A kind of internal grinder
The present invention relates to process the grinding machine of barrier part endoporus, particularly a kind of internal grinder.
For the needs of processing, internal grinder should carry out the grinding of inner headed face usually, can carry out the grinding of the conical surface again.Existing internal grinder as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, comprises the headstock spindle unit that is used for the clamping processing work and is used to process interior round grinding unit.Its grinding unit fixedly is loaded on the cross slide, and cross slide can laterally slide is installed on the vertical planker, but vertical planker being installed on the workbench of longitudinal sliding motion then.During the grinding conical surface, need the unitary rotation workbench, make workbench carry horizontal stroke, vertical planker and the relative lathe bed deflection of grinding whole unit semi-cone angle after, process again.In order to save the metal consumption of lathe bed, usually all the area with the chassis of workbench is identical substantially to lay the area of support platform of workbench on the grinder bed, perhaps only be slightly larger than the area on workbench chassis, when the relative lathe bed deflection of workbench, when carrying out cone face process, the two ends of workbench can be unsettled outside support platform, particularly when the cone angle that needs the processing conical surface is big, its unsettled situation can be more obvious, make the support shakiness of lathe bed to workbench, add and shake easily man-hour, and the precision of influence processing.
In order to address the above problem, can consider to strengthen the area of the support platform of laying workbench on the lathe bed, make the workbench after the area of support platform is enough to support fully deflection, also can support fully after the workbench deflection by support platform, and can be not unsettled, thereby can avoid the vibration of workbench in the grinding process reliably, guarantee the precision of processing.Yet, the area of the workbench of existing grinding machine is all very big, and in order to satisfy the requirement of the endoporus that is processed with certain depth, often need to have long confession to indulge the guide rail that planker moves, thereby the often more horizontal width of its longitudinal length is much bigger, even very little angle of its deflection, under the long long limit amplification of workbench, it also can bigger value of deflection at width, in order to guarantee after the workbench deflection still support table fully of support platform, support platform it can need broadening a lot of laterally square, this makes whole lathe bed significantly to widen, increase the metal consumption of lathe bed greatly, significantly improved the manufacturing cost of grinding machine, also influenced the visuality of grinding machine processing and the convenience of operation simultaneously.
In addition, usually need position by bolt after its workbench deflection of existing grinding machine, one end of its workbench is swung by the support platform of straight pin and lathe bed is hinged, other end bottom has slide block to insert in the arc groove on the support platform, after push work platform deflects into required angle, in the arc groove of both sides, workbench chassis, screw in caging bolt, the workbench chassis is carried out spacing, thereby prevent workbench from process, swinging once more and influence the quality and the precision of processing.It is located by caging bolt, and inconvenience operates; And need in the groove of support platform, to set in advance a plurality of for the fixing locating hole of caging bolt, these locating holes must be property distributions at interval, it can not realize electrodeless location, the deflection angle of workbench can only adapt with the position of positioning hole that is provided with, then can't directly accurately locate for incompatible angle, the flexibility of processing conical surface cone angle is not high, can not arbitrarily process the conical surface of any cone angle.
In order to guarantee the machining accuracy of grinding machine, need the traverse feed precision and the long feed precision of strict control grinding machine.By adopting high-precision guide rail,, can improve precision, thereby improve machining accuracy the vertical and horizontal displacement control of grinder wheel as hydrostatic slideway, rolling guide etc.Yet, because the vertical planker of grinding machine and the structure of cross slide for piling up mutually, the guide rail of two high accuracy is upper and lower layout, the control accuracy of upper strata guide rail is subjected to the influence of lower floor's guide rail, and the emery wheel high speed rotating that drives the grinding unit at drive unit adds man-hour, the upper strata guide rail vibrates easily, and this has restricted crudy from another point of view again, has influenced the further raising of machining accuracy.Certainly, by reducing the influence that rotating speed can reduce vibration, yet this must influence the efficient of processing again.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to provide and a kind ofly can guarantee the endoporus machining accuracy, can guarantee the cone face process precision again, and can conveniently process any cone angle conical surface, the internal grinder that manufacturing cost is relatively low.
Internal grinder of the present invention, the middle part of its lathe bed is equipped with can be along the horizontal cross slide that slides of lathe bed, headstock hollow main shaft unit is installed on the cross slide, comprise the rotating headstock base that is installed on the cross slide, be installed on the headstock and the hollow main shaft that is loaded on headstock middle part on the headstock base, hollow main shaft is loaded in the headstock by bearing and is connected with drive unit, can drive it by drive unit rotates relative to the headstock, through hole is arranged on the cross slide, and the inserted link that stretches out under the headstock base passes through hole and connects firmly mutually with the piston of pressure cylinder; Being equipped with on the lathe bed of headstock hollow main shaft cell side can be along the vertical planker of lathe bed longitudinal sliding motion, on the vertical planker grinding unit is installed, the body of grinding unit is fixed on the vertical planker by base, circle grinding tool in being equipped with on it, in being installed on, emery wheel on the circle grinding tool, drives its rotation by drive unit.
