CN101043058A - Amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery - Google Patents

Amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101043058A
CN101043058A CN 200610024876 CN200610024876A CN101043058A CN 101043058 A CN101043058 A CN 101043058A CN 200610024876 CN200610024876 CN 200610024876 CN 200610024876 A CN200610024876 A CN 200610024876A CN 101043058 A CN101043058 A CN 101043058A
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silicon
layer
amorphous silicon
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solar cell
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袁晓
李涛勇
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Shanghai Solar Energy Science and Technology Co Ltd
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Shanghai Solar Energy Science and Technology Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

The invention discloses a structure of amorphous silicon- crystal silicon heterogeneity node solar cell, a layer of amorphous silicon film is at the photic surface of the solar cell which is between electrode and N type silicon pervasion layer; the amorphous silicon film layer and the N type silicon pervasion layer form a heterogeneity height node structure. The invention adopts the different light absorption property of different semiconductor material and two dimension electron gas effect introduced by semiconductor heterogeneity node to realize the higher photoelectricity transition efficiency than normal crystal silicon solar cell; batter stability for long time and higher photoelectricity transition efficiency than normal amorphous silicon solar cell; and lower series-wound resistance and higher photoelectricity transition efficiency than pure amorphous silicon-monocrystalline silicon heterogeneity node solar cell.

