CN101216711A - Amphibious mechanical crab step control device and control method - Google Patents

Amphibious mechanical crab step control device and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101216711A
CN101216711A CNA2008100638197A CN200810063819A CN101216711A CN 101216711 A CN101216711 A CN 101216711A CN A2008100638197 A CNA2008100638197 A CN A2008100638197A CN 200810063819 A CN200810063819 A CN 200810063819A CN 101216711 A CN101216711 A CN 101216711A
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China
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control
joint
level
walking leg
controller
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CNA2008100638197A
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Chinese (zh)
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陈东良
王立权
季宝锋
邓辉峰
刘德峰
王刚
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哈尔滨工程大学
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Priority to CNA2008100638197A priority Critical patent/CN101216711A/en
Publication of CN101216711A publication Critical patent/CN101216711A/en

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P90/00Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions mitigation
    • Y02P90/02Total factory control, e.g. smart factories, flexible manufacturing systems [FMS] or integrated manufacturing systems [IMS]

Abstract

The invention provides a hierarchical control device for an amphibian machinery crab and a control method thereof. The device comprises a superstructure-level control part composed of a B3C44B0-cored ARM system, a coordination-level control part composed of an AVR single chip computer ATmega128L, eight walking-leg drive modules and an execution-level control part which is composed of a multi-sensor signal collecting module; wherein control signals are input to the superstructure-level control part; the coordination-level control part is connected between the superstructure-level control part and the execution-level control part; and the execution-level control part communicates with joint drive units through bus communication protocols. The invention divides the system into superstructure level, monitoring coordination level and execution level based on the design principle of hierarchical distribution, each dispersed controller not only can work independently but also can communicate and exchange information with a higher level controller or a peer level controller through communication circuits. The hierarchical structure has the advantages of a centralized structure and a dispersed structure, thereby overall and partial control performances are high, and the operation is reliable.

Description

The step control device and the control method of Amphibious mechanical crab

(1) technical field

What the present invention relates to is a kind of control device of intelligent robot, the present invention also relates to a kind of control method of intelligent robot.Specifically a kind of control device and control method of Amphibious mechanical crab class multi-foot robot.

(2) background technology

The Amphibious mechanical crab brief introduction: robot profile and function are biological prototype with the river crab, have eight walking legs, and every walking leg has three to drive the joint; By 24 driven by servomotor, form 24 degree of freedom.Controller adopts DSP to control, wholely sealed by rubber sleeve, the multiple walking step state of simulation crab, can realize under the amphibious environment moving ahead flexibly, skidding, about 14 actions such as turn, retreat.Every walking leg all is furnished with force transducer, comes the perception external environment condition, detects that toe lands and whether walking leg runs into information such as barrier, for the path planning of walking leg provides information.The hardware architecture of system adopts damascene structures, with ARM system, dsp chip as core controller, finish the planning of compound movement and the computing of coordination of tasks.This system adopts sensors such as infrared remote sensing, power sense sensor, vision, and the utilization multi-sensor information fusion technology is distinguished external environment in real time, make have higher intelligent.Can be implemented in sandy beach, level land, meadow, swampland, wait that environment advances, retreats under water, left and right sides skidding and optional position, arbitrarily angled, any direction turning etc.

Amphibious bionic machine crab walks under the amphibious environment of complexity, control system there is higher requirement, can finish certain job task in order to make the machine crab, at first will be at its mechanical feature and movement characteristic, analysis robot is set up hardware controls platform and planning software structure to the functional requirement of control system.The machine crab is the controlled system of a complexity, its every walking leg all is a multivariant series arm, realize effective control, except that the control that drives the joint precise and high efficiencies to three of every walking leg, also to coordinate mutually between many walking legs, produce needed gait, finish a certain definite work jointly, thereby the machine crab in motion process information to be processed be extremely complicated, and require to walk abreast, divide the work clear and definite.

For realize robot flexibly, omnibearing walking, its control system is mainly contained following requirement:

(1) multiple degrees of freedom is coordinated control.Robot always has 24 and drives the joint, no matter be omnibearing walking, still multi-functional realization all realizes by driving the interarticular coordinated movement of various economic factors, therefore must coordinate control to these joints, evaluation index is closed the coordination precision of internode position, speed, acceleration for each.

(2) reaction is timely, real-time, has the decision making package ability.Robot is in the process of motion, the situation on road surface and the situation of surrounding environment all are at random, at these unscheduled events, robot must be able in time react, and make rational decision-making, otherwise will produce serious consequence, evaluation index is the arithmetic speed of controller, the communication bandwidth of intermodule.

(3) intellectuality has stronger capacity of self-government, reduces people's intervention as far as possible.Attach most importance to the action of self with traditional automation and to compare, the control system of bio-robot is the mutual relationship of robot body and surrounding environment, operand more emphatically then.

(4) easily expansion has the ability that increases the reference mark.Along with going deep into of research, robot may need to increase some abilities, as intelligent object to the detection of surrounding environment and self-condition, and the gait planning module of the different road conditions of robot etc., evaluation index is the redundance of the interface between software and hardware of control system

(5) provide friendly man-machine interface.The interface is the interface that people and control system are come into contacts with, and by it, operating personnel can at large convey to control system to the intention of oneself on the one hand, can also know the situation that robot is current on the other hand, and evaluation index is real-time, quantity of information.

Present robot control system has two kinds of basic versions usually: concentrating structure and distributed frame.The former advantage is that control is direct, validity is high, is convenient to systematic analysis and design; Shortcoming is if there is fault in control center, then total system paralysis, and reliability is not high. and the latter connects some distributed directors by master controller, and each distributed director all has controlling object and target separately.Its advantage is that local fault is unlikely to the influence overall situation, reliability height; Shortcoming is that overall control performance is poor, and the global coordination operation is difficulty.