Internal grinder of the present invention, the inserted link that stretches out under the headstock base passes cross slide and connects firmly mutually with the piston of pressure cylinder, lower cylinder body and pressure-source communication with pressure cylinder, can promote headstock hollow main shaft unit upwards rises and the disengagement cross slide, and with the upper cylinder body and the pressure-source communication of pressure cylinder, the headstock hollow main shaft unit of rise is descended, and headstock base is pressed on the support platform once more.During the grinding conical surface, under headstock hollow main shaft unit rise state, rotate headstock hollow main shaft unit and make its deflection semi-cone angle, then falling headstock hollow main shaft unit makes headstock base compress cross slide once more, the angle that can make the axis of emery wheel and workpiece is a semi-cone angle, carries the workpiece traverse feed that is clamped on the hollow main shaft and vertical planker by cross slide and carries the emery wheel length feed and can process the required conical surface.The swing of the base of headstock hollow main shaft unit can be by driven by servomotor, also can be by manually realizing.
Double end internal grinder of the present invention is realized the processing of the conical surface by the headstock hollow main shaft unit of deflection clamping workpiece.In the cone face process process, the grinding unit does not need deflection, and the workbench of deflecting action also just need be installed in the bottom of vertical planker, provides cost savings; Simultaneously, the vertical planker of support grinding unit does not need deflection, and the bottom support of grinding unit unsettled situation can not occur, thereby in the process of processing, the grinding unit of high speed rotating can not produce vibration, has guaranteed the precision of processing reliably.Headstock hollow main shaft unit is rotating to be installed on the cross slide, do not need whole deflection cross slide during deflection, independent deflection headstock hollow main shaft unit gets final product, and the area of headstock base is less relatively, cross slide does not need the headstock base after very big area just can support deflection fully, and the headstock unsettled situation can not occur.And in the process, the hollow main shaft rotating speed is lower, even headstock base has part unsettled, also is difficult for causing vibration and influences machining accuracy.It both can adopt less lathe bed, can guarantee machining accuracy again.
In addition, the pressure of location after the deflection of headstock hollow main shaft by pressure cylinder compresses headstock base mutually with cross slide to be realized, no matter any angle of deflection can both be located reliably, and its deflection angle is unrestricted, can process the conical surface of any cone angle very easily.
In addition, double end internal grinder of the present invention, its traverse feed drives headstock hollow main shaft unit transverse by cross slide and moves realization, and long feed drives the grinding unit by vertical planker and vertically moves realization.Horizontal supporting plate and vertical supporting plate are not the stacked on top structures, and traverse feed and long feed can not influence each other.During processing work, the emery wheel of the grinding unit of high speed rotating is only done unidirectional length feed motion, and its guide rail can not vibrate, and can control feed accuracy reliably, can also support rotation at a high speed simultaneously.Both guarantee machining accuracy, improved working (machining) efficiency again.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of structural representation of existing internal grinder;
Fig. 2 is the vertical view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a kind of structural representation of internal grinder;
Fig. 4 is the vertical view of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 headstock hollow main shaft unit is installed on the partial sectional view at cross slide place;
Fig. 6 is the assembling schematic diagram of a kind of interior circle grinding tool and main shaft;
Fig. 7 is the B-B profile of interior round grinding tool;
Fig. 8 is the assembling schematic diagram of a kind of interior circle grinding tool and main shaft;
Fig. 9 is a kind of structural representation of internal grinder;
Figure 10 is a kind of schematic diagram of internal grinder clamping workpiece;
Figure 11 is a kind of schematic diagram of internal grinder clamping workpiece;
Figure 12 is a kind of schematic diagram of internal grinder clamping workpiece.
The specific embodiment
As Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, a kind of internal grinder, lathe bed 1 is arranged, the middle part of lathe bed is equipped with can be along the horizontal cross slide 2 that slides of lathe bed, headstock hollow main shaft unit 3 is installed on the cross slide 2, comprises the rotating headstock base 31 that is installed on the cross slide, is installed on the headstock 32 and the hollow main shaft 33 that is loaded on headstock middle part on the headstock base, hollow main shaft is loaded in the headstock by bearing 34, drives its rotation by drive unit.Drive unit can be for driving the motor of its rotation by belt pulley, sprocket wheel or gear etc.Through hole is arranged on the cross slide, and the inserted link 35 that stretches out under the base passes through hole and connects firmly mutually with the piston of pressure cylinder; Being equipped with on the lathe bed 1 of headstock hollow main shaft unit 3 sides can be along the vertical planker 4 of lathe bed longitudinal sliding motion, on the vertical planker 4 grinding unit 5 is installed, grinding cell body 51 is fixed on the vertical planker 4 by base 52, circle grinding tool 53 in being equipped with on it, in being installed on by main shaft, emery wheel 6 on the circle grinding tool, drives its rotation by the drive unit that is installed on the body.Here drive unit equally can be for driving the motor of its rotation by belt pulley, sprocket wheel or gear etc.The swing of the base of headstock hollow main shaft unit can be by driven by servomotor, also can be by manually realizing.
