the interference between the cave, cause the crack, coal seam that is in sealing, semi-closed state in the coal seam to communicate with each other and form large tracts of land air infiltration circulation road;
(c), carry out coal bed gas row by main shaft (1) and adopt, the deviated directional drilling (2) around the main shaft is wanted sealing of hole but reservation cave (3);
The construction technology of this discharge and mining method is: main shaft drilling well → deviated directional drilling drilling well → inclined shaft is built cave → inclined shaft sealing of hole → straight well completion and well cementation → perforation and pressure break.
2. ground stereoscopic discharge and mining method of coal bed methane according to claim 1 is characterized in that: said construction cave, its cave distribution pattern: for network of triangle or be rectangle net or for the rhombus net or for circular net or for oval net.
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