(3) summary of the invention

The step control device that the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of validity height, be convenient to systematic analysis and design, local fault is unlikely to influence the overall situation, reliability height, the overall Amphibious mechanical crab that control performance is good, the global coordination operational effect is good.The present invention also aims to provide a kind of hierarchical control method of Amphibious mechanical crab.

The object of the present invention is achieved like this:

The step control device of Amphibious mechanical crab comprises umbrella organisations's level, middle level coordination level and lower floor's execution level three parts; Mainly by being that core ARM system forms with S3C44B0, peripheral expansion comprises wireless data transmission module SRWKF-108, infrared remote control interface, Can communication interface MCP2510, RS232 interface MAX232, LCD MODULE and Intenet Ethernet interface RTL8019AS to umbrella organisations's level control system; Coordinate the level control system and be made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, it comprises sonar ring sensor information handling system, three gyrosensor information handling systems, become structural capacity vision sensor information disposal system, walking leg 1 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 2 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 3 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 4 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 5 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 6 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 7 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 8 tuning controller ATmega16L; The execution level control system is a modular construction, is made of 8 walking leg driver modules and a multiple sensor signals acquisition module, and each walking leg driver module comprises three drivers: with joint driver, femoral joint driver and shin joint driver; The multiple sensor signals acquisition module comprises: sonar controller Msp430F149, force sensor data handle XC2S100 and pressure sensor data is gathered Msp430F149; Each walking leg system has a module of one's own, the motion in each joint on concrete each walking leg of control, it is made up of the MSP430F1222 single-chip microcomputer of 1 AVR single chip computer AT mega16L, 3 TI, ATmega16L mainly is responsible for the potentiometric signals collecting of communication and joint of servo driver of motor, MSP430F1222 has constituted the servo-driver of each each joint motor of walking leg, main being responsible for carried out the Electric Machine Control instruction that the coordination level sends over, and each joint motor is carried out servo driving.Sensor assembly mainly is made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, is responsible for the acquisition process of force signal on every walking leg, the signals collecting of array of ultrasonic sensors and the expansion of newly-increased peripheral hardware.Control signal input umbrella organisations level control section is coordinated the level control section and is connected between umbrella organisations's level control section and the execution level control section, communicates with 485 bus communication protocols between execution level control section and the joint drive unit.

The acp chip of the walking leg driver module of the step control device of Amphibious mechanical crab of the present invention is made of 3 microprocessor MSP430f1222 and a slice ATmega16L, a slice Msp430F1222, power amplification circuit, photoelectric encoder feedback circuit component movement controller, Msp430F1222 links to each other with incremental photo encoder, pot, pwm power amplifier, and links to each other by parallel interface with crab podarthrum telegon; Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and pot have been formed absolute position closed loop detection system, and Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and photoelectric encoder form incremental counter, velocity feedback closed-loop system by the photoelectric encoder interface, and the entire controller module links to each other with the walking leg tuning controller of tissue class by parallel communication interface.

The hierarchical control method of Amphibious mechanical crab is:

The gait planning module is judged robot the present situation according to the information that sensor provides, and learns and inverse kinematics according to selected coordinate system, robot positive motion afterwards, cooks up the angle in robot each joint of next attitude; Each joint angles that instruction sending module will calculate sends to each servo control unit of lower floor according to certain cycle period with the order format of communication protocol regulation; The effect of feedback interrupt module is to host computer transmission feedback signal, to utilize in the host computer and interrupt accepting this feedback information, and start the transmission of next position command after each joint position reaches ideal position; Display module shows the state of robot with the LCD liquid crystal display; Wireless remote control module is used for the decision-making order that the machine crab receives the control personnel, makes it controlled.

The whole control system is after switch opens is started working, the first step is carried out system initialization and each joint position resets, system is after initialization and each embolia, the instruction of wait controller, when we send the execution action command with wireless remote control handle or Infrared remote controller after, the upper strata controller receives command signal, the instruction and data control motor that transmits according to the upper strata primary controller carries out corresponding action, and according to the feedback the result determine whether to be finished, wait for next instruction then, the instruction that the upper strata primary controller transmits need be passed through the communicating interrupt determining program to the Data Control motor, after the communicating interrupt subroutine, instruction is decomposed into the parameter in three joints of 8 walking legs, whether the servo subroutine of fill order's joint position will be carried out corresponding control according to each joint parameter, carry out decision instruction by one and come control program finally to be finished; When in the total system implementation, artificial wireless remote control by its motion stop, changing movement instruction or task finally do not finish all can the link order waiting status; The instruction that the primary controller that is in the upper strata transmits for the next joint driving governor by RS485 should comprise the rotation direction in this joint, information such as rotational angle and rotational angular; And the joint driving governor by the RS485 bus with information such as joint rotation angle and walking leg current state real-time feed back to host computer.

The present invention is directed to the characteristics of mechanical crab control, propose the hierarchical technology control system, this system has absorbed the advantage of concentrating structure and two kinds of structures of distributed frame.The principle of design of distributing with classification is divided into tissue class, monitoring with system and coordinates three grades of level and execution levels, and each distributed director both can be worked independently, again can be by communication line and higher level, or peer communicates, exchange message.This structure of passing rank has had the advantage of concentrating structure and distributed architecture concurrently, thereby its overall situation and partial situation's control performance is higher, reliable.

