CN100588075C - Hybrid accumulator for elevator and control method thereof - Google Patents

Hybrid accumulator for elevator and control method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100588075C
CN100588075C CN200610011629A CN200610011629A CN100588075C CN 100588075 C CN100588075 C CN 100588075C CN 200610011629 A CN200610011629 A CN 200610011629A CN 200610011629 A CN200610011629 A CN 200610011629A CN 100588075 C CN100588075 C CN 100588075C
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control
bus
elevator
switching tube
circuit
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CN1835329A (en
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冯之钺
齐智平
唐西胜
韦统振
王司博
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
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Abstract

The mixed energy storage device for elevator includes super capacitor bank, accumulator set, super capacitor charging and discharging circuit, charging and discharging circuit for accumulator. Throughsuper capacitor charging and discharging circuit, super capacitor bank is connected to DC bus in power supply system for elevator. Through charging and discharging circuit for accumulator, accumulator set is connected to DC bus. Using circuits for controlling charging and discharging super capacitor and accumulator, the invention realizes uninterrupted power supply and power buffering. Features are: minimizing installed capacity of super capacitor bank and accumulator set, optimizing working state of charging and discharging accumulator set, reducing number of charging and discharging cycle and prolonging service life etc. In the mixed energy storage device, accumulator set exchanges energy with DC bus only through one stage of DC/DC so as to raise efficiency of storing energy greatly.

Description

A kind of hybrid accumulator for elevator and control method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of hybrid accumulator and control method thereof, particularly hybrid accumulator and the control method thereof used of elevator.
Background technology
In the drive system of elevator, generally the electrical network electric energy is carried out direct rectification, and be flowed to dc bus, form a DC power-supply system, carry out inversion through frequency converter again, produce the three-phase alternating current electric drive motor of variable voltage variable frequency.Because motor can absorb bigger power from dc bus when starting or quicken, cause the terminal voltage of dc bus to reduce; And when shutting down or slow down, can cause busbar voltage to raise because motor is in generating state to the dc bus feedback electric energy.DC bus-bar voltage fluctuation is excessive, can influence the service behaviour of frequency converter and elevator auxiliary equipment in the system.Too high in order to prevent DC bus-bar voltage, generally want the configuration energy bleed-off circuit, but can cause the certain energy loss, reduced the economy of system.
In addition, when grid power blackout or take place that instantaneous voltage interrupts or when falling, if there is not standby energy to support, elevator can't normally move, give personnel, goods and device is made troubles even dangerous.The configuration energy storage device, as, chargeable storage, ultracapacitor, energy accumulation device for fly wheel etc. can provide the energy support of certain hour for dc bus at grid power blackout, when voltage interruption is fallen, arrive the position of safety with assurance personnel and goods.In addition, energy storage device can also play the effect of power buffering.When bearing power increased, energy storage device output electric energy provided required power with electrical network, to reduce the power demand of electrical network; When load produced power back off, energy storage device absorbed a part of power, avoids busbar voltage too high, also can save bleed-off circuit or reduce its installed capacity.
Chargeable storage is the very general energy storage device of a kind of application, as lead acid accumulator, nickel cadmium cell, nickel-hydrogen accumulator etc.Be applied to the electric power system of elevator, directly link to each other, perhaps link to each other with dc bus, as the emergency power supply of system, perhaps power buffer by charge and discharge device with dc bus.U.S. Pat 6457565B2 discloses a kind of elevator emergency power supply.Electrical network through behind the rectifying and wave-filtering with the dc bus tandem, adopt chargeable storage as energy storage device, and be connected with dc bus by the bidirectional power converter of chargeable/discharge, when load than gently the time, dc bus charges a battery by power inverter.When causing busbar voltage to raise owing to the feedback of motor electric energy, dc bus charges a battery by power inverter, and discharges when load is heavier to play the effect of power buffering.Work as grid power blackout, perhaps voltage interruption, when falling, storage battery releases energy by power inverter, to keep DC bus-bar voltage in normal scope, guarantees the operate as normal of system.
Chargeable storage is applied to the electric power system of elevator, has certain weak point.At first, chemical change can take place in storage battery electrode active material in the course of the work, causes the expansion and the contraction of electrode structure, causes the accumulator property decay.In the electric power system of elevator, because storage battery will constantly absorb energy and release energy, for guaranteeing that uninterrupted power supply also will often carry out the degree of depth and discharge and recharge, cause the storage battery shortening in useful life in the insecure area of mains supply, need often to change, increased the cost of system.Secondly, the capacity restoration time after the battery discharging is longer, after grid power blackout recovers, because the depth of discharge of storage battery is bigger, generally need just can make capacity restoration arrive certain level, cause the elevator will be after power failure through very long recovery time of safe operation once more through long time.The 3rd, the power density of storage battery is less, and the power of elevator is bigger, and for the normal operation of assurance system when the grid power blackout, storage battery need be exported very big power.Therefore, in actual design, the very big batteries of configuration capacity, improved the cost of system, reduced economy.In addition, charging and discharging of accumulator efficient is lower, need often to safeguard, and the difficult processing of the metal material after using, can cause environmental pollution.