Description

Amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery
Technical field
The present invention relates to photovoltaic power generation technology, especially the solar cell of making by crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon combination.
Background technology
Known typical crystal-silicon solar cell has structure as shown in Figure 1, comprises illuminated surface electrode 1, passivation/antireflective coating 2, N type silicon diffusion layer 3, P type layer-of-substrate silicon 4 and back electrode 5 successively.
The photoelectric conversion efficiency of known typical crystal-silicon solar cell is about 15%.Because the P district of crystal-silicon solar cell and N district adopt same crystalline silicon material, have identical band structure, the representative value of its energy gap is 1.12ev.Rough says, in the quantum process that photoelectricity transforms, the light quantum that energy equals the silicon energy gap can inspire hole-duplet in silicon materials, and finally be converted into electric energy, as the absorbing light energy of a quantum hv of silicon materials institute during greater than the energy gap Eg of crystalline silicon, also can only inspire the hole-duplet with identical energy, the light energy that electron-hole pair absorbed in transition process is no more than the energy gap value of material.And being converted into heat the most at last, unnecessary energy hv-Eg dissipates, thereby, reduced the efficient of opto-electronic conversion.
The band structure of amorphous silicon has the energy gap wideer than crystalline silicon, and typical amorphous silicon energy gap is 1.7ev~2.0ev, and when absorbing the energy of the higher photon of energy, its just less than energy gap crystalline silicon of ratio that converts electric energy to is height like this.But the light quantum that energy is lower than 1.7ev can not inspire hole-duplet, and promptly this part luminous energy can not be converted into electric energy.If with two kinds of combinations of materials, has the light quantum of different-energy by the absorbed of different energy gaps, just can be electric energy with more transform light energy.
Based on this point, Japan SANYO company has developed the technology of a kind of HIT of being called, the structure of " HIT " solar cell as shown in Figure 2, different with the known typical solar cell is, its PN junction with photovoltaic effect is to be made of amorphous silicon and p type single crystal silicon, and its amorphous silicon layer comprises N type amorphous silicon layer 6 and intrinsic amorphous silicon layer 7.The amorphous silicon/monocrystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell of SANYO uses different amorphous silicon of energy gap and monocrystalline silicon to form PN junction, utilizes the light quantum of two kinds of absorbed different-energies, can improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of battery.But this kind structure has a shortcoming, because amorphous silicon material exists more interfacial state and defective, in order to guarantee the photo-generated carrier barrier region that drifted about, forms photogenerated current, and thickness that must restriction N type amorphous silicon layer is introduced intrinsic amorphous silicon layer.Certainly will increase N type thin layer cross conduction resistance like this, cause bigger voltage drop, influence the photoelectric conversion efficiency of battery.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome crystal-silicon solar cell, amorphous silicon solar cell, the deficiency of HIT structure battery particularly, reach and both bring into play of the efficient absorption conversion of different semiconductor material layers the characteristic frequency light wave, reduce the effect of the lateral transport resistance of quilting material again, the invention provides a kind of solar cell with amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction structure.Utilize the present invention can obtain the photoelectric conversion efficiency higher than common crystal-silicon solar cell; Photoelectric conversion efficiency than better long-term stability in use of common amorphous silicon solar cell and Geng Gao; Have lower series resistance than simple amorphous silicon-monocrystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell, be easier to obtain higher photoelectric conversion efficiency.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above the technical scheme that is adopted to provide a kind of amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery, and this solar cell comprises: be docile and obedient preface illuminated surface electrode, N type silicon diffusion layer, P type layer-of-substrate silicon and back electrode; Between sensitive surface electrode and N type silicon diffusion layer, also include one deck amorphous silicon membrane layer; This amorphous silicon membrane layer and N type silicon diffusion layer form heterogeneous height junction structure.Above-mentioned N type silicon diffusion layer and P type layer-of-substrate silicon also can be P type silicon diffusion layer or N type layer-of-substrate silicon.Above-mentioned amorphous silicon membrane layer can be the amorphous silicon of single component, also can be the amorphous silicon of non-homogeneous component, can also be the combination of two or more component amorphous silicon films.For example use the combination of N type amorphous silicon and intrinsic amorphous silicon; The thickness of above-mentioned amorphous silicon membrane layer arrives between hundreds of nanometers in several nanometers; The electrode of above-mentioned amorphous silicon membrane laminar surface both can form ohmic contact by the right and wrong crystal silicon layer, also can form ohmic contact by right and wrong layer polycrystal silicon film below crystal silicon layer, described ohmic contact includes but not limited to the ohmic contact structure in high complex effect, tunnel effect and other the existing semiconductor technology.In addition, can also add one deck with passivated surface or to reduce the ceramic-like films such as silicon oxide film, silicon nitride film or oxidation titanium film that light is reflected into purpose at above-mentioned amorphous silicon membrane laminar surface; Can also make on the surface that described crystalline silicon contacts with the non-crystalline silicon thin-film layer to reduce incident light and be reflected into the periodicity of purpose or the structure of acyclic projection or depression.
Amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery of the present invention has reached following beneficial effect:
, be wide at first than crystalline silicon energy gap 1.12ev because the energy gap that amorphous silicon can be with reaches 1.7ev~2.0ev.Like this, amorphous silicon layer absorbs the light quantum of energy greater than 1.7ev, can produce higher output voltage under identical quantum yield situation.For the light quantum of the energy that is not absorbed by amorphous silicon, can think that amorphous silicon layer is transparent window between 1.7~1.12ev.These light quantum can directly arrive following crystal silicon layer and inspire electron-hole pair, and this is that the semi-conducting material with different energy gaps forms the benefit that heterojunction brings.
Second, doped level by suitable adjustment N type amorphous silicon layer and n type diffused layer, can adjust the position of its electronics Fermi level, form what is called " two-dimensional electron gas " at heterojunction N type crystalline silicon one end, these " two-dimensional electron gas " have higher electron mobility, are very beneficial for the conduction of photovoltaic electric current in the n type diffused layer, reduce series resistance, reduce the coverage rate of gate electrode line, improve photoelectric conversion efficiency.