The present invention is the control system requirement according to the Amphibious mechanical crab complexity, a kind of optimal control method of the Amphibious mechanical crab based on the hierarchical technology control system is provided, it comprises Hierarchical Control device and control method two parts, and Hierarchical Control device and control method all adopt tissue class, monitoring to coordinate level and three grades of Coordination Treatment modes of execution level.This control method is applicable to the multi-foot robot that control is all, the hierarchical technology control system has absorbed centralized and advantage distributed frame, has the validity height, is convenient to systematic analysis and characteristics such as design, local fault are unlikely to the influence overall situation, high, the overall control performance of reliability is good, the global coordination operational effect is good.The principle of design that it distributes with classification is divided into tissue class, monitoring with system and coordinates three grades of level and execution levels, and each distributed director both can be worked independently, again can be by communication line and higher level, or peer communicates, exchange message.This structure of passing rank has had the advantage of concentrating structure and distributed architecture concurrently, thereby its overall situation and partial situation's control performance is higher, reliable.Fig. 1 is a hierarchical technology control system structural representation.

Hierarchical technology control ultimate principle: tissue class is represented the dominant ideas of control system, has the highest level of intelligence, relate to the expression and the processing of knowledge (electronic chart), and play a leading role by artificial intelligence (path planning, cluster cooperation), but human intervention in operational process, by sending command information to the machine crab, can the people for a change its walking path, coordination strategy; The coordination level is the coupling arrangement between tissue class and the execution level, relates to the expression of decision-making mode, is played a leading role by artificial intelligence and operational research; Execution level is the minimum level of intelligence control system, requires to have the highest control accuracy, and is controlled by conventional control theory.

The control system of machine crab relates to the generation, obstacle-avoiding route planning, man-machine interaction of the coordination control of 24 motors, 8 groups of signals collecting that become the structural capacity sense sensors and processing, the collection of three pose gyro signals and processing, Amphibious bionic gait, the management of wireless and infrared communication etc., is a very huge system." decomposition " is the most basic principle of design of big system's control with " coordination ".

The scheme of hierarchical technology control is considered to realize at present the ideal scheme of big system synthesis control, and it has decentralised control, distributed control and several forms of hierarchical control.The machine crab has been adopted the hierarchical technology intelligence control system, communicate with 485 bus communication protocols between main control unit and the distributed joint driver element, this division of labor is clear and definite, the distributed frame that can carry out parallel processing is convenient to improve computing, execution speed and control accuracy, its integral body is formed structure as shown in Figure 2: master control system comprises organized layer, cooperation layer, the execution level three parts, organized layer comprises master controller, man machine operation interface, the calculation knowledge storehouse of various ambient conditions and gait rule base, organized layer is responsible for man-machine interaction, keeping away the barrier strategy calculates, gait generation etc.; Cooperation layer is between organized layer and the execution level, comprises biosensor analysis module, gait generation system, single leg composite move storehouse and each unit, joint maneuver library, and cooperation layer is responsible for task coordinate; Execution level comprises ultrasonic sensor, becomes structural capacity sense sensor, three gyros and each joint driver, data analysis, gait that execution level mainly is responsible for sensor generate, it is in the bottom of control system, task is single, the division of labor is clear and definite, as: be responsible for collecting sensor signal, processing, accurately control motor etc.

(4) description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a hierarchical technology control system structural representation;

Fig. 2 is a machine crab hierarchical technology control system;

Fig. 3 is the whole hardware configuration of machine crab control system;

Fig. 4 is that the motion controller system constitutes;

Fig. 5 is a power amplifier L6203 wiring diagram;

Fig. 6 is a photoelectric isolating circuit;

Fig. 7 distinguishes go to circuit and oscillogram thereof;

Fig. 8 is unlimited digital transmission module application principle figure;

Fig. 9 is the infrared communication system structure of main frame;

Figure 10 is an Infrared remote controller internal electric connection layout;

Figure 11 is the wiring of RS485 communication chip HVD3082;

Figure 12 is the ethernet interface circuit synoptic diagram;

Figure 13 is CAN bus interface circuit figure;

Figure 14 is a machine crab Hierarchical Control system;

Figure 15 is the control system software block diagram.

(5) embodiment

For example the present invention is done description in more detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:

