CN100547113C - The method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating and device - Google Patents

The method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating and device Download PDF

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CN100547113C
CN100547113C CN 200710052458 CN200710052458A CN100547113C CN 100547113 C CN100547113 C CN 100547113C CN 200710052458 CN200710052458 CN 200710052458 CN 200710052458 A CN200710052458 A CN 200710052458A CN 100547113 C CN100547113 C CN 100547113C
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laser
coating
workpiece
cladding
processed
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CN 200710052458
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CN101070595A (en
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曾晓雁
胡乾午
周圣丰
黄永俊
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华中科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses method and device that a kind of laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating.The present invention is coupled together laser beam and high-frequency electromagnetic induction heating, realizes the process of laser and induction heating composite cladding.Device comprises laser apparatus, laser conducting device, laser gathering device, high frequency induction heater, numerically-controlled machine and work holder.During work, coating on the pending surface of workpiece and the distance between the load coil are the 1-10 millimeter.Highly versatile of the present invention, can carry out the surface treatment that laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating on the surface of the solid parts of various materials and the surfaces externally and internally of tubular member, cladding method is characterised in that and utilizes thermospray, cold spraying or the high advantage of hypersonic flame spraying efficient, and induction heating and laser melting coating carried out synchronously, maximum cladding linear velocity reach 0.5-10 rice/minute, cladding speed has improved 1-10 doubly than conventional laser cladding, the powder deposition rate has improved 1-15 doubly than the deposition of existing laser melting coating, and cladding layer pore-free and crackle.

Description

The method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating and device
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of laser processing, be specifically related to a kind of method and device of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating.
Background technology
Laser melting and coating technique is to adopt the material of the laser beam of high-energy-density in workpiece surface cladding one deck property, to improve the technology of its surface property.Compare with hot-spraying techniques with traditional built-up welding, laser melting and coating technique has following advantage: (1) laser beam spot is little and energy density is high, the heat affected zone and the thermal distortion of workpiece can be reduced to minimum degree in cladding process; (2), can obtain thinning ratio less than 10% cladding layer by regulating processing parameter; (3) cladding layer and base material are metallurgical binding, and the bonding strength height is incrust; (4) by custom-designed laser conducting device, can carry out Laser Cladding Treatment to positions such as deep hole, endoporus and grooves, can obtain to satisfy the cladding coating of different size requirement in conjunction with the multiple tracks multilayer technique; (5) laser melting and coating technique environmentally safe, the level of automation height.Therefore, has very wide application prospect in fields such as automobile, metallurgy, aerospace, boats and ships, track haulage.
Yet up to the present, the level of application of laser melting and coating technique in industry do not reach the target of early stage anticipation, and major cause comprises: the one-time investment of (1) high power laser light processing units is bigger, and the maintenance cost costliness; (2) laser melting coating efficient is far below traditional technology, and as built-up welding and thermospray, so the manufacturing cost of unit surface coating is higher; (3) though laser and thermospray can be combined realization LASER HEAT spraying composite cladding technology (J.Suutala, J.Tuominen, P.Vuoristo.Laser-assisted spraying and laser treatment of thermally sprayedcoatings, Surface ﹠amp; Coatings Technology, 201 (2006): 1981-1987), laser melting coating efficient is improved, but because the rapid heating of laser cladding process and cooled and solidified fast, characteristics that thermal stresses is big, when laser melting coating was carried out on the massive material surface, cladding layer very easily cracked.Particularly at the substrate surface of weldability difference, crack problem is one of laser cladding layer obstacle of being difficult to go beyond always, has restricted this Industrial Application of Technology.