The 3rd, the height heterojunction electric field that N type amorphous silicon and N type crystalline silicon form helps the drift motion in the photoproduction non equilibrium carrier hole of N type diffusion region, reduce the compound of non-equilibrium minority carrier, the hydrogen ion in the si deposition process helps the silicon dangling bonds in saturated device surface and the body.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structure diagram of known crystal-silicon solar cell;
Fig. 2 is SANYO company " HIT " solar battery structure;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a solar cell band structure of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention is further detailed explanation below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Fig. 3 is that the present invention is an embodiment of example with P type backing material, and the structural representation of amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery comprises: sensitive surface electrode 1, N type silicon diffusion layer 3, P type layer-of-substrate silicon 4 and back electrode 5.The present invention is in solar cell sensitive surface one side, also preparation has one deck amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 between sensitive surface electrode 1 and N type silicon diffusion layer 3, amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 forms heterogeneous height junction structure with N type silicon diffusion layer 3, and promptly amorphous silicon has identical conduction type with its crystalline silicon that is contacted.Therefore, the laminated layer sequence between different materials of the present invention be sensitive surface electrode 1, amorphous silicon membrane layer 8, with the N type silicon diffusion layer 3 of amorphous silicon same model, form the P type layer-of-substrate silicon 4 and the back electrode 5 of PN junction with the diffusion layer crystalline silicon.
In order to realize a kind of like this structure, can at first on P type crystalline silicon substrate, form PN junction by traditional diffusion technology, growth one deck N type amorphous silicon membrane on n type diffused layer forms the height knot then.Both sides at the material that forms PN junction, be shaped on electrode structure and form good Ohmic contact, this ohmic contact can be effectively mechanism of conduction current of high compound, tunnel or other, is shaped on height simultaneously in a lateral electrode backlight and ties (can be with) and back reflection structure.
Above-mentioned N type silicon diffusion layer and P type layer-of-substrate silicon also can be P type silicon diffusion layer or N type layer-of-substrate silicon.
Above-mentioned amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 can be the amorphous silicon of single component, also can be the amorphous silicon of non-homogeneous composition, can also be the combination of two or more component amorphous silicon films.For example: form the surface of crystalline silicon of a kind of N type conduction type amorphous silicon film+Intrinsical amorphous silicon film attached to N type conduction type.
The thickness of amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 arrives between hundreds of nanometers in several nanometers.
The electrode on amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 surface both can form ohmic contact by the right and wrong crystal silicon layer, also can form ohmic contact by right and wrong layer polycrystal silicon film 8 below crystal silicon layers, described ohmic contact includes but not limited to the ohmic contact structure in high complex effect, tunnel effect and other the existing semiconductor technology.
In addition, can also be reflected into ceramic-like films such as purpose silicon oxide film, silicon nitride film or oxidation titanium film with passivated surface or to reduce light at the additional one deck in amorphous silicon membrane layer 8 surface.Can also make on the surface that described crystalline silicon contacts with non-crystalline silicon thin-film layer 8 to reduce the texture structure that incident light is reflected into purpose, this structure is specially sensitive surface intercycle or acyclic projection or depression.The size dimension that makes progress such as a kind of top is in " pyramid " projection of the random alignment of micron number magnitude; A kind of top " inverted pyramid " downward, periodic arrangement depression, or the etch pit of some random distribution.
Exemplify a typical embodiment below, this patent only relates to a kind of so novel solar battery structure, but not concrete technology.Can use multiple mature semiconductor technology for implementing such solar battery structure.
At first we can adopt typical crystal-silicon solar cell technology to make a N +The P knot, surperficial phosphorous diffusion concentration 10 18-10 19/ cm 3Atom is after surface treatment.Next use method deposit one deck N type amorphous silicon of PECVD (plasma-reinforced chemical vapor deposition), the doped level of amorphous silicon and thickness need be through calculating and testing and determine.Method through silk screen printing and sintering prepares electrode at last.The technological parameter of sintering is also very important, be complementary with amorphous silicon thickness and technological temperature.Electrode structure positive, the back side can be made respectively, so just can obtain the solar battery structure that the present invention needs.
Owing to adopted above-mentioned structure, the present invention thereby reached following beneficial effect:
Because the energy gap that amorphous silicon can be with reaches 1.7ev~2.0ev, is wide than crystalline silicon energy gap 1.1 2ev.Like this, amorphous silicon layer absorbs the light quantum of energy greater than 1.7ev, can produce higher output voltage under identical quantum yield situation.For the light quantum of the energy that is not absorbed by amorphous silicon, can think that amorphous silicon layer is transparent window between 1.7~1.12ev.These light quantum can directly arrive following crystal silicon layer and inspire electron-hole pair, and this is that the semi-conducting material with different energy gaps forms the benefit that heterojunction brings.
Shown in Figure 4 is solar cell band structure of the present invention.Suitably adjust the doped level of N type amorphous silicon layer and n type diffused layer, can adjust the position of its electronics Fermi level, when equilibrium state electronics Fermi level Ef is in as shown in Figure 4 position, can form what is called " two-dimensional electron gas " at heterojunction N type crystalline silicon one end.Among Fig. 4,9 have pointed out the residing position of the two-dimensional electron gas that forms between amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and 10 represent the energy gap Eg1 of amorphous silicon, and 11 represent the energy gap Eg2 of crystalline silicon, and 12 represent the position of the unified Fermi level Eg of device.These " two-dimensional electron gas " are in the potential well of energy when moving perpendicular to the battery surface direction; Yet then do not carry the baby at the electron motion that is parallel to the battery surface direction.And,, thereby has higher electron mobility away from the ionized impurity center because these " two-dimensional electron gas " come from the diffusion of amorphous semiconductor one side.This layer " two layers of electron gas " is very beneficial for the conduction of photovoltaic electric current in the n type diffused layer, reduces series resistance, reduces the coverage rate of gate electrode line, improves photoelectric conversion efficiency.
In addition, the height heterojunction electric field that N type amorphous silicon and N type crystalline silicon form helps the drift motion in the photoproduction non equilibrium carrier hole of N type diffusion region, reduce the compound of non-equilibrium minority carrier, the hydrogen ion in the si deposition process helps the silicon dangling bonds in saturated device surface and the body.