In conjunction with Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, he comprises umbrella organisations's level, middle level coordination level and lower floor's execution level three parts.Mainly by being that core ARM system forms with S3C44B0, peripheral expansion comprises wireless data transmission module SRWKF-108, infrared remote control interface, Can communication interface MCP2510, RS232 interface MAX232, LCD MODULE and Intenet Ethernet interface RTL8019AS etc. to umbrella organisations's level control system.The function of tissue class mainly is responsible for accepting user command, to field feedback, plan the motion strategy of each crab leg according to site environment, wireless data transmission module SRWKF-108 and infrared remote control interface link to each other with the robot master controller by serial ports separately, for robot provides the Remote function, Can communication interface MCP2510 and RS232 interface MAX232 provide multiple download and debugging interface for the robot on-line debugging, LCD MODULE links to each other with the robot master controller by system bus, it is debugged for the robot program and test provides parameter and interface intuitively, and Intenet Ethernet interface RTL8019AS provides the local area network communication interface for setting up the multirobot cooperation.Coordinate the level control system and be made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, it comprises sonar ring sensor information handling system, three gyrosensor information handling systems, become structural capacity vision sensor information disposal system, walking leg 1 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 2 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 3 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 4 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 5 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 6 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 7 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 8 tuning controller ATmega16L.Coordinate the responsible coordination of level and respectively be enough to be combined into various gaits, the gait of machine crab is robot motion's a elementary cell, it is the basic guarantee of decision system, it comprises the gait that some are conventional, walk crosswise gait, the low appearance M type five sufficient gaits etc. that land as the two four-footeds of the high appearance of water environment, also comprise some unconventional gaits, as the disconnected sufficient gait of N (N=1 ~ 3) foot, water environment obstacle detouring gait etc., the coordination control of walking leg.And the selection of gait is related with external environment, and sonar ring sensor information handling system is carried out analyzing and processing by a slice Msp430F149 to the Monitoring Data that the sonar controller returns, and he detects long-distance barrier thing and underwater communication etc.Three gyrosensor information handling systems are carried out Treatment Analysis by the force sensor data in the gyro XC2S100, and the main deflection angle of detection machine human organism in environment guarantees that robot can not overturning.Become structural capacity vision sensor information disposal system and carry out data acquisition, mainly monitor in-plant barrier, pit etc., step, slope etc., the robot ambulation process is detected in real time, guarantee can not damage, fall sunken etc. by a slice Msp430F149.The data of the above three kinds of sensors of Treatment Analysis are in order to increase outer sensing device to robot, robot can better to be conformed, advance with the gait of optimum, increasing work efficiency.The execution level control system adopts modular method, is made of 8 walking leg driver modules and a multiple sensor signals acquisition module, and each walking leg driver module comprises three drivers: with joint driver, femoral joint driver and shin joint driver; The multiple sensor signals acquisition module comprises: sonar controller (Msp430F149), force sensor data are handled XC2S100 (gyro) and pressure sensor data collection (Msp430F149).Each walking leg system has a module of one's own, the motion in each joint on concrete each walking leg of control, it is made up of the MSP430F1222 single-chip microcomputer of 1 AVR single chip computer AT mega16L, 3 TI, ATmega16L mainly is responsible for the potentiometric signals collecting of communication and joint of servo driver of motor, MSP430F1222 has constituted the servo-driver of each each joint motor of walking leg, main being responsible for carried out the Electric Machine Control instruction that the coordination level sends over, and each joint motor is carried out servo driving.Sensor assembly mainly is made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, is responsible for the acquisition process of force signal on every walking leg, the signals collecting of array of ultrasonic sensors and the expansion of newly-increased peripheral hardware.

The whole hardware configuration of Amphibious bionic machine crab is formed as shown in Figure 3 in detail, and entire work process is: peripheral expansion module wireless data transmission module SRWKF-108, infrared remote control interface, Can communication interface MCP2510, RS232 interface MAX232, LCD MODULE and the Intenet Ethernet interface RTL8019AS of umbrella organisations's level is that robot long-range wireless remote control, program on-line debugging, human-computer interaction interface, local area network communication interface offer the basic hardware interface; Sonar controller (Msp430F149), force sensor data is handled XC2S100 (gyro) and pressure sensor data collection (Msp430F149) is the peripheral detection module of robot, for the robot working environment provides real-time parameter, these parameters are constantly by coordinating the sonar ring sensor information handling system of level, three gyrosensor information processing systems are unified and are become the S3C44B0 master control that feeds back to umbrella organisations's level after structural capacity vision sensor information disposal system is handled, master control is sent different gait storehouse instructions according to the data passed back are corresponding, these instructions are handled each joint that the back is issued execution level to order parameter by 8 walking leg tuning controllers coordinating level again, so just finished the gait that is adapted to varying environment, be to monitor in real time in the walking process, according to corresponding change walking step state of external environment and path, make it can be with optimum, the fastest mode is advanced.

1. crab podarthrum motor drive module

Crab podarthrum motor drive module can drive three joint motors on the crab foot, and acp chip is made of 3 microprocessor MSP430f1222 and a slice ATmega16L, and MSP430f1222 mainly is responsible for the servo driving of single motor; ATmega16L is responsible for that the coordination of three motors is controlled, communicated by letter with host computer, the collection of pot signal.

Electric machine controller hardware constitutes

In conjunction with Fig. 4, motion controller is made of a slice Msp430F1222 minimum system, comprise: a slice Msp430F1222, power amplification circuit, photoelectric encoder feedback circuit are formed, Msp430F1222 links to each other with incremental photo encoder, pot, pwm power amplifier, and links to each other by parallel interface with crab podarthrum telegon.Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and pot have been formed absolute position closed loop detection system, and Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and photoelectric encoder have formed incremental counter by the photoelectric encoder interface, the velocity feedback closed-loop system, the entire controller module links to each other with the walking leg tuning controller of tissue class by parallel communication interface, carry out the transmission of data, Msp430F1222 receives the instruction back by the power amplification output pwm signal, the rotation of control motor M, and behind the absolute position of pot monitoring motor M, photoelectric encoder begins the counting feedback with this, positive sample just can carry out speed to motor M, the adjusting of acceleration and position is controlled, and has so just reached the purpose in control robot joint.

[1] power amplification driving circuit

In conjunction with Fig. 5, the performance that power amplification circuit is had relatively high expectations guarantees the stable operation of machine crab control system.Select the proper integrated power amplifier of performance parameter for use; compare with the power amplifier that adopts the discrete component design; not only can reduce the volume of power amplifier; improve overall performance; and design has diversified holding circuit in the integrated amplifier; can reduce the possibility of the system failure, the reliability of enhanced system.Therefore, the design power driving circuit the time, each side such as the volume of chip, performance, price are done careful contrast after, the full-bridge motor-driven special chip L6203 that has selected ST company to produce.

L620x series integrated power amplifying circuit aims at middle and small motor control and design, its inside is integrated DMOS (depletion field effect transistor) power switch pipe, CMOS and bipolar circuit; Maximum supply voltage can reach 48V, and output current reaches 5A, contains overheating protection, overload protection; Maximum 40ns Dead Time is provided; Highest frequency can reach 100KHz, imports compatible TTL, CMOS level.