Base material is carried out thermal pretreatment, reduce cladding layer speed of cooling and and base material between thermograde, be considered to eliminate the favorable method of crackle.Yoshiwara and Kawaname (Method forsurface alloying metal with a high density energy beam and an alloysteel, United States, United States Patent, 4750947,1988) adopt process furnace or oxyacetylene torch that workpiece is preheating to 600-800 ℃, reach in laser melting coating speed under 5.4 meters/minute the condition, obtained flawless cladding layer.The laser melting and coating technique of this employing preheating is compared with simple laser melting and coating technique, and cladding efficient has improved 225% under same process parameter condition.But, for the complex-shaped and big workpiece of size, need complicated process furnace during preheating, and insulation can produce oxide skin at workpiece surface for a long time, has a strong impact on the quality of laser cladding layer.In addition, through after the preheating in the pyritous environment loading and unloading also very inconvenient with holding workpiece, inefficiency not only, operator easily also burn.And adopt oxyacetylene torch to carry out preheating, workpiece be subjected to thermal process slow, the heat affected zone is bigger, it is thick to cause base material to be organized, mechanical property worsens.In addition, adopt above-mentioned two kinds of methods to be merely able to the simple component of outward appearance are carried out laser melting coating processing, can't carry out Laser Cladding Treatment the inwall of complex parts or hollow component.And in Laser Cladding Treatment, can't carry out after heat slow cooling processing to difficulty welding or large-scale workpiece, therefore, the versatility of its device is not strong.
In recent years, easy to operate induction heating melting and coating technique has caused people's extensive interest.Induction cladding processing technology can obtain large-area cladding layer, and production cost is low, the efficient height.The weak point of this technology is: (1) cover material material fusion need be applied to substrate surface in advance, and cladding preparation work amount is bigger; (2) fusing must be controlled between the liquid-solid two-phase, be prone to cladding layer and run off, thereby the compactness of cladding layer is poor slightly; (3) in the induction cladding process, institute's top temperature that can reach is limited, therefore is difficult to realize that for some dystectic alloy layers cladding processes; (4) it is big to respond to the energy of the required consumption of cladding merely, and it is overheated easily to produce matrix, and quality product is wayward.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the method for preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating, the cladding efficient height of this method, the probability that cladding layer produces pore and crackle descends significantly, and total quality improves comprehensively; The present invention also provides the device of realizing this method, and this device versatility is stronger, can carry out Laser Cladding Treatment to the surface of solid parts and the surfaces externally and internally of hollow component.
The method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating provided by the invention, its step comprises:
1. be the coating of 0.1-3.0 millimeter at workpiece to be processed surface spraying one layer thickness that carried out sandblasting, coated material is a powdered alloy, the perhaps metal-ceramic composite powder end that forms of powdered alloy and ceramic phase particles, wherein the quality percentage composition of ceramic phase particles is smaller or equal to 70%;
2. coating and the distance between the load coil with the workpiece to be processed surface is controlled in the 1-10 millimeter scope, utilizes high frequency induction heater to feed electric current in load coil, and the temperature that makes workpiece surface is 500-1200 ℃, and feeds shielding gas;
3. irradiation carries out Laser Cladding Treatment to coating after laser beam being focused in the induction heating district, and laser power is 1-10KW, and the spot diameter of laser beam is the 2-30 millimeter, the laser melting coating linear velocity be 0.5-10 rice/minute, induction heating power is 10-300KW;
4. after the intact one deck alloy coat of cladding, whether the thickness that detects cladding layer reaches the thickness requirement of setting, if do not have, 1.-3. repeating step reaches needed thickness up to cladding layer, otherwise, end-of-job.
The device of realizing aforesaid method comprises laser apparatus, laser conducting device, laser focusing device, numerically-controlled machine and work holder, laser apparatus, laser conducting device and laser focusing device are positioned on the same light path, the laser beam that laser apparatus emits is transferred to laser focusing device through laser conducting device, expose to the preset coating of workpiece surface after the line focus, the air outlet of airway is positioned at the light-emitting window place of laser focusing device, and work holder is installed on the numerically-controlled machine; It is characterized in that: this device also comprises high frequency induction heater, and load coil links to each other with high frequency induction heater, and during work, the distance between load coil and the workpiece to be processed coating is the 1-10 millimeter.