The emery wheel of grinding machine has wearing and tearing after using certain hour, thus the precision of influence processing.In order to guarantee grinding accuracy, need to install the trimming device that to repair emery wheel on the grinding machine.The cutter that high rigidity materials such as common employing diamant are made is repaired it.After crushing is good, need contraposition again, this need send out the long time of expense, has seriously influenced the efficient of grinding.In order to shorten the required time of trimming wheel, can be directly with trimming device, be directly installed on the grinding machine, can be under the situation of not unloading lower grinding wheel, emery wheel is repaired, as Fig. 4, wheel dresser 7 is installed on the cross slide, when needs are repaired emery wheel 6, emery wheel 6 is aimed at trimming device 7, by 2 years emery wheels of cross slide laterally towards the trimming device feeding, carry out the finishing of emery wheel, in the dressing process, emery wheel does not need dismounting, and the direction of revising is consistent with the direction of feed of grinding, the center of emery wheel can not change, thereby does not need contraposition again, just can continue processing, shorten the time of crushing widely, greatly improved working (machining) efficiency.Especially under the situation for the fast workpiece of workhardness height, abrasion of grinding wheel, its raising to working (machining) efficiency is particularly evident.
Internal grinder when the very dark circular hole of grinding, difficulty very.Its emery wheel must protrude into the bosom of deep hole, and it is very long that this inevitable requirement is installed the interior round grinding tool 53 of emery wheel 6, yet interior round grinding tool 53 is long, when grinding at a high speed, is easy to generate vibration, makes finished surface produce grinding vibration waviness, influences the precision of grinding.Can guarantee by the rotating speed that reduces emery wheel for fear of producing chatter mark, also can realize by the diameter of circle grinding tool in increasing, yet reduce rotating speed and must influence working (machining) efficiency, and the increase diameter, can increase cost again, simultaneously, the increase of interior circle grinding tool diameter, emery wheel is wanted to be ground to workpiece, it is taken turns the footpath and also must and then increase, and the emery wheel in bull wheel footpath can influence the grinding force and the precision of grinding, and simultaneously, large diameter interior circle grinding tool weight is bigger, circle grinding tool in the long major diameter ground, can be under the effect of self gravitation produce certain flexural deformation, further influenced the precision of processing, want during visible deep hole processing that guaranteed efficiency and precision are very difficult simultaneously.In order to address this problem, as Fig. 6, Fig. 7, can on interior round grinding tool 53, process eccentric circular hole 53a, the main shaft 8 of emery wheel inserts in the eccentric circular hole, fixes by bearing 9 and interior round grinding tool 53, and drive unit links to each other with main shaft 8, but drive shaft is rotated.Its main shaft and interior round grinding tool off-centre, emery wheel is loaded on the main shaft, and emery wheel just can easily be ground to workpiece with less land wheel footpath, thereby can not influence the grinding force and the grinding accuracy of emery wheel.In addition, the main shaft that emery wheel rotates has the bigger wheel bar of diameter to support outward, and it can make emery wheel add under high rotational speed also not shake man-hour, thereby the efficient of processing also can be higher relatively.In addition, and the flexural deformation of the interior round grinding tool that cause overweight for fear of interior round grinding tool, the side that interior round grinding tool 53 is not installed main shaft 8 can be processed a plurality of cavity 53b, even can hollow out fully, only leaves the reinforcement 53c that guarantees rigidity to get final product, as Fig. 7.It can alleviate the weight of the bigger interior round grinding tool of external diameter, can reduce the flexural deformation that causes because of deadweight.Its precision of eccentric orfice in above-mentioned in the circle grinding tool directly exerts an influence to the precision of processing; for the precision that guarantees to process; at first must guarantee the precision of eccentric inner hole; so eccentric inner hole must be convenient to processing; and the length of eccentric inner hole is very long; the precision of its endoporus is difficult to guarantee, in order to guarantee the precision of endoporus, as Fig. 8; endoporus can be divided into coaxial two sections; one section internal diameter is less, and one section internal diameter is bigger, is connected to each other to step-like; it is equivalent to slotted hole is cut apart for two sections short holes; each section processed respectively, the precision of easier protection eccentric inner hole, thus can better guarantee the precision of processing.Be installed on simultaneously and also can make in the step-like endoporus step-likely accordingly by the main shaft of bearing fixing, it also can become by fixed axis at the step place, thereby has increased the strong point of main shaft, makes main shaft more not yielding, and the precision of processing can be higher.