Ultracapacitor is a kind of novel energy-storing device that occurs in recent years, it is generally acknowledged that at present ultracapacitor comprises double electric layer capacitor (Electric Double Layer Capacitor) and electrochemical capacitor (Electrochemical Capacitor) two big classes.Wherein, double electric layer capacitor adopts active carbon with high specific surface area, and produces electric double layer capacitance based on the separation of charge on carbon electrode and the electrolyte interface and work.Electrochemical capacitor adopts RuO 2Make electrode Deng metal oxide containing precious metals, on the oxide electrode surface and body mutually redox reaction taking place and produces adsorption capacitance, be called pseudo capacitance again, can be divided into metal oxide and electroconductive polymer polymer two class electrochemical capacitors according to the difference of electrode material.Because the mechanism of production of pseudo capacitance is similar to battery, under the situation of identical electrodes area, its capacitance is several times of electric double layer capacitance; But the power characteristic of double electric layer capacitor transient large current discharge is better than Faradic electricity container.
Ultracapacitor has good power characteristic, greatly electric current, high efficiency, discharge and recharge apace.Because charge and discharge process is physical process all the time, the variation of electrochemical reaction and electrode structure does not take place, so its to recycle the life-span long.In addition, ultracapacitor has also that high temperature performance is good, energy judge simple accurately, plurality of advantages such as Maintenance free and environmental friendliness, just growingly become a kind of efficient, practical energy storage device.
U.S. Pat 6938733B2 discloses a kind of elevator emergency supply unit, and bank of super capacitors is connected with dc bus by a kind of power adjustments equipment.When grid power blackout, electric voltage dropping or when interrupting, bank of super capacitors by power adjustments equipment to DC bus powered, with the operate as normal of keeping motor and elevator auxiliary equipment until arriving next floor.Bank of super capacitors can also constantly absorb or release energy by power adjustments equipment, plays the effect of power buffer, to guarantee that DC bus-bar voltage is stable and to be in the normal scope.
Although ultracapacitor has lot of advantages, its energy density is compared low with chargeable storage, and the energy density of ultracapacitor approximately is 20% of an analysing valve control type lead-acid accumulator battery at present, also is unwell to jumbo electric power energy storage.Because the power of elevator is bigger, the duration is longer, if adopt ultracapacitor as emergency power supply, needs the very jumbo bank of super capacitors of configuration, could export required energy, can make the too huge heaviness of equipment like this.And the price of ultracapacitor is higher at present, and jumbo configuration like this has improved the cost of system significantly, has reduced economy.
If ultracapacitor is mixed use with chargeable storage, storage battery energy density is combined with characteristics such as the ultracapacitor power density are big, have extended cycle life greatly, can bring very big performance to improve to power energy storing device undoubtedly.The mixed energy accumulation of super capacitor accumulator device has energy storage capacity and power I/O capability preferably, can dwindle the volume of energy storage device, improves reliability.Storage battery can be optimized the charging and discharging of accumulator process by certain mode and ultracapacitor parallel operation, reduces the charge and discharge cycles number of times, reduces internal loss, increases discharge time, increases the service life.Adopting the super capacitor accumulator energy storage device, can improve the technical performance and the economic performance of system significantly, is a well selection that solves present electric power energy storage problem.In the disclosed elevator emergency supply unit of U.S. Pat 6938733B2, in order to prolong the discharge time of emergency power supply, this patent has proposed to adopt the method for designing of chargeable storage and ultracapacitor combination, but does not provide the concrete assembled scheme and the energy management method of two kinds of energy storage devices.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of hybrid accumulator for elevator and control method thereof, for its at grid power blackout or electric voltage dropping takes place, emergency power supply is provided when interrupting; And can provide the power buffering for change the busbar voltage fluctuation that causes because of the motor operating mode, it is stable to keep busbar voltage, to save bleed-off circuit or to reduce its installed capacity.
Hybrid accumulator of the present invention is by bank of super capacitors, batteries, ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, accumulator charging/discharging circuit, ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit, and battery charge-discharge control circuit is formed.Bank of super capacitors is connected with dc bus by the ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, batteries is connected with dc bus by accumulator charging/discharging circuit, the work of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, the work of battery charge-discharge control circuit control accumulator charging/discharging circuit.
Ultracapacitor can adopt double electric layer capacitor, also can adopt electrochemical capacitor.The monomer ultracapacitor is composed in series series arm earlier, with two or more series arm parallel connection, is combined into bank of super capacitors again, and concrete connection in series-parallel assembled scheme is wanted the actual conditions of viewing system and decided.In order to improve the capacity utilance of bank of super capacitors, and monomer voltage is limited to below the maximum operating voltage, bank of super capacitors can adopt the series average-voltage device, can also adopt the connection in series-parallel change-over circuit.Batteries also is to be together in series by a plurality of cells earlier to form series arm, more two or more series arms is composed in parallel batteries, and concrete connection in series-parallel assembled scheme is wanted the actual conditions of viewing system and decided.
Ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit and accumulator charging/discharging circuit generally adopt non-isolation type DC/DC power inverter, because therefore energy two-way flow in practical work process will be designed to two-way DC/DC.The two-way DC/DC that the present invention adopts is actually by a voltage-dropping type BUCK circuit and a booster type BOOST combination of circuits and forms.Two shared inductors of circuit, each circuit all has a pair of power switch and power diode, and when a circuit working, a pair of power switch and the power diode of another circuit are not worked all the time, and vice versa.Two circuit have just formed two-way DC/DC in different time period alternations.
Ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit and battery charge-discharge control circuit mainly comprise signal sampling unit, A/D converting unit, user instruction unit, calculation control unit (CPU), isolation drive unit etc., and concrete control and management process is then realized by software.
The state parameter of signal sampling unit detection system comprises voltage, temperature, density of electrolyte, charging and discharging currents of storage battery etc.; The voltage of ultracapacitor, charging and discharging currents etc.; The voltage of dc bus and change procedure thereof; The position of elevator, loading capacity, speed, acceleration etc.; And line voltage, voltage interruption or fall degree etc.System produces the correspondent voltage signal by these parameters of signal sampling unit sampling, gives A/D converting unit, and the A/D converting unit is given calculation control unit with the digital signal of conversion, as the suction parameter of system's control.
User instruction is accepted in the user instruction unit, comprises the lifting, purpose floor of elevator etc., and gives calculation control unit with these instructions, as the suction parameter of system's control.
Hybrid accumulator of the present invention and control method thereof are realizing under the prerequisite of systemic-function, strive efficiently, energy-conservation, and can reduce the installed capacity of energy storage device, prolong the useful life of storage battery, improve economy.Its control thought basic principle comprise following some.
First, give full play to the unsteady flow control action of accumulator charging/discharging circuit, ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, the capacity of reasonable disposition batteries and bank of super capacitors is realized satisfying bigger power demand and energy requirement with less capacity, reduces the installation cost of energy storage device.
Second, make the energy exchange between dc bus and the hybrid accumulator, occur on the ultracapacitor as much as possible, and occur in as few as possible on the storage battery, with give full play to the ultracapacitor power density big, have extended cycle life, efficiency for charge-discharge is high and fireballing advantage.
The 3rd, the control accumulator charging/discharging circuit is optimized the charging and discharging of accumulator process, reduces charge and discharge cycles and partial circulating number of times, perhaps reduces depth of discharge, to increase the service life.
The 4th, according to system informations such as the state-of-charge of electric network state, energy storage device, elevator states, and user instruction, prejudge out power and energy that hybrid accumulator need be exported or import, control the course of work of bank of super capacitors and batteries timely and accurately, improve the capability of fast response of energy storage device.
The course of work of the present invention is before elevator brings into operation, to bank of super capacitors and battery charging, to make it be in certain state-of-charge according to certain mode.Adopt bigger electric current to charge, with the charging modes accumulators group charging of optimizing, as constant current charge or pulse current charge etc. to bank of super capacitors.
Elevator is drawn bigger power by frequency converter from dc bus in startup, accelerator, cause busbar voltage to descend, when line voltage takes place to interrupt in short-term, when falling, also can cause busbar voltage to descend.When busbar voltage was lower than certain set point, to DC bus powered, will decide on the rate of change of bus power, so that busbar voltage is kept within limits by the size of power output by charge-discharge circuit for bank of super capacitors.Generally speaking, only just can satisfy the peak power requirements of system by bank of super capacitors, but when bank of super capacitors causes terminal voltage to be lower than certain set point because of discharge, when perhaps judging the batteries needs and discharge certain power and energy according to system mode and user instruction, batteries is by the accumulator charging/discharging circuit constant-current discharge, with bank of super capacitors to DC bus powered.
When the feedback of motor generation energy, the voltage of dc bus will raise.When being higher than certain set point, dc bus charges to bank of super capacitors by the ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, and charge power will be decided on the power variation rate of bus.Generally speaking, only charge and just can reach the purpose of absorption peak power to bank of super capacitors, but when the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors is higher than certain set point, when perhaps judging the batteries needs and absorb certain power and energy according to system mode and user instruction, dc bus is by the charging of accumulator charging/discharging circuit accumulators group, and general employing is the constant current charge mode of optimization comparatively.
When grid power blackout; hybrid accumulator need provide certain power and energy to dc bus; to guarantee that standby electricity generation system can reliably start and export electric energy, guarantee that perhaps power consumption equipment can safe shutdown, perhaps continuously operation until the power system restoration normal power supply.In the emergency service process, the control accumulator charging/discharging circuit makes batteries discharge with current constant mode, and the power of output equals the average power of elevator; Control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit makes bank of super capacitors that elevator peak power in the course of the work is provided.
In high-rise tour tower or mine, elevator or mine hoist because anchor point seldom and range ability is very long, accessory power supply need be supported the long time, arrives anchor point and opens the door until elevator.Also have some particular application, need elevator having a power failure follow-up reforwarding row a few hours.Adopt hybrid accumulator, can make full use of the big advantage of storage battery energy density, the control accumulator charging/discharging circuit makes the current constant mode discharge of batteries to optimize.
When power system restoration just often, in order to guarantee trouble free service (the short at interval situation of twice interruption duration might occur), elevator can not be worked immediately, and need charge to hybrid accumulator according to certain mode.Adopt bigger electric current to charge, with the charging method accumulators group charging of optimizing to bank of super capacitors.When the state-of-charge of batteries and bank of super capacitors reached set point, elevator just can be reworked.