Problem when the present invention has avoided conventional heating means (as process furnace or gas flame etc.) preheating to realize laser melting coating, the problem includes: efficient is low, easily cause problem such as vitals damage, utilize thermospray, cold spraying and the high advantage of hypersonic flame spraying technical efficiency, high energy laser beam and high-frequency electromagnetic induction well heater are combined, realize the process of laser and induction heating composite cladding.Compare with processing methodes such as simple laser melting and coating technique or induction melting and coating techniques, the present invention has following technique effect:
(1) induction heating device of the present invention is simple in structure, and is easy to use, opens rapidly, can avoid conventional heating means such as process furnace or gas flame etc. easily to cause vitals to damage and the inefficient problem of cladding;
(2) induction heater among the present invention is made up of single turn or multiturn load coil, load coil be shaped as annulus or one section circular arc, it is convenient that the location is installed; Induction heater can be finished the heat treated that preheating, after heat or preheating and after heat are carried out simultaneously to workpiece; Heated workpiece does not need to contact with load coil, and heat-up time is short, and is easy to loading and unloading.Particularly, in fact the introducing in induction heating source has two advantages: the one, workpiece is realized preheating, make after the temperature raising of workpiece, the energy of laser mainly consumes on the melted alloy powder, therefore utilization ratio of laser energy improves greatly, cladding speed also can be improved significantly, reach 0.5-10 rice/minute in addition higher, improved 1-10 doubly than the speed of existing laser melting coating.The powder deposition rate be the 1-15 kilogram/hour, improved 1-15 doubly than the deposition of existing laser melting coating; The 2nd, load coil can be realized the after heat slow cooling to the workpiece surface after the laser melting coating, reduces its speed of cooling, therefore can reduce the cracking sensitivity of cladding layer, improves the quality and the performance of cladding layer.
(3) adopt apparatus of the present invention to need to be easy to area heated to be limited to the regional area of workpiece, and needn't carry out integral body heating workpiece, therefore to size, the shape of workpiece, need the position of processing unrestricted.
(4) can prepare various high-performance coatings, for example superalloy coating, coated with wear-resisting alloy or cermet composite coating etc.Wherein the quality percentage composition of ceramic phase is up to 70%, and whole cermet composite coating and base material be metallurgical binding, and produces pore and crackle hardly.
(5) for material such as rich chromium cast iron, forged steel and the high-carbon high-alloy steel etc. of weldability difference, utilize the inventive method can obtain pore-free, flawless, high performance material coating.Therefore, fairly obvious for advantages such as machining large-sized workpiece such as large-scale roller, bent axle and tubular members, application prospect is very wide.
The present invention can be used for the surface of various solid parts and the surface treatment of hollow component inside and outside wall.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 a be laser beam when navigating between the load coil outside surface to hollow component carry out the device synoptic diagram that laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating;
Fig. 1 b be laser beam when navigating to after the load coil outside surface to hollow component carry out the device synoptic diagram that laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating;
Fig. 2 is the layout synoptic diagram that is exclusively used in each major parts of hollow component outside surface laser induction composite coating device;
Fig. 3 is exclusively used in the semicircle load coil of solid parts surface laser induction composite cladding and the layout synoptic diagram of workpiece;
Fig. 4 is to carrying out the device synoptic diagram that laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating in the solid parts surface;
Fig. 5 is for to carry out the device synoptic diagram that laser induction composite covers the high performance material coating to the hollow component internal surface;
Fig. 6 is the laser conducting device synoptic diagram that is exclusively used in hollow component inner surface laser induction composite cladding high performance material coating;
Fig. 7 is the layout synoptic diagram that is exclusively used in each major parts of hollow component inner surface laser inductive composite melt coating device;
Embodiment
The inventive method is utilized the laser induction composite coating technique, by multiple tracks multilayer overlap joint cladding mode, can the workpiece surfaces externally and internally obtain fast to satisfy workpiece size specification requirement, pore-free and flawless, and base material be the high performance material coating of metallurgical binding.The invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and example.