[2] photoelectric encoder feedback circuit

In conjunction with Fig. 6, scrambler is the feedback channel of motor, the rotating speed of motor, direction, position all are that the feedback pulse by scrambler obtains, this circuit by photoelectric isolating circuit, distinguish that go to circuit, sub-circuit, counter four parts form, the photoelectric isolating circuit master is by two-way high speed optoelectronic coupling device 6N137, it can respond the high-frequency impulse up to 10MHz, come that motor phase is differed from 90 ° A, B two channel signals and carry out photoelectricity and isolate, can remove of the interference of external electromagnetic signal effectively follow-up counter.

In conjunction with Fig. 7, distinguish that go to circuit is made of a d type flip flop, the A, D end and the CP that the B two-phase pulse is input to d type flip flop respectively that handle every shaping through light hold, so the CP of d type flip flop end triggers at the rising edge of A pulse.Because 90 ° of A, B pulse phase differences, when just changeing, 90 ° of B pulse advance A pulses, trigger always triggers when the B pulse is in high level, as can be seen from the figure Q=1 represents just to change, and A pulse advance B pulse is 90 ° during counter-rotating, and trigger always triggers when the B pulse is in low level, this moment, Q=0 represented counter-rotating.

2. wireless data transmission module

Controlled for realizing the machine crab, and the data when advancing are fed back, SRWF-108 type micropower wireless data transmission module has been installed in the control system of machine crab upper strata, he comprises: wireless operating handle (emission) and receiver module, and receiver module is made up of receiving antenna, data processing module (RF IC and AtmelMCU), serial ports UART.This module transmission feature is as follows: 1. transmission range is far away, and under the sighting distance situation, antenna height is greater than 3m, and the reliable transmission distance is greater than 3000m; 2. can be fit to standard or off-gauge User Agreement; 3. support multichannel, many speed; 4. two serial ports, three kinds of interface modes; 5. support to have two kinds of data structures of no parity check.

Unlimited digital transmission module can provide RS-232, RS-485 and three kinds of interface modes of UART (Transistor-Transistor Logic level) of standard, can directly be connected use with computing machine, user's RS-485 equipment, single-chip microcomputer or other UART device, its communication channel is semiduplex, the communication mode of suitable point-to-multipoint.Application principle figure sees shown in Figure 8.The course of work is: control the instruction of emission handle panel in the staff, instruct by the transmission antennas transmit radio wave signal, and receive radio wave signal by the antenna among Fig. 8, receive the back through RF IC and analyze verification by processor A tmelMCU, filter otiose signal, useful signal instruction data are passed to the master controller ARM of robot through serial ports UART, like this, ARM just carries out the corresponding instruction program by the instruction that biography is come, and reaches the purpose of robot Remote work.

3. infrared remote control module

The infrared communication system of machine crab is made of infrared interface, infrared remote control handle two parts of main control processor, and remote-control handle is made of keyboard scan, infrared decoding and coding, infrared transceiver three parts.The ultimate principle of infrared communication is that transmitting terminal is modulated to the series of pulses signal with the base band binary signal, again by infrared transmitting tube emission infrared signal.The serial Infrared Transmission adopts specific pulse code standard, and this standard is different with RS232 serial transmission standard, if carry out the serial infrared communication between two equipment, just need carry out the conversion between RS232 coding and the IrDA coding.The infrared communication interface is made of infrared transceiver and infrared coding demoder.

LrDA is an Infrared Data Association, and full name The Infrared DataAssociation is an international organizations that sets up in June, 1993, works out specially and advances interoperable low-cost infrared data interconnect standards, supports point-to-point mode of operation.The aim of IrDA is to work out standard and the agreement that realizes with rational cost, to promote the development of infrared communication technique.IrDA1.0 is called for short SIR Serial InfraRed, and it is based on asynchronous, the half-duplex infrared communication mode of HP-SIR.SIR is a support with the asynchronous communication transceiver UART of system, by expanding the transmission of this coding and decoding process 3/16EnDec realization infrared data to the waveform compression of serial data pulse with to the waveform of institute's receiving optical signals electric pulse.The UART0 and the UART1 that consider main control processor S3C44B0 all have the IrDA1.0 pattern, and IrDA1.0 can support the traffic rate of the highest 115.2kbps.The infrared interface of master control is just relatively more succinct like this, selects for use UART1 as infrared communications ports.The infrared transceiver module is selected HSDL-3201 for use, and infrared transceiver comprises transmitter and receiver two parts.Transmitter (transmitter) will be that infrared pulse sends from the pulses switch after the position modulation of I/O or ENDEC reception; Receiver (receiver) detects infrared light pulse, and is converted into TTL or CMOS electric pulse.The infrared communication system structure of main frame as shown in Figure 9.

The remote-control handle of machine crab is by keyboard scan, infrared decoding and coding, infrared transceiver three parts constitute, being conceived to low-power consumption as handheld device considers, select for use Msp430F1222 as primary processor, be responsible for keyboard scan, serial data sends, the infrared transceiver module is selected HSDL-3201 for use, infrared decoding and coding device is selected special-purpose HSDL7001 for use, this chip adapts to the IrDA1.0 physical layer specification, interface is compatible mutually with the SIR transceiver, can be connected use with the 16550UART of standard or the UART of MCU, can send/receive 1.63us or 3/16 impulse form, have inside or external clock pattern, baud rate is able to programme.Figure 10 is the internal electric connection layout of Infrared remote controller.