The present invention adopts mixed energy accumulation of super capacitor accumulator, and is equipped with effective control method, has the following advantages:
(1) adopt mixed energy accumulation of super capacitor accumulator, can give full play to the big and ultracapacitor power density of storage battery energy density greatly, have extended cycle life, discharge and recharge the advantage that speed is fast and energy storage efficiency is high, make energy storage device have good technical performance.
(2) because accumulator charging/discharging circuit and control circuit thereof can be optimized the charging and discharging of accumulator process, reduce discharging and recharging the partial circulating number of times, perhaps reduce the depth of discharge when partial circulating takes place, increase the service life.
(3) because ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit and control ability thereof, the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors and DC bus-bar voltage can be very different, satisfying under the prerequisite of same power demand, the capacity usage ratio of ultracapacitor greatly improves, reduce installed capacity, reduced system cost.
(4) because the unsteady flow effect of accumulator charging/discharging circuit and ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, can be very different between the terminal voltage of the terminal voltage of batteries, the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors and dc bus, make the structural arrangements of bank of super capacitors and batteries more flexible.
(5) when the feedback of motor generation energy, by the control action of ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit, the moment that can absorb effectively on the dc bus is high-power, do not need to adopt bleed-off circuit, perhaps can reduce the installed capacity of bleed-off circuit significantly, reduce power consumption, save cost.
(6) batteries is only carried out energy exchange by one-level DC/DC power inverter and dc bus, has reduced energy loss, has improved energy storage efficiency.
The present invention mixes use with ultracapacitor with chargeable storage, storage battery energy density is combined with characteristics such as the ultracapacitor power density are big, have extended cycle life greatly, has improved the performance of power energy storing device.The mixed energy accumulation of super capacitor accumulator device has energy storage capacity and power I/O capability preferably, can dwindle the volume of energy storage device, improves reliability.Storage battery can be optimized the charging and discharging of accumulator process by certain mode and ultracapacitor parallel operation, reduces the charge and discharge cycles number of times, reduces internal loss, increases discharge time, increases the service life.Adopting the super capacitor accumulator energy storage device, can improve the technical performance and the economic performance of system significantly, is a well selection that solves present electric power energy storage problem, uses it for elevator, has advantage clearly.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the operation principle block diagram that hybrid accumulator of the present invention is applied to the elevator supply system;
Fig. 2 is the two-way DC/DC converter principle figure of ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the two-way DC/DC converter principle figure of accumulator charging/discharging circuit of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the theory diagram of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the theory diagram of battery charge-discharge control circuit of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is hybrid accumulator of the present invention precharge control flow chart before the elevator operation;
Fig. 7 is the control flow chart of hybrid accumulator of the present invention when busbar voltage descends;
Fig. 8 is the control flow chart of hybrid accumulator of the present invention when the energy feedback takes place load;
Fig. 9 is the control flow chart of hybrid accumulator of the present invention when grid power blackout;
Figure 10 is the operation principle block diagram that hybrid accumulator of the present invention is applied to many elevator supplies system.
Embodiment
Further specify the present invention below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
As shown in Figure 1, lift appliance of the present invention comprises rectifier 200, dc bus 11, bus filter capacitor 300, bleed-off circuit 100, frequency converter 901, motor and load 902 thereof.Wherein, bleed-off circuit 100 is connected in parallel with dc bus 11, comprises the bleeder resistance 101 and the control switch 102 of releasing.The three-phase alternating current of electrical network is through rectifier 200 rectifications, and dc bus 11 is supplied with in output, and 300 pairs of dc buss of bus filter capacitor 11 carry out filtering, and the input of frequency converter 901 is connected with dc bus 11, the three-phase alternating current drive motors of output and load 902 thereof.
The hybrid accumulator that the present invention is used for elevator comprises bank of super capacitors 10, batteries 20, ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30, accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40, ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50, battery charge-discharge control circuit 60.Bank of super capacitors 10 links to each other with dc bus 11 by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30, and batteries 20 links to each other with dc bus 11 by accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40.The work of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuits 30 has determined the energy Flow process between bank of super capacitors 10 and the dc bus 11.Before elevator is started working, dc bus 11 by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30 with bigger power to bank of super capacitors 10 chargings, reach set point until its state-of-charge of bank of super capacitors 10.The work of battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 control accumulator charging/discharging circuits 40 has determined the energy Flow process between batteries 20 and the dc bus 11.Before elevator was started working, dc bus 11 charged to batteries 20 with current constant mode or the pulse mode optimized by accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40, reaches set point until its state-of-charge.In the course of the work, according to the course of work of system mode and user instruction decision batteries 20.When batteries 20 need provide certain energy in the specific time, control accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 made the current constant mode discharge of batteries 20 to optimize.When batteries 20 need absorb certain energy in the specific time, control accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 made current constant mode or the pulse mode charging of batteries 20 to optimize.