The laser induction composite that the present invention proposes covers the method for high performance material coating, and implementation step comprises:
(1) earlier sandblasting is carried out on the surface of workpiece to be processed, laid the foundation for thermospray, cold spraying or hypersonic flame spraying preset alloy coat;
(2) be the coating of 0.1-3.0 millimeter at workpiece to be processed surface spraying one layer thickness, workpiece to be processed had been for having carried out the solid parts or the hollow pipe fitting of sandblasting, and coated material is powdered alloy (comprising self-fluxing alloy powder or other non-self-fluxing alloy powder) or mixes biggest quality percentage composition can reach the metal-ceramic composite powder end that 70% ceramic phase particles (as high rigidity stupaliths such as wolfram varbide, titanium carbide, silicon carbide) forms in above-mentioned powdered alloy.The spraying initialization layer can adopt cold spraying, thermospray or hypersonic flame spraying etc.;
(3) coating and the distance between the load coil with the workpiece to be processed surface is controlled in the 1-10 millimeter scope, utilizes high frequency induction heater to feed electric current in load coil, and the temperature that makes the workpiece to be processed surface is 500-1200 ℃.
When the outer wall of workpiece to be processed was handled, the treatment zone feeding shielding gas at workpiece to be processed can prevent the workpiece oxidation.Also can carry out induction heating to the workpiece to be processed surface of carrying out sandblasting earlier, utilize thermospray, cold spraying or hypersonic flame spraying technology coating then in the induction heating district, carry out Laser Cladding Treatment at last at workpiece to be processed surface spraying 0.1-3 millimeter.In the process of carrying out Laser Cladding Treatment, regulate induction heating power, make pending regional temperature in 500-1200 ℃ of scope.
(4) laser beam is focused on after irradiation in the induction heating district, coating is carried out Laser Cladding Treatment, laser power is 1-10KW, the spot diameter of laser beam is the 2-30 millimeter, the laser melting coating linear velocity be 0.5-10 rice/minute, induction heating power is 10-300KW.
For difficult welding material or large-scale workpiece, laser beam after the focusing navigates between the load coil, realizes the after heat slow cooling after the workpiece laser cladding is handled, and reduces the speed of cooling of cladding layer, therefore can reduce the cracking sensitivity of cladding layer, improve the quality and the performance of cladding layer.For miniature workpiece, laser beam can be navigated in the induction heating district of (with respect to the axial motion direction of workpiece) certain distance after the load coil.When laser beam navigates between the load coil, the number of turn of concrete load coil and be used for preheating and the coil turn of after heat is selected according to working condition requirement.
For axial workpiece, in the time of Workpiece Rotating, along workpiece move axially workpiece to be processed or numerically-controlled machine, make laser beam on the surface of workpiece in the shape of a spiral the line mode scan.By regulating the distance that numerically-controlled machine moves, thus the overlapping rate of control cladding layer, workpiece whenever rotates a circle, and then numerically-controlled machine is generally the 30%-70% of laser spot diameter along the axially movable distance of workpiece.For the flat-type component, when cladding intact together after, along moving numerically-controlled machine, make the overlapping rate of adjacent laser melting coating passage be controlled at the 30%-70% of laser beam spot diameter perpendicular to laser scanning direction.Occurrence depends on the requirement to laser processing technology.
(5) after the intact one deck alloy coat of cladding, whether the thickness that detects cladding layer reaches the thickness requirement of setting.If no, on the basis of original the first layer cladding layer, repeating step (2)-(4) reach needed thickness up to cladding layer.When repeating above-mentioned steps, the distance of adjusting between laser focusing device and the surface coating that is noted that, and note the adjusting of gap length between load coil and the surface coating, so that the heat effect when guaranteeing laser melting coating when spot size and load coil heating is constant.If cladding layer has reached needed thickness, then end-of-job.