Whole workflow: as Figure 10, at first primary processor is in dormant state when not having keyboard to press, at this moment power consumption is economic, when a certain key (in the matrix keyboard) when pressing, produce and interrupt primary processor is waken up, the MSP430F1222 processor is carried out keyboard scan, key assignments is sent to infrared decoding and coding HSDL7001 after the program of trembling that disappears by parallel signal, HSDL7001 sends its coding back by infrared transceiver HSDL-3201, send the back primary processor and will enter dormant state again.After the infrared transceiver HSDL-3201 (Fig. 9) of machine crab receives this signal, coded signal is sent to the infrared coding demoder of primary processor S3C44B0, by decoding key assignments is obtained, pass to the robot master controller by serial signal, and then carry out the instruction of this key assignments.

4. network communication interface

Network communication interface comprises: the communication of RS485 asynchronous serial bus, Ethernet interface and CAN bus interface.RS485 communication is that the LAN that multirobot is set up is transmitted information for information transmission, Ethernet interface are provided between the levels control system, and the CAN bus is an expansion bus, can connect with equipment such as some remote underwater communication Modem, industrial GPS.

(1) RS485 hardware circuit

In the double-deck control system of Crab-liked Robot, between the levels control system, selected the communication mode of RS485 asynchronous serial bus for use, primary processor S3C44B0, sensing data processor Mega128, eight walking leg coprocessor Mega16 hang on the bus.

The RS485 standard is worked out and issue in nineteen eighty-three by Electronic Industries Association (EIA) at first, and the back is by the revision back called after TEA/EIA-485A of Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA).RS485 is an electric interfaces standard, and the distance that is applicable to equipment room is less than 1200m, and its transfer rate is 1MB/s to the maximum.The RS485 standard definition one based on single to the multiple spot of balanced line, two-way (half-duplex) communication link, be a kind of very economical and have a communications platform of suitable strong noise inhibition, transfer rate, transmission range and wide common mode range.RS485 serial bus interface standard is with difference balance mode transmission signals, ability with very strong anti-common mode interference, allow that a transmitter drives a plurality of load equipments on a pair of twisted-pair feeder, generally all adopt this bus standard to carry out data transmission in the industry spot control system.

The master control system processor S3C44B0 that adopts in the research has the dual serial communication interface, and Mega16 has a serial ports, and can select it by software is still asynchronous serial port (UART) of synchronous serial interface (SPI).As long as select the bus driver of a support RS485 standard, will be by it as link to each other with the Mega16 bus system of the RS485 that just can form our needs of host computer, through relatively we have selected the chip for driving of HVD3082 as the RS485 communication bus as slave computer.HVD3082 is that American TI Company is produced, and it satisfies the TIA/EIA-485A standard fully, the 5V power supply, and power consumption is extremely low, and working current is less than 0.3mA, and about cut-off current 1nA, bus is supported 256 nodes, and Figure 11 is the HVD3082 wiring diagram.

Experimental results show that by communication the RS485 serial bus interface circuit is simple, dependable performance, antijamming capability is strong, be suitable for the machine crab data transmission system.Rotate in for convenience control joint in experiment, be convenient to simultaneously give the experimenter with information feedback, still select between PC and S3C44B0, to carry out exchanges data, therefore, also on the hardware circuit on upper strata, designed the RS232 serial port circuit during monopodia experiment by the RS232 asynchronous serial port.

(2) RS485 communication protocol

On the RS485 bus, need the data of communication to have in the control system: 24 Drive Status initialization datas, 24 joint position data, 24 joint velocity data, 24 joint acceleration informations, 24 joint pot data, obviously data volume is very big, when it shuttles back and forth at same data line, very high to the requirement of communication protocol.From communication speed, reliability angle, the serial communication form of selecting for use is: 8 bit data positions, and 1 start bit, 1 position of rest, the no parity check position, traffic rate is 115200bps.Because data volume is bigger in the native system,, take the master-slave response mode to initiate and control online network and once communicate by letter with interface by host node at a host node and a plurality of from the network bus that node constitutes.Each has an identification address from node, when only receiving the Frame with own matching addresses, corresponding processing is arranged, and to the host node response result.Mainly contain two communication processs in this system: send kinematic parameter (position, speed, acceleration) to joint motor driver node; Obtain joint kinematic parameter (position, speed, acceleration, current potential evaluation) from the joint motor driver.

For guaranteeing that communication is unimpeded and carrying out smoothly from the local matter of node, designed the communication means that withdraws from limited time, both when receiving with the unmatched Frame in own address, the Temporarily Closed communication port.So both guaranteed the execution time of local matter, can avoid the two-way interference of being everlasting and causing again on the net, and therefore in the software design of upper and lower machine, adopted secondary error detection, repeating transmission and withdraw from and shake hands again communication mechanism such as connect in limited time from node.Find in the debugging that at some node operation irregularity, even other each nodes also can independently be finished local matters such as data acquisition, abnormal alarm and real-time data memory under the communication network situation of paralysing fully, in case malfunctioning node is got rid of, both can recover communication.

(3) Ethernet interface hardware components

Ethernet is a kind of connection standard of computing machine access to LAN network, is again a kind of communication protocol of network interconnection device data sharing, and it adopts the carrier sense multiple spot with collision detection to insert the CSMA/CD technology.Because the Ethernet transfer rate increases substantially, the formation of physical layer standard industrialization and ethernet concentrator technology, the appearance of Gigabit Ethernet technology and collisionless full duplex fibre-optical technology, make this advanced network technology be advanced in the industrial control network, formed the Industrial Ethernet technology.Comparing with present Fieldbus Based Control Network, is a kind of low cost (chipset of many commercial Ethernets and technology can be used), high performance of control Networking Solutions ﹠ provisioned based on the Control Network of Industrial Ethernet technology.Ethernet interface is the interface of comparison key for the ARM system, mainly be because its communication speed very fast (10Mbps), can debug fast by carrying out program, the high-capacity FLASH memory program, speed can improve nearly 100 times with respect to the jtag interface debugging, the program of 4M was downloaded nearly 1 hour consuming time by JTAG, only need be only 32 seconds and download by network interface.