Internal grinder can only have cross slide and be installed on grinding unit on the cross slide, as Fig. 9 on the lathe bed of headstock hollow main shaft unit one side.When need to headstock hollow main shaft unit on the two ends of workpiece of clamping when all carrying out grinding, process an end after, by rotation headstock hollow main shaft unit 180 degree, can carry out the processing of other end.Internal grinder also can all be adorned cross slide and the grinding unit that is installed on the cross slide on the lathe bed of headstock hollow main shaft both sides, as Fig. 3.All there is the grinding unit of grinding work piece the both sides of its headstock hollow main shaft, directly can carry out grinding to the two ends of the workpiece of clamping on the hollow main shaft, thereby, convenient, also more can guarantee the axiality of workpiece two ends machined surface simultaneously.
Internal grinder also can be made column, on its cross slide 2 column part 9 is installed, column part 9 can be an one with cross slide 2, also can be fixed on the cross slide by syndeton or connector, headstock hollow main shaft unit is installed on the column part 9 of cross slide 2, as Fig. 5.The inserted link of stretching under its base inserts in the through hole of column part, and the piston rod of the pressure cylinder interior with being loaded on the column part links to each other.
During the internal grinder processing work, workpiece 10 needs clamping on hollow main shaft 33, for outer surface without processing, machining accuracy is lower or do not require the workpiece of precision, its clamping workpiece mode, as Figure 11, one end of hollow main shaft 33 has the conical surface 11, but the conical surface anchor clamps 12 of breathing insert in it, there is back-up ring 13 in the outside of conical surface anchor clamps, screw 14 is threaded onto back-up ring on the fixture on hollow main shaft or the hollow main shaft, by screwing and unscrew screw 14, back-up ring 13 can compress or unclamp conical surface anchor clamps 12, makes conical surface anchor clamps 12 clamping work pieces 10 or unclamps workpiece.The other end of hollow main shaft 33 has 15, three of a plurality of tapped through holes, four or more, is rotary with in the tapped through hole 15 to regulate bolt 16.During clamping workpiece, insert workpiece 10, one ends in the hollow main shaft 33,, back-up ring is compressed conical surface anchor clamps, and make conical surface anchor clamps contraction clip clamping of workpieces by rotary screw 14; The other end then by regulating the degree that screws of a plurality of bolts 16 in the tapped through hole, offsets each bolt and workpiece, thereby finishes the clamping of workpiece.It adopts conical surface clamp workpiece, can make workpiece find the location automatically accurately, and the degree that screws of the bolt in the screwed hole can conveniently be regulated, and this clamping workpiece mode is simple in structure and the location is convenient.
For the higher workpiece of outer surface machining accuracy, its installation way, as Figure 12, hollow main shaft 33 two ends are separately installed with front jig 17 and rear jig 18, and a plurality of tapped through holes are all arranged on the anchor clamps of front and back, all are rotary with in the tapped through hole to regulate bolt 16.During clamping workpiece, workpiece inserts hollow main shaft, and the adjusting bolt 16 before and after regulating on the anchor clamps makes bolt from two ends workpiece be clamped, and accurately contraposition.
For the workpiece with flange, its installation way is as Figure 13.Its rear jig 18 is identical with Figure 12, and its front jig 17 can be the back-up ring of ring-type, and locating hole 20 is arranged on the back-up ring, and the position of the locating hole on locating hole 20 and the flange 19 is consistent, flange can be fixed on the locating hole on the back-up ring by bolt 21.
The clamping of workpiece also can all be rotary with in each tapped through hole and regulate bolt 16 by directly all processing a plurality of tapped through holes at the two ends of hollow main shaft, during clamping workpiece, and can work piece positioning is tight by the adjusting bolt 16 of regulating the hollow main shaft two ends.
Make workpiece deformation in order to prevent to regulate when bolt 16 pushes against mutually with workpiece, and the surface accuracy, particularly outer surface that influences workpiece be through the finished workpiece of high accuracy, the column structure that does not have screw thread can be adopted for one section in the end of adjusting bolt.Its bottom of regulating bolt is cylindrical, and the bottom surface is the plane, as Figure 11, Figure 12.During clamping workpiece, the base plane of regulating bolt contacts with workpiece, and it has increased the contact-making surface of bolt to surface of the work, reduces the pressure of bolt to surface of the work, thereby has reduced the influence of clamping to the surface of the work precision.Regulate the cylindrical segment of bolt bottom, can be made by softer metal material, as copper, aluminium etc., when regulating the bolt clip clamping of workpieces, its distortion mainly occurs in to be regulated on the bolt, thereby can further reduce the distortion of surface of the work, better protection workpiece.