Cover in the process at laser induction composite, because induction heating can produce certain temperature field in workpiece surface certain thickness zone, reduced the thermograde of cladding layer in process of setting and between the base material widely, not only help overflowing of bubble in the cladding layer, and the unrelieved stress in the cladding layer can be reduced to minimum value, help suppressing the generation of crackle in the cladding layer.
Device shown in Fig. 1 a and 1b, apparatus of the present invention comprise laser apparatus 1, laser conducting device 4, laser focusing device 3, high frequency induction heater 2, numerically-controlled machine 6 and work holder.
Laser apparatus 1, laser conducting device 4 and laser focusing device 3 are positioned on the same light path, and the laser beam that laser apparatus 1 emits is transferred to laser focusing device 3 through laser conducting device 4, expose to the preset coating on workpiece to be processed surface after the line focus.
Load coil 8 links to each other with high frequency induction heater 2, is used for workpiece to be processed 9 is heated.The air outlet of airway 11 is positioned at the light-emitting window place of laser focusing device 3, feeds shielding gas in airway 11, can avoid the workpiece to be processed oxidation.
Work holder is installed on the numerically-controlled machine 6, and numerically-controlled machine 6 can adopt three or four-axle linked numerically-controlled machine.Work holder is made of rotary table 5, thread jaw chuck 7 and thimble 10.Rotary table 5 is fixed on the numerically-controlled machine 6, and thread jaw chuck 7 is installed on the rotary table 5.Thimble 10 is fixed on the numerically-controlled machine 6, and its position is relative with thread jaw chuck 7.Thread jaw chuck 7 and thimble 10 are used for clamping workpiece to be processed 9.
As shown in Figure 2, when laser induction composite covered, load coil 8 was enclosed within outside the workpiece to be processed 9, and the distance between load coil 8 and workpiece to be processed 9 external surface coatings is the 1-10 millimeter.After machining, at the outer wall formation high-performance cladding material layer 12 of workpiece to be processed 9.
Load coil 8 can be single turn or multiturn, and the shape of coil can be circular (as shown in Figure 2) or semi-round ring shape (as shown in Figure 3).For easy to operate, semi-round ring shape multiturn load coil 8 is positioned at the below of workpiece to be processed 9, and the light-emitting window of laser beam is positioned at the top of workpiece to be processed 9, and navigates to the induction heating district, also can realize the Laser Cladding Treatment that preheating and after heat are carried out simultaneously.
For large-scale tubular workpiece or solid parts, as shown in Figure 4, work holder by a pair of rotary table 5,5 ' and a pair of thread jaw chuck 7,7 ' constitute.Rotary table 5,5 ' is installed on the numerically-controlled machine 6, and thread jaw chuck 7,7 ' is installed in rotary table 5,5 ' respectively.Two thread jaw chucks 7,7 ' are fixed the two ends of workpiece to be processed 9, and rotary table 5,5 ' drives workpiece to be processed 9 rotations, and moves with numerically-controlled machine 6.
As shown in Figure 5, when the inwall of workpiece to be processed was handled, the light-emitting window of load coil 8 and laser focusing device 3 should be positioned at the inwall of workpiece to be processed 9, and the distance between the inside coating of load coil 8 and workpiece to be processed 9 is the 1-10 millimeter.Need to utilize special-purpose laser conducting device that laser beam is introduced tube intracavity.Laser conducting device 4 as shown in Figure 6, by The light pipe 15 of type and two speculums 13 and 14 constitute.First speculum 14 is positioned at the corner of light pipe 15, and second speculum 13 is positioned at light pipe 15 bright dipping ends, and the minute surface of speculum 13,14 is parallel to each other, and is 45 ° with the angle of laser beam axis.The laser beam that laser apparatus 1 is launched after guiding device 4 is transferred to laser focusing device 3 and focuses on irradiation at the coatingsurface of workpiece to be processed 9.
As shown in Figure 7, for improving the heating efficiency of 8 pairs of workpieces to be processed 9 of load coil, magnetizer 16 is installed on load coil 8.