The RTL8019AS ethernet controller that Ethernet interface adopts Realted company to produce, support IEEE802.3 and 8 or 16 bit data bus, the SRAM of built-in 16KB is used for the transmitting-receiving buffering, full duplex, transmitting-receiving reaches 10Mbps simultaneously, support 10Base5,10Base2,10BaseT, and can detect the medium that is connected automatically, in the isa bus network interface card, occupy significant proportion.RTL8019AS and main frame have 3 kinds of interface modes, i.e. wire jumper pattern, PnP pattern and RT pattern.Do not use EEPROM in embedded system, also do not use isa bus, so select the wire jumper pattern, JP connects high level, and part setting is determined by pin.

(4) Ethernet interface software section

Be divided into Ethernet interface related communication program: RTL8019AS initialization, transmission control, reception control three parts, its interface circuit synoptic diagram such as Figure 12.

Initialization section is finished the initial work of RTL8019AS before using: the register of related work pattern is set, distributes and initialization reception and transmission buffer zone initialization network interface card receiver address.

RTL8019AS initialize routine job step is as follows:

1) RTL8019AS that resets;

2) choose page or leaf 0 register, RTL8019AS is out of service;

3) the data configuration register being set is 16;

4) remove long-range DMA counter;

5) the send buffer interval is set;

6) reception configuration register (only receiving the packet of the address of oneself) is set;

7) transmission configuration register (enabling CRC generates and verification automatically automatically) is set;

8) interrupt register zero clearing;

9) all interruptions in the shielding RTL8019AS;

10) register (BNRY) that points to last page or leaf that has read is set;

11) select page or leaf 1 register;

12) initialization physical address;

13) initialization multicast address;

14) current reception sign-off sheet register is set;

15) select page or leaf 0 register, start the RTL8019AS fill order;

16) open the corresponding interruption of RTL8019AS in the main frame;

Send part as long as data are write buffer zone, start execution command, RTL8019AS sends automatically.Generally open up two Ethernet data bag long spacings as sending buffer zone in RAM, when sending data, two buffer zones send in turn, the transmission verification of its data, the collision detection of bus data bag and avoid all being finished by RTL8019AS itself.Receiving unit is finished the Data Receiving task, and there is send buffer automatically in RTL8019AS and sends look-at-me after receiving the Ethernet data bag, and S3C44B0X can read in by dma mode in interrupt routine and receive data.

(5) CAN bus interface

CAN is a kind of have international standard and higher again fieldbus of the ratio of performance to price, and as expansion bus, it can connect with equipment such as some remote underwater communication Modem, industrial GPS easily.The CAN bus interface adopts the little core of the U.S. (Microchip Technology Inc) to have the MCP2510 of SPI interface as the CAN bus controller, interface between controller and the physical bus adopts the TJA1050 of Philips company, its circuit as shown in figure 13, TJA1050 is the successor of PCA82C250 and PCA82C251 high-speed CAN transceiver.The key distinction is: the 1. optimum matching of output signal CANH and CANL makes electromagnetic radiation lower; When 2. node was not powered, performance improved to some extent; 3. there is not standby mode.

Two. the Software Module Design of control system

The machine crab is adopted three grades of layering hierarchical control, and in the design of machine crab Control Software, each hardware module has also adopted the method for software modularity.As shown in figure 14, main control board is by main control processor, coprocessor and peripheral circuit constitute, be solidified with reasoning module in the main control processor, path planning module, communication module, be solidified with the gait storehouse in the coprocessor, communication module, the gait Coordination module, touch the barrier reflecting module, and these modules of coordination level and the gait telegon of 8 walking legs, the sonar telegon, power feels that telegon links to each other with the seat telegon, article 8, the gait telegon of walking leg is connected to form three joint master control systems (circuit board) with the driver in each joint again, sonar ring telegon and sonar sensor Coordination Treatment have been formed sonar ring signal disposable plates, power feel telegon and power sense sensor are formed force signal and are separated even plate, and pose processor and pose sensor (gyro) are formed the electronic gyroscope system.

The block diagram of Control Software as shown in figure 15.The attitude control of machine crab is based on the FEEDBACK CONTROL of position.Host computer transmits the ideal position of joint rotation angle to slave computer.Upper computer software mainly comprises gait planning module, instruction sending module, feedback interrupt module, display module, wireless remote control module composition.

The gait planning module is judged robot the present situation according to the information that sensor provides, learn and inverse kinematics according to selected coordinate system, robot positive motion afterwards, cook up the angle (define a behavior storehouse, can in the behavior storehouse, search) in robot each joint of next attitude to the control of joint angles; Each joint angles that instruction sending module will calculate sends to each servo control unit of lower floor according to certain cycle period with the order format of communication protocol regulation; The effect of feedback interrupt module is to host computer transmission feedback signal, to utilize in the host computer and interrupt accepting this feedback information, and start the transmission of next position command after each joint position reaches ideal position; Display module shows the state of robot, is convenient to experimental observation with the LCD liquid crystal display; Wireless remote control module is used for the decision-making order that the machine crab receives the control personnel, makes it controlled.