Figure 2 shows that the two-way DC/DC converter of ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30 of the present invention.By controlled power switching tube 32,34, power diode 33,35, inductance 31, filter capacitor 36,37, port 38,39 is formed.One end 31a of inductance 31 is connected with the anode 38a of port 38; The other end 31b of inductance 31 is connected with the collector electrode 32a of power switch pipe 32, and be connected with the negative electrode 33a of power diode 33, the emitter 32b of power switch pipe 32 is connected with the anode 33b of diode 33, is connected with the negative terminal 38b of port 38 and the negative terminal 39b of port 39 simultaneously; The other end 31b of inductance 31 is connected with the emitter 34a of power switch pipe 34, and is connected with the anode 35a of power diode 35, and the collector electrode 34b of power switch pipe 34 is connected with the negative electrode 35b of diode 35, and is connected with the anode 39a of port 39; Filter capacitor 36 is connected in parallel with port 38, and filter capacitor 37 is connected in parallel with port 39.Wherein, controlled power switching tube 32 and 34 includes but not limited to MOSFET, IGBT, IGCT etc., and present embodiment adopts the IPM module that IGBT device for power switching and drive circuit thereof are integrated, and this inside modules has overcurrent, overheat protective function.When port 38 as input, port 39 is during as output, circuit is step-up DC/DC, power switch pipe 34 and diode 33 are not worked, power switch pipe 32 is as controlled tr tube, with the work of diode 35 control circuits.When port 39 as input, port 38 is during as output, circuit is voltage-dropping type DC/DC, power switch pipe 32 and power diode 35 are not worked, power switch pipe 34 is as controlled tr tube, with the work of power diode 33 control circuits.Because the voltage of dc bus 11 is higher, therefore, port 38 connects bank of super capacitors 10, and port 39 connects dc bus 11.When energy when bank of super capacitors 10 flows to dc bus 11, be step-up DC/DC, when energy when dc bus 11 flows to bank of super capacitors 10, be voltage-dropping type DC/DC.
Figure 3 shows that the two-way DC/DC converter of accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 of the present invention.By controlled power switching tube 42,44, power diode 43,45, inductance 41, filter capacitor 46,47, port 48,49 is formed.One end 41a of inductance 41 is connected with the anode 48a of port 48; The other end 41b of inductance 41 is connected with the collector electrode 42a of power switch pipe 42, and be connected with the negative electrode 43a of power diode 43, the emitter 42b of power switch pipe 42 is connected with the anode 43b of diode 43, and is connected with the negative terminal 48b of port 48 and the negative terminal 49b of port 49; The other end 41b of inductance 41 is connected with the emitter 44a of power switch pipe 44, and is connected with the anode 45a of power diode 45, and the collector electrode 44b of power switch pipe 44 is connected with the negative electrode 45b of diode 45, and is connected with the anode 49a of port 49; Filter capacitor 46 is connected in parallel with port 48, and filter capacitor 47 is connected in parallel with port 49.Wherein, controlled power switching tube 42 and 44 includes but not limited to MOSFET, IGBT, IGCT etc., and present embodiment adopts the IPM module that IGBT device for power switching and drive circuit thereof are integrated, and this inside modules has overcurrent, overheat protective function.Because the voltage of dc bus 11 is higher, therefore, port 48 connects batteries 20, and port 49 connects dc bus 11.Like this, when energy when batteries 20 flows to dc bus 11, be step-up DC/DC, when energy when dc bus 11 flows to batteries 20, be voltage-dropping type DC/DC.
As shown in Figure 4, ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 of the present invention comprises signal sampling unit 51, A/D converting unit 52, user instruction unit 53, calculation control unit 54, and isolation drive unit 55.Wherein, calculation control unit 54 includes but not limited to digital signal processor DSP, single-chip microcomputer, embedded system etc.Signal sampling unit 51 adopts voltage sensor, current sensor, temperature sensor, velocity transducer, acceleration transducer, position transducer, concentration sensor, LOAD CELLS that the state parameter of system is sampled respectively, comprise, line voltage, busbar voltage, the position of elevator, loading capacity, speed and acceleration, the voltage of bank of super capacitors 10 and charging and discharging currents, the voltage of batteries 20, temperature, density of electrolyte and charging and discharging currents.Output voltage signal is given A/D converting unit 52, and gives calculation control unit 54 with the digital signal that transforms.Calculation control unit 54 is given with user instruction in user instruction unit 53, comprises lifting, the purpose floor of elevator.Calculation control unit 54 through isolation drive unit 55, drives the power switch pipe 32 and 34 in the ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30 according to the control procedure output control signal of setting, and realizes control procedure.The control procedure of setting comprises: before the elevator operation, power controlling switching tube 32 ends, and driving power switching tube 34, dc bus 11 give bank of super capacitors 10 power supplies; In the startup of elevator, accelerator, power controlling switching tube [34] ends, driving power switching tube 32, and bank of super capacitors 10 provides energy to dc bus 11; In elevator produce power regeneration processes, control switch pipe 32 ends, and driving power switching tube 34, dc bus 11 give bank of super capacitors 10 power supplies; In the grid power blackout process, power controlling switching tube 34 ends, driving power switching tube 32, and bank of super capacitors 10 provides energy to dc bus 11.