Claims (7)

1, a kind of amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery comprises and is docile and obedient preface illuminated surface electrode, N type silicon diffusion layer, P type layer-of-substrate silicon and back electrode; It is characterized in that also include one deck amorphous silicon membrane layer between sensitive surface electrode and N type silicon diffusion layer, this amorphous silicon membrane layer and N type silicon diffusion layer form heterogeneous height junction structure.
2, according to claims 1 described solar cell, it is characterized in that: described N type silicon diffusion layer and P type layer-of-substrate silicon can be P type silicon diffusion layer or N type layer-of-substrate silicon.
3, according to claims 1 described solar cell, it is characterized in that: described amorphous silicon membrane layer can be the amorphous silicon of single even component, also can be the amorphous silicon of single non-homogeneous component, can also be the combination of two or more component amorphous silicon films.
4, according to claims 1,2 or 3 described solar cells, it is characterized in that: the thickness of described amorphous silicon membrane layer arrives between hundreds of nanometers in several nanometers.
5, according to claims 1 described solar cell, it is characterized in that: the electrode of described amorphous silicon membrane laminar surface both can form ohmic contact by the right and wrong crystal silicon layer, also can form ohmic contact by right and wrong layer polycrystal silicon film below crystal silicon layer, described ohmic contact comprises the ohmic contact structure of high complex effect or tunnel effect.
6, according to claims 1 described solar cell, it is characterized in that: can also add the ceramic-like film that one deck comprises silicon oxide film, silicon nitride film or oxidation titanium film at described amorphous silicon membrane laminar surface.
7, according to claims 1 described solar cell, it is characterized in that: can make on the surface that described crystalline silicon contacts with the non-crystalline silicon thin-film layer periodically or the structure of acyclic projection or depression.
CN 200610024876 2006-03-20 2006-03-20 Amorphous silicon-crystal silicon heterojunction solar battery Pending CN101043058A (en)

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101866969A (en) * 2010-05-27 2010-10-20 友达光电股份有限公司 Solar cell
CN102064210A (en) * 2010-11-11 2011-05-18 陈哲艮 Silicon-based double-junction solar cell with homojunction and heterojunction and preparation method thereof
CN102064211A (en) * 2010-11-04 2011-05-18 友达光电股份有限公司 Solar cell and production method thereof
CN102306676A (en) * 2011-03-23 2012-01-04 南通大学 Silicon-based laminated solar cell
CN103165697A (en) * 2013-04-01 2013-06-19 南通大学 Selectively doped hetero-junction solar cell
CN101752433B (en) * 2008-11-28 2013-11-20 株式会社半导体能源研究所 Photoelectric conversion device and method for manufacturing the photoelectric conversion device
CN103413838A (en) * 2013-07-23 2013-11-27 新奥光伏能源有限公司 Crystalline silicon solar cell and preparation method thereof
CN104659153A (en) * 2011-03-23 2015-05-27 南通大学 Preparation method of silica-based laminated solar cell
CN105895712A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-08-24 黄广明 Crystalline silicon amorphous silicon layer-built cell and production method thereof
CN112885913A (en) * 2021-01-22 2021-06-01 苏州大学 Preparation method of perovskite quantum dot surface passivation layer suitable for HIT battery

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101752433B (en) * 2008-11-28 2013-11-20 株式会社半导体能源研究所 Photoelectric conversion device and method for manufacturing the photoelectric conversion device
CN101866969A (en) * 2010-05-27 2010-10-20 友达光电股份有限公司 Solar cell
CN102064211B (en) * 2010-11-04 2013-10-09 友达光电股份有限公司 Solar cell and production method thereof
CN102064211A (en) * 2010-11-04 2011-05-18 友达光电股份有限公司 Solar cell and production method thereof
CN102064210A (en) * 2010-11-11 2011-05-18 陈哲艮 Silicon-based double-junction solar cell with homojunction and heterojunction and preparation method thereof
CN102064210B (en) * 2010-11-11 2013-01-16 陈哲艮 Silicon-based double-junction solar cell with homojunction and heterojunction and preparation method thereof
CN102306676A (en) * 2011-03-23 2012-01-04 南通大学 Silicon-based laminated solar cell
CN104835864B (en) * 2011-03-23 2016-10-19 南通大学 A kind of solaode
CN102306676B (en) * 2011-03-23 2015-04-29 南通大学 Silicon-based laminated solar cell
CN104659153A (en) * 2011-03-23 2015-05-27 南通大学 Preparation method of silica-based laminated solar cell
CN104835864A (en) * 2011-03-23 2015-08-12 南通大学 Solar battery
CN104659153B (en) * 2011-03-23 2017-01-25 南通大学 Preparation method of silica-based laminated solar cell
CN103165697A (en) * 2013-04-01 2013-06-19 南通大学 Selectively doped hetero-junction solar cell
CN103413838A (en) * 2013-07-23 2013-11-27 新奥光伏能源有限公司 Crystalline silicon solar cell and preparation method thereof
CN103413838B (en) * 2013-07-23 2016-12-07 新奥光伏能源有限公司 A kind of crystal-silicon solar cell and preparation method thereof
CN105895712A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-08-24 黄广明 Crystalline silicon amorphous silicon layer-built cell and production method thereof
CN112885913A (en) * 2021-01-22 2021-06-01 苏州大学 Preparation method of perovskite quantum dot surface passivation layer suitable for HIT battery

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