The work of Figure 15 control flow chart is as described below: The whole control system is after switch opens is started working, the first step is carried out system initialization and each joint position resets, system is after initialization and each embolia, the instruction of wait controller, when we send the execution action command with wireless remote control handle or Infrared remote controller after, the upper strata controller receives command signal, the instruction and data control motor that transmits according to the upper strata primary controller carries out corresponding action, and according to the feedback the result determine whether to be finished, wait for next instruction then, the instruction that the upper strata primary controller transmits need be passed through the communicating interrupt determining program to the Data Control motor, after the communicating interrupt subroutine, instruction is decomposed into the parameter in three joints of 8 walking legs, whether the servo subroutine of fill order's joint position will be carried out corresponding control according to each joint parameter, carry out decision instruction by one and come control program finally to be finished.When in the total system implementation, artificial wireless remote control by its motion stop, changing movement instruction or task finally do not finish all can the link order waiting status.The instruction that the primary controller that native system is in the upper strata transmits for the next joint driving governor by RS485 should comprise the rotation direction in this joint, information such as rotational angle and rotational angular.And the joint driving governor by the RS485 bus with information such as joint rotation angle and walking leg current state (swing is still supported, and whether runs into barrier) situation real-time feed back to host computer.

Claims (4)

1. the step control device of an Amphibious mechanical crab is characterized in that: it comprises that umbrella organisations's level, middle level coordinate level and lower floor's execution level three parts; Mainly by being that core ARM system forms with S3C44B0, peripheral expansion comprises wireless data transmission module SRWKF-108, infrared remote control interface, Can communication interface MCP2510, RS232 interface MAX232, LCD MODULE and Intenet Ethernet interface RTL8019AS to umbrella organisations's level control system; Coordinate the level control system and be made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, it comprises sonar ring sensor information handling system, three gyrosensor information handling systems, become structural capacity vision sensor information disposal system, walking leg 1 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 2 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 3 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 4 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 5 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 6 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 7 tuning controller ATmega16L, walking leg 8 tuning controller ATmega16L; The execution level control system is a modular construction, is made of 8 walking leg driver modules and a multiple sensor signals acquisition module, and each walking leg driver module comprises three drivers: with joint driver, femoral joint driver and shin joint driver; The multiple sensor signals acquisition module comprises: sonar controller Msp430F149, force sensor data handle XC2S100 and pressure sensor data is gathered Msp430F149; Each walking leg system has a module of one's own, the motion in each joint on concrete each walking leg of control, it is made up of the MSP430F1222 single-chip microcomputer of 1 AVR single chip computer AT mega16L, 3 TI, ATmega16L mainly is responsible for the potentiometric signals collecting of communication and joint of servo driver of motor, MSP430F1222 has constituted the servo-driver of each each joint motor of walking leg, main being responsible for carried out the Electric Machine Control instruction that the coordination level sends over, and each joint motor is carried out servo driving.Sensor assembly mainly is made up of a slice AVR single chip computer AT mega128L, is responsible for the acquisition process of force signal on every walking leg, the signals collecting of array of ultrasonic sensors and the expansion of newly-increased peripheral hardware.Control signal input umbrella organisations level control section is coordinated the level control section and is connected between umbrella organisations's level control section and the execution level control section, communicates with 485 bus communication protocols between execution level control section and the joint drive unit.
2. the step control device of Amphibious mechanical crab according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the acp chip of the walking leg driver module of described step control device is made of 3 microprocessor MSP430f1222 and a slice ATmega16L, a slice Msp430F1222, power amplification circuit, photoelectric encoder feedback circuit component movement controller, Msp430F1222 links to each other with incremental photo encoder, pot, pwm power amplifier, and links to each other by parallel interface with crab podarthrum telegon; Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and pot have been formed absolute position closed loop detection system, and Msp430F1222, pwm power amplifier, motor M and photoelectric encoder form incremental counter, velocity feedback closed-loop system by the photoelectric encoder interface, and the entire controller module links to each other with the walking leg tuning controller of tissue class by parallel communication interface.
3. the hierarchical control method of an Amphibious mechanical crab is characterized in that:
The gait planning module is judged robot the present situation according to the information that sensor provides, and learns and inverse kinematics according to selected coordinate system, robot positive motion afterwards, cooks up the angle in robot each joint of next attitude; Each joint angles that instruction sending module will calculate sends to each servo control unit of lower floor according to certain cycle period with the order format of communication protocol regulation; The effect of feedback interrupt module is to host computer transmission feedback signal, to utilize in the host computer and interrupt accepting this feedback information, and start the transmission of next position command after each joint position reaches ideal position; Display module shows the state of robot with the LCD liquid crystal display; Wireless remote control module is used for the decision-making order that the machine crab receives the control personnel, makes it controlled.
4. the hierarchical control method of Amphibious mechanical crab according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: The whole control system is after switch opens is started working, the first step is carried out system initialization and each joint position resets, system is after initialization and each embolia, the instruction of wait controller, when we send the execution action command with wireless remote control handle or Infrared remote controller after, the upper strata controller receives command signal, the instruction and data control motor that transmits according to the upper strata primary controller carries out corresponding action, and according to the feedback the result determine whether to be finished, wait for next instruction then, the instruction that the upper strata primary controller transmits need be passed through the communicating interrupt determining program to the Data Control motor, after the communicating interrupt subroutine, instruction is decomposed into the parameter in three joints of 8 walking legs, whether the servo subroutine of fill order's joint position will be carried out corresponding control according to each joint parameter, carry out decision instruction by one and come control program finally to be finished; When in the total system implementation, artificial wireless remote control by its motion stop, changing movement instruction or task finally do not finish all can the link order waiting status; The instruction that the primary controller that is in the upper strata transmits for the next joint driving governor by RS485 should comprise the rotation direction in this joint, information such as rotational angle and rotational angular; And the joint driving governor by the RS485 bus with information such as joint rotation angle and walking leg current state real-time feed back to host computer.
CNA2008100638197A 2008-01-08 2008-01-08 Amphibious mechanical crab step control device and control method CN101216711A (en)

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