As shown in Figure 5, battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 of the present invention comprises signal sampling unit 61, A/D converting unit 62, user instruction unit 63, calculation control unit 64, and isolation drive unit 65.Wherein, calculation control unit 54 includes but not limited to digital signal processor DSP, single-chip microcomputer, embedded system etc.Signal sampling unit 61 adopts voltage sensor, current sensor, temperature sensor, velocity transducer, acceleration transducer, position transducer, concentration sensor, LOAD CELLS that the state parameter of system is sampled respectively, comprise, line voltage, busbar voltage, the position of elevator, loading capacity, speed and acceleration, the voltage of bank of super capacitors 10 and charging and discharging currents, the voltage of batteries 20, temperature, density of electrolyte and charging and discharging currents etc.The voltage signal of output is given A/D converting unit 62, and gives calculation control unit 64 with the digital signal of conversion.Calculation control unit 64 is given with user instruction in user instruction unit 63, comprises lifting, purpose floor of elevator etc.Calculation control unit 64 through isolation drive unit 65, drives the power switch pipe 42 and 44 in the accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 according to the control procedure output control signal of setting, and realizes control procedure.The control procedure of setting comprises: before the elevator operation, power controlling switching tube 42 ends, driving power switching tube 44,20 power supplies of dc bus 11 accumulators groups; In the startup of elevator, accelerator, if when the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors 10 drops to certain set point, power controlling switching tube 44 ends, and driving power switching tube 42 provides energy to dc bus 11; In elevator produce power regeneration processes, if when the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors 10 rises to certain set point, power controlling switching tube 42 ends, driving power switching tube 44,20 power supplies of dc bus 11 accumulators groups; In the grid power blackout process, power controlling switching tube 44 ends, and driving power switching tube 42 provides energy to dc bus 11, and its power output equals elevator average power in the course of the work.
In actual applications, ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 and battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 shared signal collecting units, A/D converting unit, and user instruction unit, calculation control unit can adopt a CPU, also can adopt a plurality of CPU, have the data communication passage between a plurality of CPU.
Elevator is before bringing into operation, and electrical network gives dc bus 11 power supplies by rectifier 200, for it sets up operating voltage.Hybrid accumulator begins precharge, and charging process as shown in Figure 6.According to system mode and user instruction, comprise elevator position, loading capacity, lifting distance etc., the state-of-charge that decision batteries 20 and bank of super capacitors 10 should reach.Dc bus 11 gives bank of super capacitors 10 chargings by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30, and charge power is bigger, so that its state-of-charge reaches the requirement of setting quickly.In this course of work, power switch pipe 32 disconnects all the time, the drive signal control switch pipe 34 of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 outputs, and control dc bus 11 is to the power supply process of bank of super capacitors 10.Simultaneously, dc bus 11 adopts constant current charge or the pulse current charge mode optimized by 20 chargings of accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 accumulators groups.In this course of work, power switch pipe 42 disconnects all the time, battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 output drive signal control switch pipes 44, and control dc bus 11 is to the power supply process of batteries 20.When the state-of-charge of bank of super capacitors 10 and batteries 20 has reached set point, stop charging, elevator is ready, can move.
Elevator is in startup, accelerator, and power demand strengthens, and causes dc bus 11 voltages to reduce; In addition, interrupt, when falling, can cause that also busbar voltage is with low when line voltage.Hybrid accumulator is to dc bus 11 power supplies, so that its voltage maintains in certain scope, process as shown in Figure 7.Bank of super capacitors 10 gives dc bus 11 power supplies by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30.In this process, power switch pipe 34 disconnects all the time, the control signal driving power switching tube 32 of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 outputs, and control bank of super capacitors 10 is to the power supply process of dc bus 11.Generally speaking, only just can satisfy system requirements by the discharge of bank of super capacitors 10, but when causing its terminal voltage to drop to certain set point when bank of super capacitors 10 continuous discharges, when perhaps judging batteries 20 needs and discharge certain power and energy according to system mode and user instruction, batteries 20 by accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 to dc bus 11 power supplies.In this process, power switch pipe 44 disconnects all the time, the drive signal power controlling switching tube 42 of battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 outputs, and control batteries 20 is to the power supply process of dc bus 11.Batteries 20 general works are in the constant-current discharge mode of optimizing.Detect the state-of-charge of bank of super capacitors 10 and batteries 20, if be lower than certain set point, the control elevator safety is shut down, and hybrid accumulator is stopped power supply.
Elevator is in deceleration, stopping process, and motor is in generating state, and passes through frequency converter 901 to dc bus 11 feeds, causes busbar voltage to raise.Hybrid accumulator absorbs this part power and energy in some way, and process as shown in Figure 8.Ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuits 30 make dc bus 11 give bank of super capacitors 10 chargings by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30.In this course of work, power switch pipe 32 disconnects all the time, the drive signal control switch pipe 34 of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 60 outputs, and control dc bus 11 is to the power supply process of bank of super capacitors 10.Generally speaking, just can reach the purpose of absorption peak power only for bank of super capacitors 10 chargings, but when causing its terminal voltage to rise to certain set point when bank of super capacitors 10 lasting chargings, when perhaps judging batteries 20 needs a part of power of absorption or energy by system mode and user instruction, battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 control accumulator charging/discharging circuits 40, dc bus 11 is by 20 chargings of accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40 accumulators groups.In this process, power switch pipe 42 disconnects all the time, the drive signal power controlling switching tube 44 of battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 outputs, and control dc bus 11 is to the power supply process of batteries 20.General batteries 20 works in the constant current charge mode of optimization.When charging to, bank of super capacitors 10 and batteries 20 set state-of-charge and the terminal voltage of dc bus 11 when still being higher than the magnitude of voltage of setting, control switch 102 closures in the bleed-off circuit 100, dc bus 11 is by bleeder resistance 101 discharges, drop to the magnitude of voltage of setting until the terminal voltage of dc bus 11, control switch 102 disconnects.