Example:
Example 1:
Select continuous CO 2Laser apparatus, adopting device as shown in Figure 1a is that 110 millimeters, wall thickness are that the outside surface of 10 millimeters tubular metal component carries out laser induction composite and covers processing to external diameter.
(1) elder generation carries out sandblasting to the outside surface of tubular metal component;
(2) adopting thermospray or cold spray technique, is 0.1 millimeter coating at the outside surface coating thickness.Coated material can be selected wear-resisting, anti-corrosion or resistant to elevated temperatures iron-based, Ni-based or Co-based alloy powder, the metal-ceramic composite powder end that also can select ceramic particles such as above-mentioned powdered alloy and wolfram varbide, titanium carbide, silicon carbide to form.
(3) coating and the distance adjustment between the load coil with tubular metal component outside surface is 1 millimeter, the number of turn of load coil is 3 circles, feed electric current in load coil, regulate induction heating power, the temperature that makes the tubular metal component surface is 500-750 ℃.
(4) laser beam is navigated between the load coil, the laser melting coating processing that realization is carried out simultaneously to the preheating and the after heat of tubular metal component surface coating, the coil turn that is used for preheating and after heat is respectively 2 circles and 1 circle.Laser focusing device will focus on back irradiation through the laser beam that the laser conducting device transmission comes on the coating of tubular metal component outside surface, and the diameter of hot spot is 30 millimeters, and the position of focal beam spot is positioned at the geometric centre place in induction heating district.The output rating of laser apparatus is 5KW, and the linear velocity of laser melting coating is 3 meters/minute.Adopt the multi-track overlapping mode, finish the big area cladding of tubular metal component outside surface.In the laser cladding process, the overlapping rate between the adjacent laser cladding layer is 30%.
(5) after the intact one deck of cladding, continue to adopt thermospray, cold spraying or other coating method to preset the coating of 0.1 millimeter of a bed thickness, repeating step (3)-(4) then at outer pipe wall.So repeatedly, the thickness up to cladding layer reaches needed working condition requirement.
Example 2:
Select diode laser, adopting the device shown in Fig. 1 b is that 300 millimeters, wall thickness are that the outside surface of 15 millimeters tubular metal component carries out laser induction composite and covers processing to external diameter.
(1) elder generation carries out sandblasting to the outside surface of tubular metal component;
(2) adopting thermospray, cold spray technique or hypersonic flame spraying technology, is 3.0 millimeters coating at the outside surface coating thickness.Coated material can be selected wear-resisting, anti-corrosion or resistant to elevated temperatures iron-based, Ni-based or Co-based alloy powder, the metal-ceramic composite powder end that also can select ceramic particles such as above-mentioned powdered alloy and wolfram varbide, titanium carbide, silicon carbide to form.
(3) coating and the distance adjustment between the load coil with tubular metal component outside surface is 10 millimeters, the number of turn of load coil is 3 circles, in load coil, feed electric current, high frequency induction heater can be heated to the red heat state with the tubular metal component surface within the several seconds, regulate induction heating power, the temperature that makes tubular metal component outside surface is 1000-1200 ℃.
(4) laser beam is navigated to after the load coil in 25 millimeters the induction heating district, carry out Laser Cladding Treatment.Laser focusing device will focus on back irradiation through the laser beam that the laser conducting device transmission comes on the coating of tubular metal component outside surface, and the diameter of hot spot is 2 millimeters, and the position of focal beam spot is positioned at the geometric centre place in induction heating district.The output rating of laser apparatus is 5KW, and the linear velocity of laser melting coating is 10 meters/minute.Adopt the multi-track overlapping mode, finish the big area cladding of tubular metal component outside surface.In the laser cladding process, the overlapping rate between the adjacent laser cladding layer is 70%.
(5) after the intact one deck of cladding, continue to adopt thermospray, cold spraying or other coating method to preset the coating of 3.0 millimeters of bed thickness, repeating step (3)-(4) then at outer pipe wall.So repeatedly, the thickness up to cladding layer reaches needed working condition requirement.