When grid power blackout, provide the normal operation of elevator required power and energy by hybrid accumulator, realize uninterrupted power supply, process is as shown in Figure 9.Batteries 20 gives dc bus 11 power supplies by accumulator charging/discharging circuit 40, batteries 20 constant-current discharges, and its power output equals the average power in the running process of elevator.In this process, power switch pipe 44 disconnects all the time, the drive signal power controlling switching tube 42 of battery charge-discharge control circuit 60 outputs, and control batteries 20 is to the power supply process of dc bus 11.Bank of super capacitors 10 is passed through ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit 30 and is given dc bus 11 power supplies, and being mainly used in provides the peak power requirements of elevator when startup, acceleration, and accepts the charging of dc bus 11 at deceleration of elevator, when shutdown constant power demand is low.In this process, the drive signal power controlling switching tube 32 of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit 50 output with 34 in different time period alternations, realize the two-way flow of energy.The hybrid accumulator continuous firing continues to move to next floor and opens elevator door until elevator, and perhaps other power plant for emergency starts and the output electric energy, and perhaps operation is powered until power system restoration continuously.If interruption duration is long, the state-of-charge of batteries 20 and bank of super capacitors 10 is lower than the lower limit of setting, and system controls elevator at suitable floor safe shutdown, and stops the power supply of hybrid accumulator.
Figure 10 is the Application Example of hybrid accumulator of the present invention in many elevator supplies system.On the basis of system shown in Figure 1, electrical network sends dc bus 11 to by rectification circuit 200 rectifications and with the direct current that produces, dc bus 11 drives the load 90 that many groups are made up of frequency converter 901 and motor 902, in the present embodiment, all lift appliances are by dc bus 11 shared cover bleed-off circuits 100 (comprising the vent discharge group 101 and the control switch 102 of releasing).
The course of work of hybrid accumulator and control method are to embodiment illustrated in fig. 1 similar.The advantage of present embodiment is, drive many group loads 90 by one group of dc bus 11, can give full play to the energy complement effect that occurs because of the course of work is asynchronous between each load, can further dwindle the installed capacity of hybrid accumulator like this, reduce the course of work of bank of super capacitors 10 and batteries 20, improved energy utilization efficiency.

Claims (7)

1, a kind of hybrid accumulator for elevator is characterized in that: comprise bank of super capacitors [10], batteries [20], ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30], accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40], ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50], battery charge-discharge control circuit [60]; Bank of super capacitors [10] is connected with dc bus [11] by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30], and batteries [20] is connected with dc bus [11] by accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40]; The course of work of ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50] control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30], the course of work of battery charge-discharge control circuit [60] control accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40]; Ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30] and accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40] adopt the two-way DC/DC power inverter of non-isolation type; Ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50] comprises signal sampling unit [51], A/D converting unit [52], user instruction unit [53], calculation control unit [54], and isolation drive unit [55]; Battery charge-discharge control circuit [60] comprises signal sampling unit [61], A/D converting unit [62], user instruction unit [63], calculation control unit [64], and isolation drive unit [65];
In ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50], the state parameter of electrical network, dc bus [11], elevator, bank of super capacitors [10] and batteries [20] is gathered in signal sampling unit [51], output voltage signal is given A/D converting unit [52], A/D converting unit [52] is given calculation control unit [54] with the digital signal of conversion, calculation control unit [54] is given with user instruction in user instruction unit [53], and calculation control unit [54] output control signal is given isolation drive unit [55]; In battery charge-discharge control circuit [60], the state parameter of electrical network, dc bus [11], elevator, bank of super capacitors [10] and batteries [20] is gathered in signal sampling unit [61], output voltage signal is given A/D converting unit [62], A/D converting unit [62] is given calculation control unit [64] with the digital signal of conversion, calculation control unit [64] is given with user instruction in user instruction unit [63], and calculation control unit [64] output control signal is given isolation drive unit [65].
2, hybrid accumulator for elevator as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the two-way DC/DC power inverter of ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30] is by the first and second controlled power switching tubes [32,34], first and second power diodes [33,35], first inductance [31], first and second filtering capacitors [36,37], first and second ports [38,39] are formed; One end [31a] of first inductance [31] is connected with the anode [38a] of first port [38]; The other end [31b] of first inductance [31] is connected with the collector electrode [32a] of the first controlled power switching tube [32] and the negative electrode [33a] of first power diode [33], the emitter [32b] of the first controlled power switching tube [32] is connected with the anode [33b] of first power diode [33], and is connected with the negative terminal [38b] of first port [38] and the negative terminal [39b] of second port [39]; The other end [31b] of first inductance [31] is connected with the emitter [34a] of the second controlled power switching tube [34] and the anode [35a] of second power diode [35], the collector electrode [34b] of the second controlled power switching tube [34] is connected with the negative electrode [35b] of second power diode [35], and is connected with the anode [39a] of second port [39]; First filtering capacitor [36] is connected in parallel with first port [38], and second filtering capacitor [37] is connected in parallel with second port [39], and first port [38] is connected with bank of super capacitors [10], and second port [39] is connected with dc bus [11].