Example 3:
Select continuous CO 2The roller surface of laser apparatus, employing device pair roller footpath D=600 millimeter as shown in Figure 4 carries out laser induction composite and covers processing, and this device also is applicable to solid parts such as bent axle, oil drill rocker simultaneously.
(1) sandblasting is carried out on first breaker roll surface;
(2) adopting thermospray, cold spray technique or hypersonic flame spraying technology, is 1 millimeter coating at the roller surface coating thickness.Coated material can be selected wear-resisting, anti-corrosion or resistant to elevated temperatures iron-based, Ni-based or Co-based alloy powder, the metal-ceramic composite powder end that also can select ceramic particles such as above-mentioned powdered alloy and wolfram varbide, titanium carbide, silicon carbide to form.
(3) coating and the distance adjustment between the load coil with roll metallic element surface is 5 millimeters, the number of turn of load coil is 4 circles, feed electric current in load coil, regulate induction heating power, the temperature that makes roll metallic element surface is 700-900 ℃.
(4) laser beam is navigated between the load coil, realize the preheating of breaker roll top coat and the laser melting coating processing that after heat is carried out simultaneously, the coil turn that is used for preheating and after heat all is 2 circles.Irradiation was on roll metallic element surface after laser focusing device will focus on through the laser beam that the laser conducting device transmission comes, and the diameter of hot spot is 20 millimeters, and the position of focal beam spot is positioned at the geometric centre district in induction heating district.The output rating of laser apparatus is 8KW, 8 meters/minute of the linear velocities of laser melting coating.Adopt the multi-track overlapping mode, finish the big area cladding of roll metallic element.In the laser cladding process, the overlapping rate between the adjacent laser cladding layer is 50%.
(5) after the intact one deck of cladding, continue to adopt thermospray, cold spraying or other coating method to preset the coated material of 1 millimeter of a bed thickness, repeating step (3)-(4) then at roller surface.So repeatedly, reach needed working condition requirement up to roller surface cladding layer thickness.
Example 4:
Select continuous CO 2Laser apparatus, adopting device as shown in Figure 5 is that 110 millimeters, wall thickness are that 10 millimeters internal surface of pipe carries out laser induction composite and covers processing to external diameter.
(1) earlier internal surface of pipe is carried out sandblasting;
(2) adopting hot-spraying techniques, cold spraying or other technology to preset thickness at the internal surface of tubing is 2.0 millimeters coating, and coated material can be selected high-performance iron-based, Ni-based or Co-based alloy powder according to the demand of actual condition.
(3) distance between adjustment coating on inner surface and the load coil, making its spacing is 8 millimeters, the number of turn of load coil is 2 circles, in load coil, feed electric current, load coil can be in the several seconds be heated to internal surface of pipe the red heat state, regulate induction heating power, the temperature that makes internal surface of pipe is 900 ℃-1100 ℃.
(4) laser beam is input to pipe material inner wall through laser conducting device, irradiation was on the coating on pipe material inner wall surface after laser focusing device will focus on through the laser beam that the laser conducting device transmission comes, the diameter of hot spot is 10 millimeters, then laser beam is navigated to after the load coil in 15 millimeters the induction heating district, carry out laser induction composite and cover processing.Laser output power is 5KW, and the linear velocity of laser melting coating is 5 meters/minute, utilizes the multi-track overlapping technology in the even cladding one deck of pipe material inner wall high performance material coating, and in the laser cladding process, the overlapping rate between the single track laser cladding layer is 60%.
(5) after the intact one deck of cladding, continue thermospray one bed thickness and be 2 millimeters coated material, repeating step (3) is to (4) then, reaches needed technical indicator up to the thickness of inwall cladding layer.
Scope of the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned example, and the general personnel in this area can adopt other multiple mode to realize technical scheme of the present invention according to content disclosed by the invention.