3, hybrid accumulator for elevator as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that: the two-way DC/DC power inverter of accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40] is made up of the third and fourth controlled power switching tube [42,44], third and fourth power diode [43,45], second inductance [41], third and fourth filtering capacitor [46,47], third and fourth port [48,49]; One end [41a] of second inductance [41] is connected with the anode [48a] of the 3rd port [48]; The other end of second inductance [41b] is connected with the collector electrode [42a] of the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42] and the negative electrode [43a] of the 3rd power diode [43], the emitter [42b] of the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42] is connected with the anode [43b] of the 3rd power diode [43], and is connected with the negative terminal [48b] of the 3rd port [48] and the negative terminal [49b] of the 4th port [49]; The other end [41b] of second inductance [41] is connected with the emitter [44a] of the 4th controlled power switching tube [44] and the anode [45a] of the 4th power diode [45], the collector electrode [44b] of the 4th controlled power switching tube [44] is connected with the negative electrode [45b] of the 4th power diode [45], and is connected with the anode [49a] of the 4th port [49]; The 3rd filtering capacitor [46] is connected in parallel with the 3rd port [48], and the 4th filtering capacitor [47] is in parallel with the 4th port [49], and the 3rd port [48] is connected with batteries [20], and the 4th port [49] is connected with dc bus [11].
4, hybrid accumulator for elevator as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described hybrid accumulator is applied to the electric power system of many elevators, each elevator motor [902] links to each other with dc bus [11] by frequency converter [901], and a shared bleed-off circuit [100].
5, a kind of control method that is used for the described hybrid accumulator for elevator of claim 3, it is characterized in that: signal sampling unit [51] the sampling line voltage in the ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50], busbar voltage, elevator position, loading capacity, speed and acceleration, the voltage and the charging and discharging currents of bank of super capacitors [10], voltage, temperature, density of electrolyte and the charging and discharging currents of batteries [20], output voltage signal is given A/D converting unit [52], and A/D converting unit [52] is given calculation control unit [54] with the digital signal of conversion; Calculation control unit [54] is given with user instruction in user instruction unit [53], calculation control unit [54] is according to the control procedure output control signal of setting, through isolation drive unit [55], drive the first and second controlled power switching tubes [32,34] in the ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30], realize control procedure; The control procedure of setting comprises: before elevator brings into operation, control the first controlled power switching tube [32] and end, drive the second controlled power switching tube [34], dc bus [11] is given bank of super capacitors [10] power supply; In the startup of elevator, accelerator, control the second controlled power switching tube [34] and end, drive the first controlled power switching tube [32], bank of super capacitors [10] provides energy to dc bus [11]; In elevator produce power regeneration processes, control the first controlled power switching tube [32] and end, drive the second controlled power switching tube [34], dc bus [11] is given bank of super capacitors [10] power supply; In the grid power blackout process, control the second controlled power switching tube [34] and end, drive the first controlled power switching tube [32], bank of super capacitors [10] provides energy to dc bus [11];
Signal sampling unit [61] the sampling line voltage of battery charge-discharge control circuit [60], busbar voltage, elevator position, loading capacity, speed and acceleration, the voltage and the charging and discharging currents of bank of super capacitors [10], voltage, temperature, density of electrolyte and the charging and discharging currents of batteries [20], output voltage signal is given A/D converting unit [62], and A/D converting unit [62] is given calculation control unit [64] with the digital signal of conversion; Calculation control unit [64] is given with user instruction in user instruction unit [63], calculation control unit [64] is according to the control procedure output control signal of setting, through isolation drive unit [65], drive the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42] and the 4th controlled power switching tube [44] in the accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40], realize control procedure; The control procedure of setting comprises: before elevator brings into operation, control the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42] and end, drive the 4th controlled power switching tube [44], dc bus [11] accumulators group [20] power supply; In the startup of elevator, accelerator, when if the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors [10] drops to certain set point, control the 4th controlled power switching tube [44] and end, drive the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42], batteries [20] provides energy to dc bus [11]; In elevator produce power regeneration processes, when if the terminal voltage of bank of super capacitors [10] rises to certain set point, control the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42] and end, drive the 4th controlled power switching tube [44], dc bus [11] accumulators group [20] power supply; In the grid power blackout process, control the 4th controlled power switching tube [44] and end, drive the 3rd controlled power switching tube [42], batteries [20] provides energy to dc bus [11], and its power output equals elevator average power in the course of the work.
6, a kind of control method of hybrid accumulator for elevator as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that: ultracapacitor charge-discharge control circuit [50] control ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30], before elevator was started working, dc bus [11] charged to bank of super capacitors [10] by ultracapacitor charge-discharge circuit [30]; Simultaneously, dc bus [11] by accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40] with current constant mode or pulse mode to batteries [20] charging, reach set point until the state-of-charge of bank of super capacitors [10] and batteries [20].
7, a kind of control method of hybrid accumulator for elevator as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that: battery charge-discharge control circuit [60] control accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40], according to the course of work of system mode and user instruction decision batteries [20]; When batteries [20] need provide energy, control accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40] made batteries [20] discharge with current constant mode; When batteries [20] needed to absorb energy, control accumulator charging/discharging circuit [40] made batteries [20] with current constant mode or pulse mode charging.
CN200610011629A 2006-04-10 2006-04-10 Hybrid accumulator for elevator and control method thereof Expired - Fee Related CN100588075C (en)

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