Claims (9)

1, a kind of method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating, its step comprises:
1. be the coating of 0.1-3.0 millimeter at workpiece to be processed surface spraying one layer thickness that carried out sandblasting, coated material is a powdered alloy, the perhaps metal-ceramic composite powder end that forms of powdered alloy and ceramic phase particles, wherein the quality percentage composition of ceramic phase particles is smaller or equal to 70%;
2. coating and the distance between the load coil with the workpiece to be processed surface is controlled in the 1-10 millimeter scope, utilizes high frequency induction heater to feed electric current in load coil, and the temperature that makes workpiece surface is 500-1200 ℃, and feeds shielding gas;
3. irradiation carries out Laser Cladding Treatment to coating after laser beam being focused in the induction heating district, and laser power is 1-10KW, and the spot diameter of laser beam is the 2-30 millimeter, the laser melting coating linear velocity be 0.5-10 rice/minute, induction heating power is 10-300KW;
4. after the intact one deck alloy coat of cladding, whether the thickness that detects cladding layer reaches the thickness requirement of setting, if do not have, 1.-3. repeating step reaches needed thickness up to cladding layer, otherwise, end-of-job.
2, method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when workpiece to be processed is an axial workpiece, step 3. and step 4. between, workpiece to be processed whenever rotates a circle, move axially workpiece to be processed or numerically-controlled machine, its miles of relative movement is the 30%-70% of laser spot diameter, make laser beam on the surface of workpiece to be processed in the shape of a spiral the line mode scan.
3, method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: carrying out step 3. the time, the laser beam after focusing on is navigated between the load coil.
4, method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: step is 3. the time, and with respect to the axial motion direction of workpiece to be processed, the laser beam after the focusing is positioned whole load coil back.
5, a kind of device of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating, comprise laser apparatus, laser conducting device, laser focusing device, numerically-controlled machine and work holder, laser apparatus, laser conducting device and laser focusing device are positioned on the same light path, the laser beam that laser apparatus emits is transferred to laser focusing device through laser conducting device, expose to the preset coating on workpiece to be processed surface after the line focus, the air outlet of airway is positioned at the light-emitting window place of laser focusing device, and work holder is installed on the numerically-controlled machine; It is characterized in that:
This device also comprises high frequency induction heater (2), and load coil (8) links to each other with high frequency induction heater (2), and during work, the distance between the coating of load coil and workpiece to be processed is the 1-10 millimeter.
6, device according to claim 5 is characterized in that: work holder is made of rotary table (5), thread jaw chuck (7) and thimble (10); Rotary table (5) is fixed on the numerically-controlled machine (6), and thread jaw chuck (7) is installed on the rotary table (5); Thimble (10) is fixed on the numerically-controlled machine (6), and its position is relative with thread jaw chuck (7); Thread jaw chuck (7) and thimble (10) are used for clamping workpiece to be processed (9).
7, device according to claim 5 is characterized in that: work holder is made of a pair of rotary table (5,5 ') and a pair of thread jaw chuck (7,7 '); Rotary table (5,5 ') is installed on the numerically-controlled machine (6), and thread jaw chuck (7,7 ') is installed in rotary table (5,5 ') respectively; Two thread jaw chucks (7,7 ') are fixed the two ends of workpiece to be processed (9).
8, device according to claim 6 is characterized in that: the light-emitting window of load coil (8) and laser focusing device (3) should be positioned at the inwall of workpiece to be processed (9), laser conducting device (3) by The light pipe of type (15) and two speculums (13,14) constitute; First speculum (14) is positioned at the corner of light pipe (15), and second speculum (13) is positioned at light pipe (15) bright dipping end, and the minute surface of speculum (13,14) is parallel to each other, and is 45 ° with the angle of laser beam axis.
9, device according to claim 8 is characterized in that: magnetizer (16) is installed on load coil (8).
CN 200710052458 2007-06-13 2007-06-13 The method of preparing material coating by laser inductive composite melt-coating and device CN100547113C (en)

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